Kharavela (Khāravela,खारवेल) (?209 - after 170 BC), was the king of Kalinga. He restored the power of Kalinga after it had been devastated in a war with Maurya King Ashoka. The only source of information is his famous Hathigumpha inscription near Bhubaneswar in Orissa.
After the death of Kanishka, his successors continued to rule north-west India, but their empire was much reduced. About the middle of 3rd century Vasudeva, one of Kanishka's successor, was defeated by Shahpur I of the new Sasanian dynasty of Persia, and from now on the north-west came under Iranian influence. Meanwhile new kingdoms had been set up in India. In Orissa a great conqueror, Khāravela, appeared in the latter half of the 1st century BC; he raided far and wide over India and was a great patron of Jainism; but his empire was short-lived, and we know nothing of his successors. 
The Hathigumpha inscription mentions that:
In the 2nd year of his reign, he attacked the country if the Musikas, "disregarding Satakarni", the Satavahana king.
In the 8th year of his reign, he attacked Rajagriha in Magadha and forced the Indo-Greek king Demetrius (described as the Yavana named Dimita) to retreat to Mathura.
In the 12th year of his reign, he attacked the king of Uttarapatha. He then attacks the kingdom of Magadha, and in Pataliputra, the capital of the Sunga, makes king "Bahasatimita" (thought to be a Sunga king Brhaspatimitra, or Pusyamitra himself) bow at his feet.
An article about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as under:
- कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
- “Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”.
He seems to have abandoned his throne in the 13th year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son Kudeparisi.
- जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ-695
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudi, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 234
- AL Basham: The wonder that was India, 2004, Page 62, ISBN 0 330 43909 X
- Kishori Lal Faujdar:Jat Samaj Monthly Magazine, Agra, January/February (2001) page-6
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