|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)|
- Katyura (कत्यूर) (AS, p.129)
- Katuria (कतूरिया) (AS, p.129)
- Kartripura (कर्तृपुर) (AS, p.129)
- Katri (कत्रि) (AS, p.129)
- Kattri (कत्तृ) (India as Known to Panini, p. 71, 74) Ashtadhyayi of Panini (4.2.95)
Mention by Panini
The Katyuri kings were a medieval ruling clan of present-day Uttarakhand, India. They ruled over the region now known as Kumaon from 800 to 1100 AD. They called their state Kumaonchal, the land of Kurma, the second avatar of Vishnu, from which the present name is derived. Their capital was Kartripura.
There have been numerous different claims of origin back to the Kunindas, having found coins from the Kuninda period (Kuninda Kingdom). Rahul Sankrityayan traces their ancestry to Sakas, who were in India before the first century BCE; he further identifies these Shakas with the Khashas.
The Katyuri dynasty was founded by Vashudev Katyuri, ancient Basdeo temple at Joshimath is attributed to Vasu Dev. Vasu Dev was of Buddhist origin, but later followed Brahminical practices and the brahminical practices of Katyuri kings in general is sometimes attributed to a vigorous campaign of Adi Shankara (788-820 CE). Originally from Joshimath, during their reign they dominated lands of varying extent from the "Katyur" (modern day Baijnath) valley in Kumaon, between 7th and 11th centuries C.E., and established their capital at Baijnath in Bageshwar district; which was then known as Kartikeyapura and lies in the centre of "Katyur" valley. Brahmadev mandi (a trading / business center in a flat area of the then Katyuri kingdom) in the Kanchanpur District of Nepal was established by Katyuris king Brahma Deo (Brahma Dev). Brahmadeo Mandi still exists by this name.
At its peak, the Katyuri kingdom extended from Nepal in the east to Kabul, Afghanistan in the west, before fragmenting into numerous principalities by the 12th century. They were displaced by the Chand Kings in the 11th century AD. Oppressive rule by Bira Dev was one of the reasons for the end of Katyuri dynasty. He used to collect heavy taxes and forced his people to work as his slaves, which led to unpopularity and revolt after his death.
Kartripura in Gupta Inscriptions
- (L. 22.)-Whose imperious commands were fully gratified, by giving all (kinds of) taxes and obeying (his) orders and coming to perform obeisance, by the frontier-kings of Samatata, Davaka, Kamarupa, Nepala, Kartripura, and other (countries), and by the Mālavas, Arjunāyanas, Yaudheyas, Madrakas, Abhiras, Prārjunas, Sanakanikas, Kākas, Kharaparikas, and other (tribes);-
- L-22. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्त्तृपुरादि-प्रत्यन्त-नृपतिभिर्म्मालवार्जुनायन-यौधेय-माद्रकाभीर-प्रार्जुन-सनकानीक-काक-खरपरिकादिभिश्च5 सर्व्व-कर -दानाज्ञाकरण-प्रणामागमन-
It is one of the five frontier kingdoms 264 mentioned in the inscription whose kings did homage and paid tribute to Samudragupta. Scholars differ in their views about the identification of this place-name :
According to smith, 265 this kingdom 'occupied the lower ranges of the western Himalayas, including probably Kumaon, Garhwal, and Kangra'. Oldham 266 holds that the kingdom of Katripura, included Kumaun, Almora, Garhwal and Kangra. Fleet 267 suggests that the name may survive in Kartarpur in the Jullundur district.
