Karusha

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Karusha (करूष) were ancient people and Janapada known to Panini and mentioned in Mahabharata/Ramayana.

Variants of name

Jat clans

History

V. S. Agrawala[2] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini (IV.1.178) mentions janapada Karusha (करुष), under Bhargadi (भर्गादि) (IV.1.178).


Sandhya Jain[3] writes that Karusha (करूष) - A very ancient tribe and prominent ally of Pandavas; possibly hailed from the south of Kashi. Mahabharata (VI.10.39). [4]

Jat History

Bhim Singh Dahiya considers Greek Chrysei to be Karusha of Sanskrit literature, are the Khar clan of Jats.[5]

According to Bhim Singh Dahiya they are the Chorasmians of ancient writers, the Khairsao of Avesta. Their king Khera Khan is mentioned in Mricehitika. [6]

महाभारत काल में जाटवंश तथा उनका राज्य

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[7]महाभारत भीष्मपर्व अध्याय 9, श्लोक 39 से 69 तक के अनुसार भारतवर्ष के जनपदों (राज्यों) की संख्या 244 थी। इनमें से 83 जाट राज्य (वंश) थे। जिस राज्य पर जो लोग शासन करते थे उसी देश के नाम से उनका वंश पुकारा जाता था, या शासकवंश के नाम पर उस देश (राज्य) का नाम रखा जाता था। जाटवंशों के राज्य (प्रान्तों) में अनुक्रमांक 11. करुष सम्मिलित है।

Genealogy of Karusha

Manu prayed to Vishnu for one hundred years for other sons. He got ten sons like unto himself. Ikshvaku was the eldest.[8]

Manu
1.Ikshvaku - 2.Nriga - 3.Saryati - 4.Dishta - 5.Dhrishta - 6.Karusha - 7.Narishyanta - 8.Prishadhra - 9.Nabhaga - 10.Kavi
Ancestry of Nriga as per Bhagavata Purana


(6). Karusha - The sons of Karusha were the Karushas, a race of pious Kshatriyas, who guarded the north.

In Ramayana

Ramayana - Bala Kanda Sarga 24 mentions that While crossing over the River Ganga, sage Vishvamitra sails Rama and Laxmana through its confluence with River Sarayu, which flows at their capital Ayodhya. The sage leads them to a deadly forest on the other bank of River Ganga and narrates about the provinces Malada and Karusha and the ambushing nature of demoness Tataka. This is given in shlokas (I.24.17-1). [9]

In Mahabharata

Karusha (करूष) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.61.58), (I.70.13), (II.13.10), (II.13.12), (VI.10.39),(VI.52.13), (VI.112.73), (VII.13.15-18), (VIII.51.6), (XIII.116.68), (XIII.115),


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 61 gives Genealogy of the Danavas, Asuras, Kauravas, Pandavas, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Rakshasas. Karushaka (कारूषक) is mentioned in verse (I.61.58). ...."the tribe of kings called the Karushakas, and also Khemadhurti; Srutayu, and Udvaha, and also Vrihatsena; ...."[10]


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 70 mentions Genealogy of Daksha, Manu, Bharata, Ruru, Puru, Ajamidha, Yadava, Kuru. Karusha is mentioned as son of Manu in verse (I.70.13). ...."And Manu begat ten other children named Vena, Dhrishnu, Narishyanta, Nabhaga, Ikshvaku, Karusha, Saryati, the eighth, a daughter named Ila, Prishadhru the ninth, and Nabhagarishta, the tenth." [11]


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 13 mentions about Karusha Kingdom in verses (II.13.10) and (II.13.12). And, the mighty Vaka, the king of the Karushas, capable of fighting by putting forth his powers of illusion[12], waiteth, upon Jarasandha, as his disciple. There are two others, Hansa and Dimvaka, of great energy and great soul, who have sought the shelter of the mighty Jarasandha.[13] There are others also viz., Dantavakra, Karusha, Karava, Meghavahana, that wait upon Jarasandha. [14]


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 mentions Describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira....I also beheld there numberless chiefs of the Kiratas armed with cruel weapons and ever engaged in cruel deeds, eating of fruits and roots and attired in skins and living on the northern slopes of the Himavat and on the mountain from behind which the sun rises and in the region of Karusha on the sea-coast and on both sides of the Lohitya mountains.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 gives a list of kings and Kshatriyas. Karusha is mentioned in shloka (VI.10.39) along with Chedis and Bhojas etc. [15]


