Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii)

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Kings of Kashmira

Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita: Vol.2 (p.219-320)

By Jogesh Chunder Dutt


London: Trubner & Co.

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita Vol.II: Book VIII (ii) (p.219-320)

Guhlana raised to the sovereignty of Vallapura

[p.219]:The king killed the rebellious Chhuḍḍa, the younger brother of the lord of Koundha by secret punishment. The king also destroyed Vikramaraja and other kings in Vallapura &c., and raised Guhlaṇa and others to sovereignty. This sun among sovereigns, enriched honorable men out of his affection for them by giving them possession of beautiful lands in Kanyakubja and other places.

Affairs in Darat: At one time Yashodhara, king of Darad, a place where good counsel did not prevail, was during his life

[p.220]: time reduced to poverty. Though his kingdom was situated next to that of the king of Kashmira, yet he had become the favourite of the king of Kashmira by rendering great service in time of danger. His son was overpowered by the ministers and his condition was pitiable. For, his own minister Viḍḍasimha snatched the kingdom from him, violated his queen and gave the kingdom to his minor son. But when after gradually subduing the country, the minister intended to destroy the boy who was king only in name in order to usurp the kingdom, another minister named Paryyuka set up another son of Yashodhara and commenced hostilities. When Paryyuka turned his back towards the people of Kashmira and left unnoticed Sanjapala and others who were capable of undertaking all things, and began the civil war, the wise king of Kashmira, led by his prejudices which clogged his intellect, thought it would be a useless display of pride to send the Superintendent of Affairs or other officers like him to support Hevaka.* He therefore sent his minor brother Sujji as his minister to Paryyuka. Paryyuka could' not be overcome by force. What a difference is there between business-like, influential and powerful men with all conquering and unshaken genius who constructed wonderful kingdoms, and boys and foolish men ignorant of the practices of courts? Fie to the troublesome wantonness of kings which brings afflictions in the end ! The

* The prince whom Paryyuka befriended.

[p.221]: enemies who live near the country and those who become hostile from interested motives try to destroy prosperity. They conceal their knowledge of armies, kingdoms, forts, treasures &c. ; they take advice in every work they do ; and if friendship be contracted with them, their sincerity cannot be relied upon.

As a tree in the midst of a narrow stream is not felled by the current even when the banks give way, so the king of Darad could not be drawn into the civil war between the minors. The king of Darad neglected to obtain any advantage from Paryyuka who was willing to accept bribes in many important matters. Viddasimha made peace with Paryyuka, and Sujji returned as he had gone, whereupon the king of Kashmira was angry.

Shringara in his newly appointed post of the Superintendent of Affairs became, within a short time, like a tree in a stream, and died. He displayed himself in various ways, as a waterfall flowing through a hundred channels, by the light of the spotted moon.

At this time other ministers in obeying the orders of their noble master suddenly died. We do not praise the foolish kings who place young boys, sons of deceased ministers, in the places of their fathers. But the servants of the ministers inaugurated a new custom. Without feeling shame they appropriated the wealth of their masters as they would do their own wives. They gave presents to the king, did some

[p.222]: little services to their masters' children, and then robbed the wealth, of their deceased masters. When the treasurer Vishva died, Sahaja alone became the protector [of Vishva's children]. At this period such men who offered assistance were rare. Though requested by The king, Sahaja did not accept his master's post, but helped in the aggrandizement of his master's son named Ṭiṣṭa. Fie to employers who see servants negligent in their devotion to their master but still raise them to prosperity. When the feet of Brahma, the foe of the Asuras, were weary with walking over the world, he had in his vessel the water of the Three Streams (Ganges) to wet his throat, and so overcome his fatigue. Mahadeva therefore placed that water on his head. So if one admires even a dull object, all others, one after another, greatly welcome, it and are stupified with it.

When Sujji was away from the country, the tree of his iniquities nourished by Sajjijāḍya was about to bear fruit. Viḍḍasimha remained indignant for two or three years. He took refuge with the warrior king [of Kashmira] and with his friends, he put down from a distance, the rising of the people by means of active trade and agriculture. He engaged himself in conspiracy with Alakarachakra and other Damaras who were related by marriage to the ministers of Darad. At the time when he first marched out with a view to obtain possession of the mountains and forts, a low

[p.223]: person named Janakabhadra had become his friend ; this man now expired by his side. In Karṇāṭa and in many other places through which he was seen to pass, some rose in rebellion and some became friendly. He planned to enter (the capital of Darad?). Though he made grand preparations yet he artfully made his progress slow, and the king of Darad, inactive through indolence, overlooked him. The king of the world [Kashmira] sent Udaya, lord of Dvara, with men. He brought riches to the peaceful and tumults to the turbulent.