We prefer the view of Dasaratha Sharma. 268 His contention is that amongst the five frontier kingdoms mentioned in the inscription, the first three belong to the East, the fourth one belongs to the North, hence it will be better to leave aside
the northern and eastern sides of the empire and to look for Kartrpura somewhere to the west of the Gupta dominions. Consequently he finds Karor or Karur to be a good equivalent for Kartrpura. 269 Kara here stands for Kartr and 'ur' or 'ur' would stand here for pura. 270 Karur, again, is to be preferred to the other alternatives on account of its associations with the Gupta period of Indian History. According to Al-Beruni, an eastern king, called Vikramaditya, put to flight and killed a Saka ruler in the region of Karur, between Multan and Loni. 271 This Vikramaditya is to be identified with Chandragupta II 'the enemy of the Sakas', who disguised as his brother's wife, Dhruvasvamini, 'ripped upon the belley of the Saka ruler', and destroyed the Saka army, most probably, in Kartrpura or Karur. 272
This was the first encounter between the Sakas and Vikramaditya, and Karur, Karor, or Kartrpura was the theatre of the war because of its intermediate position between the Saka dominions and the Gupta empire. 273
262. N.L. Dey, Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India, p. 96, also see p. 95.
263. B.C. Law, Historical Geography of Ancient India. p. 97.
264. समतट-डवाक-कामरूप-नेपाल-कर्तृपुरादिप्रत्यन्तनृपति भि: ।
265. V.A. Smith, Early History of India. p. 302, Cf. H.C. Raychaudhuri, Az. (4th ed.), p. 457.
266. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London. 1898, p. 198.
267. D.B. Diskalkar, Selections From Sanskrit Inscriptions. Vol. I, part II, p. 39 : JJ. I, p. 257.
268. Journal of Indian History, Trivandrum Vol. XIV, 1935, pp. 30-33.
269. Ibid., p. 30.
270. Cf. Purusapura -- Peshawar - Pashaur There is still a small town named Karor in the triangle formed by the rivers Chenab and Sutlej.
271. E.C. Sachau, Alberuni's India. ii, 6.
272. Journal of Indian History, Trivandrum. XIV, p. 30.
273. R.C. Majumdar, The History of Bengal. Vol. I, p. 50.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...कत्यूर (AS, p.129) कुमायूं, उत्तराखण्ड का एक भाग है, जिसे 'कतूरिया' भी कहते हैं। इसमें ज़िला अल्मोड़ा और निकटवर्ती प्रदेश शामिल हैं। कत्यूर मूलतः एक वंश का नाम था, जिसका अल्मोड़ा के प्रदेश पर बहुत दिनों तक राज्य रहा था। सम्भवतः कत्यूर कर्तृपुर का बिगड़ा हुआ रूप है। पाणिनि ने 'कत्रि' नामक स्थान का 'अष्टाध्यायी' (4.2.95) में उल्लेख किया है, जो शायद 'कत्यूर' या 'कर्तृपुर' ही है।
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ... कर्तृपुर (AS, p.145): कर्तृपुर का अभिज्ञान हिमाचल प्रदेश की कांगड़ा घाटी से किया गया है। कुछ विद्वानों का मत है कि कर्तृपुर में करतारपुर (ज़िला जालंधर, पंजाब) तथा उत्तराखण्ड का गढ़वाल और कुमायूं का इलाका कत्यूर भी सम्मिलित रहा होगा। यदि यह अभिज्ञान ठीक है तो करतारपुर और कत्यूर को कर्तृपुर का ही बिगड़ा हुआ रूप समझना चाहिए।
गुप्त सम्राट् समुद्रगुप्त की प्रयाग प्रशस्ति में इस स्थान का गुप्त साम्राज्य के (उत्तरा पश्चिमी) प्रत्यंत या सीमा प्रदेश के रूप में उल्लेख है- :'समतटडावककामरूपनेपाल- कर्तृपुरादि प्रत्यंतनृपतिभि: मालवाअर्जुननायन यौधेयमद्रक आंभीरप्रार्जुनसनकानिककाकखरपरिक....।'
- V S Agarwal: India as Known to Panini, p.71, sn.18.
- Handa, O.C(Omacanda) (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. pp. 22–26. ISBN 9788173871344.
- O.C.Handa. p 25.
- O.C.Handa p.26
- Handa, O.C(Omacanda) (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. pp. 34–45. ISBN 9788173871344.
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Place-Names and their Suffixes,pp.229-230
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.129
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.145