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 52 mentions the Karusha in war with the Pandava army along with Chedis and Kashis in shloka (VI.52.13). [16]


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 112 mentions Karushas with Chedis and Kashis in shloka (VI.112.73). [17]


Fight with Krishna : Drona Parva of Mahabharata attests that Krishna had vanquished the Daradas along with Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Kasi, Kosala, Vatsa, Garga, Karusha, Pundra, Avanti, Daserka, Kashmira, Ursa, Madugalas, Kambojas, Pisachas, Cholas, Malavas, Sakas, Yavanas etc.[18]


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 51 mentions Kurusha in verse (VIII.51.6) on seventeenth day with the Panchalas, the Matsyas, the Kekayas, and the Chedis in the Mahabharata war. [19]


Anusasana Parva/Book XIII Chapter 116 gives List of Kings who had abstained from flesh in Karttika month. This includes Karusha in verse (XIII.116.68). [20]

In Puranas

Hukum Singh Panwar[21] gives the ancestry of Bharatpur rulers as quoted by Ganga Singh.[22]

This gives the name of son of Yadu as Krosya. Bhagavata Purana mentions this name as Kroshta. Krosya may be the epiperson who gave name to Karesia Gotra.[23]

References

  1. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Porus and the Mauryas, p.167
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.498
  3. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004,p.116
  4. चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः । उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)
  5. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Porus and the Mauryas, p.167
  6. Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 283
  7. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p. 280
  8. Skandha IX Chapter-2
  9. श्रूयताम् वत्स काकुत्स्थ यस्य एतत् दारुणम् वनम् । एतौ जनपदौ स्फीतौ पूर्वम् आस्ताम् नरोउत्तम ॥१-२४-१७॥ मलदाःकरूषाः च देव निर्माण निर्मितौ ।पुरा वृत्र वधे राम मलेन समभिप्लुतम् ॥१-२४-१८॥
  10. कारूषकाश च राजानः क्षेमधूर्तिस तथैव च, श्रुतायुर उद्धवश चैव बृहत्सेनस तथैव च (I.61.58)
  11. वेनं धृष्णुं नरिष्यन्तं नाभागेक्ष्वाकुम एव च, करूषम अथ शर्यातिं तत्रैवात्राष्टमीम इलाम (I.70.13)
  12. तम एव च महाराज शिष्यवत समुपस्दितः, वक्रः करूषाधिपतिर माया यॊधी महाबलः (II.13.10)
  13. अपरौ च महावीर्यौ महात्मानौ समाश्रितौ, जरासंधं महावीर्यं तौ हंसडिभकाव उभौ (II.13.11)
  14. दन्तवक्रः करूषश च कलभॊ मेघवाहनः, मूर्ध्ना थिव्यं मणिं बिभ्रथ यं तं भूतमणिं विथुः (II.13.12)
  15. चेदिवत्साः करूषाश च भॊजाः सिन्धुपुलिन्थकाः, उत्तमौजा दशार्णाश च मेकलाश चॊत्कलैः सह (VI.10.39)
  16. नीलाथ अनन्तरं चैव धृष्टकेतुर महारदः, चेदिकाशिकरूषैश (Chedi-Kashi-Karusha) च पौरवैश चाभिसंवृतः (VI.52.13)
  17. चेथिकाशिकरूषाणां सहस्राणि चतुर्थश, महारदाः समाख्याताः कुलु पुत्रास तनुत्यजः (VI.112.73)
  18. Mbt (VII.13.15-18).
  19. पाञ्चालैः पाण्डवैर मत्स्यैः कारूषैश चेथिकेकयैः, तवया गुप्तैर अमित्रघ्न कृतः शत्रुगणक्षयः (VIII.51.6)
  20. दुःषन्तेन करूषेण रामालर्क नलैस तथा, विरूपाश्वेन निमिना जनकेन च धीमता (XIII.116.68)
  21. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.1
  22. Yadu Vamsavli of Bharatpur given by Ganga Singh in his book 'Yadu Vamsa', Part 1, Bharatpur Rajvansa Ka Itihas (1637-1768), Bharatpur, 1967, pp.19-21.
  23. A study of the Bhagavata Purana; or, Esoteric Hinduism by Purnendu Narayana Sinha, Benares,1901, p.209

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