Udaya who worked hard, until he fainted, in collecting an army, heard that in the town of Shankaravarmma, Lothana had joined Alankarachakra, and he also heard that Vigraharaja, son of king Sussala, and Bhoja, son of Salhana,had come with Lothana. Then when their insurrection had gained strength, Udaya hurriedly marched in one day over the road which is traversed in many days. The Damara (Alankarachakra), unable to take possession of Kantha with his own party, was at a loss, and on being checked in his movements by Udaya's attack, he fled and took shelter in the fort of Shirahshila, situated on the banks of the Sindhu, where the Madhumati also flowed with its pearl like beauty. The lord of Dvara (Udaya) wandered over an extensive country, but could not ascertain whether the Damara had hid himself in the dense forest or within the fort. When he ascended the fort, it appeared as if the king's

[p.224]: power could not be overthrown even by chance. When the party was attempting to ascend, the marauders (Damaras) in the fort, where tumult prevailed, were scattered by the sword. The clever conspirators Trillaka and others whose disaffection was still undisclosed, defeated Lothana. He who had burnt towns and villages before now fled, baffling pursuit; and though he fell into danger at every step, he was protected by his party. Fie I that he wandered in the circle of Fate and was sometimes visible and sometimes invisible like the comet, son of Brahma, which rises at the time of the destruction of the creation !

When, in course of time, the ministers established peace, the people thought that the whole land of Madava was lost. Unable to find any remedy when the enemy gained strength, the king, as advised, sent Dhanya [to quell the commotion.] The people said that when the work devolved on Dhanya's shoulders, the lord of Dvara would feel humiliation or become indifferent or would act against the king. The people also said that Bhikshu and Mallarjjuna had been as one, but that these three [the lord of Dvara, Dhanya and the king] would be unable to effect the destruction of the united enemy. But the lord of Dvara did not behave like Hevaka, and even at the sacrifice of his reputation, he desired the fulfillment of the king's work, and made grand preparations. Such a man who, even when left by himself, never behaved foolishly in .

[p.225]: the work of his master, and who when that master was under the influence of many, did not, through anger, become indifferent [to the interest of the king] ; such a minister who did not behave like Hevaka but wished the completion of that which was to be accomplished, can be had only by a very virtuous king. Dhanya too, when Panchachandra died, raised his younger brother Shashthachanra on the king's seat, [at Madava ?], and set about to begin his work. Divāhuka and other principal dependants of the king and the outsiders also followed Dhanya with bards and singers.

When Dhanya and his party took shelter of Tilagrama on the banks of the Kotisindhu, the lord of Dvara who was in the town went out leaving the road behind. He also left behind Hevaka, the cause of the war, though unfit for battle, and reduced the enemy, and behaved with patience and gravity. By the help of many architects with their building instruments, Dhanya caused rows of temples to be built on the banks of the Madhumati; and the temples emulated [the beauty of a] town. This able master dispelled darkness from among the groups of trees, built houses in the woodlands and furnished the camp with all enjoyable things. The country, where winter was intolerable for excessive snow, fortunately became adorned by the sun and was fit for the enjoyment of the king. The king wished to conquer foreign countries, but though at times his orders were obeyed,

[p.226]: yet tho civil war in his own country had raised a number of difficulties such as were never seen before.

Affairs in Darat : Being in a foreign land for a long time, the soldiers' spirit was cast down, and they began to desert. But the king was angry with those who deserted, satisfied with money those who stayed and thus established the stability of the army. Three or four months thus passed away, and though the army worked hard during this time, they could not seize those within the fort. They were no way humiliated, and they could not be reduced even by the stoppage of the entry of grain [within the fort]. At the end of the winter, the Damaras who were desirous of displaying their wealth and whose exultation began to increase remained fixed as a rock. The peasants left their cultivation, the twice-born left their study of the Vedas and arrayed themselves in hot haste and took up arms on all sides of the village. The people of Darad waited for the termination of the fall of snow and wished for victory over the king who was on the way, with the help of the well armed cavalry. Both the people and the king's soldiers trembled, fearing the fall of snow, like the cotton of Death's bed. The king had foolishly commenced the war without examining the strength of the enemy ; and victory was doubtful. The skillful have one good means to deceive the enemy, viz, by pretending to fear the power of the enemy ; but the foolish enemy could not judge of their preparations. Though well

[p.227]: armed with weapons long in use, yet blind with anxiety, he helped his enemy's success. If the elephant through vain and imaginary ideas is afraid of the lotus, fearing to be stung by the black bees, or to be attacked by the leaves or to be tied up by tho fibres, then he will not venture against such enemies, nor uproot the lotus.

Rebellion of Alankarachakra: When Lothana and others, after escaping with difficulty from Karnata, joined Alankarachakra, the first idea which occurred was that the king would be conquered. It was in vain that with his party he [Alankarachakra] garrisoned Kantha, for the lord of Dvara who came rapidly made a vigorous attack on it. Unable to oppose the, enemy, he fled from the fort and on the next day he [Alankarachakra] followed the followers of the king. The hill fortress situated on the water where the stream was narrow and having an extensive construction behind, appeared to them like a heron anxious to catch fish. But seeing the fort without strength, like an elephant stable without elephants, they despaired of overcoming the enemies, [who had fled,] and bore apprehension in their hearts.

The enemies were afterwards surrounded on one side by the arrows discharged by their foes, on another side they were protected by water and on the third side, by rocks. When thus besieged they believed that the Damara [Alankarachakra] was contriving for his own safety, and they could not form any determination to fight. At Tilagrama where the attack was

[p.228]: severe, these outcaste (Damara) soldiers were unable to find any remedy, and became very anxious. Lothana, the balance of whose judgment was considerably shaken, believed that the Damara could defend him no longer, and he openly accused him.

Bhoja said that disaffection must arise among them and he arrested his father's brother Lothana although with reluctance, and although he still daily served him, to save appearances. Kunṭhashāvya, in order to soothe Lothana, acknowledged his prudence in his presence, and came to some agreement with him. When the uncle wished to depart, Bhoja told him that the king would kill him, and would not let him escape, although others might go, and he wept.

[Then said Lothana] "We are all closely blockaded ; we do not expect the enemies to attack us in the rear. Through some reason, they have now become inactive, but they will succeed in what they propose to do; so bring without delay other Lavanyas or the men of Darad, but let me go from this place." . "I will release you" [said Bhoja] " from the arrest, as it is fit to do." The Damara [Alankarachakra] now under the protection of Bhoja seemed to express his willingness to comply with his desire and said. — " I will release you either today or tomorrow at night." But he was in possession of power, he was relentless, and deceived the [ prisoner ] every moment. Their enemies were at a great distance and did not stop the roads as they should have done, so they (the

[p.229]:besieged) brought jewels from the villages outside and from their sale proceeds they passed the day.

Siege of a fort not named

They informed the king that evil consequences might ensue, and Dhanyodaya advised the king to make peace. But for many reasons, the king was of opinion that peace should not be concluded with them and he ordered that the houses within the fort (kotta) should be surrounded. He also warned them that when the bribed Damaras would forsake them in their posts, their relatives who had obtained a good name would also deceive them. "We are engaged in hard work and our negligence would be culpable, and we shall surely be reproached by men for not accomplishing the task. If king Harsha who was about to reach the Dugdhapravaha (a river ?) had not for seven days given up all efforts, then who would have had occasion to grieve on listening to his history. All men receive their due by their own good or bad work, and if even our acts remain unfinished in this world even then the sovereignty of the three worlds may come to us unsought. Possessed of legs and wings, the winged ante neither rove on the earth nor in the sky, but like the lame and the blind go into the fire.

How can wealth affect the course of life? The cripple Aruna is born to guide the sun even with his thousand legs (rays), and even if Aruna had a pair of legs what more would he have done ? Shake off indifference therefore, and surround the whole fort well, and here let our lives and theirs be lost. The wind by constant

[p.230]: motion becomes hot, as if united with fire, and the water by incessant friction waste even the Kula Mountains. In this world unexpected prosperity is begotten every moment by firm perseverance."

When Dhanya and others heard the stern orders of the king, they left the river banks and speedily ascended the high road of the fort. The inmates of the fortress discharged their arrows and looked with feelings of astonishment as to how the assailants would fight and how they would stand on the ground. Though Dhanya was below, he defeated those above in a hard fight, and by constructing houses made the place appear like a town. Owing to incessant combats innumerable soldiers fell every moment on both sides. On the next day, the son of Garga arrived after having visited [goddess] Sarada and he added to [the slaughter] by bringing in the warrior citizens of Samkrandana. Alankara who was in possession of the outer palace was invincible in human fight, and killed the enemies in various ways. How can they who roam over the plains rival those who roam over mountains? But even then, the machineries of war of the army which accomplished things beyond thought should be taken into consideration. The inmates of the fort were few, those of the camp were many, hence the former, though besieged, were easily destroyed. Harassed in two or three battles, they closed the doors of the castle gates, as if the fortress shut its eyes out of

[p.231]: fear. Finding that Dhanya and others sought such opportunities as disagreement among the guards, division among, the inmates, those in the fort became mistrustful. In order to keep off sleep, they called one another aloud at night and did not sleep, but they slept during the day when the fort became silent. At night these soldiers were afraid of the sound of trumpet sounded at every prahara, as the sparrows in their cells are, of the sound of the thunder. The king's soldiers by means of boats plying day and night prevented water from being taken within the fort, and alarmed their enemies in every way. Their water being cut off, they endured the sufferings of thirst; and checked in their movements, their food was reduced, and they became exhausted. The enemies of the king were famished, and any thing that could be eaten, any foul food that could be got by chance, was considered as worthy of sovereigns. Emulation was cast aside, and these hungry people showed every day a greater hankering after food oven than those who live on the king's substance.

Bhoja who said that there were many,useless things done in the arrangement of troops, kept himself aloof in the middle tower within the fort. His enemies thought that as one was old and the other was the son of a prostitute they were both unworthy, and believed that it was but natural that there should be a division in the kingdom. They believed there would be no disagreement in the camp if Bhoja went away. Thus

[p.232]: the enemies (of Bhoja) made an excuse to drive him out of the fort, in anger.

The unchaste wife of Alankarachakra wished for his death. She was deeply enamoured of Shashṭhachandra who was the delight of her eye. She disclosed counsel public and private. But the son of Salhana who enquired after every thing daily heard of her ways. Fearing that a dissention would be caused, he informed [ her husband] of her conduct and asked permission to go away. But Alankarachakra's intellect was covered with the darkness of love. Though he was of a forgiving nature, though he knew how to wait for opportunities, and was happy in the continuance of friendship, yet he was as angry as the serpent was on the offending Bodhisattva. But affectionate as he was, he forgot in his heart, the resentment towards his beloved who might have caused his death, as a grasshopper is unmindful of danger while seated on the elephant's back.

Bhoja walked through the camp of the sleeping enemies, and had almost passed them when the son of Alankara, either with a view to rebel or losing his courage out of fear, followed him and brought him back again before his father who was in the fort. Alankara reprimanded his son and ordered Bhoja to go away the next night. Alankara hid Bhoja during the day and told all men that Bhoja had gone away. Dhanya and others were informed that one had already issued out of the fort and the other two would go out the next day,

[p.233]: but not knowing who were fleeing, they kept themselves awake at night. He who was to escape at night saw from the pavilion of the fort, that the fire was burning on all sides of the camp and all were awake. The fire lighted up the fort in such a way that an ant issuing out of it by the road leading from, it might not pass unobserved by the watchful enemies. By the flickering light of the fire, the houses of the sentinals seemed to quiver, as if they forbade the son of Salhana to venture on his enterprise by the shaking of their heads. The Damara was unable to proceed fast during the first portion of the night. He descended into a hollow beneath, by holding to a rope. The lord of the Damaras named Kshemaraja joined him, and they rested on an altar-like stone within the hollow. They ascended the stone which was just sufficient for them to sit upon, and afraid of falling down, the two persons spent five nights without sleep. They lived upon balls of powdered oats which they had in their hands, and they eased themselves as birds do from their nests. They spoke not, and though they wondered at seeing from behind the prosperity in the enemy's camp, they did not express their feeling. The heat from the fire of king Jayasimha's power made them forget the great cold [to which they were exposed], and it was beneficial to them. On the sixth day their food was exhausted, and the clouds began to pour snows, like salt on a wound. Their hands and legs were benumbed with cold, as if

[p.234]: they slept on listening to the befitting music of the harp. They thought that, overpowered with hunger and cold, they would surely fall in the enemy's camp that day, like two birds tied to a string. " Whom shall we call?" they said to themselves, "who knows us? who will deliver us, as the chief elephant delivers the young elephants when they sink in the mire." The, Damara [Alankarachakra] at night called out to them who were in peril, and by means of a rope took them up and placed them in a vacant house. There they warmed themselves by the straw-fire and relieved themselves of the cold ; and they forgot their woes in sleep which they had after a long time. But a greater danger than this befell the crooked-eyed and amiable Lothana and Vigraha who did not even hear the voices of men. They ate barley and husk powdered together and cakes, and their persons and clothes were unclean and discolored.

Dhanya who, like Alankarachakra, lived on scant food, drew Hola and Yashaskara to his party by giving them food. Then the Damara [ Alankarachakra ], oppressed with hunger and afraid of disunion among his servants, promised, through his messengers, to sell the enemy of the king. Owing to the insurmountable difficulties, his strength departed and his heart was contaminated with vice and discarded the fear of sin and evil reputation. He planned his own safety by giving up the remnant of the king's enemies, and for regaining a good reputation, he sought the help of worthless objects like grass and

[p.235]: weeds. On the advice of his servant named Udayana, he hid and protected Bhoja, son of Salhana, and hurriedly gave up the other two. He thought that it would not be right if the king were to punish them without consulting him, and he believed that the acts which he had done without meeting any opposition were bright.

Dhanya and others who were bent on effecting peace did not know of the danger in which Alankarachakra was for want of food, and the plan which he had adopted. They were anxious to depart from the place on some pretence, and it was all the better for them to get the promise [ from Alankarachakra ] about giving up his kinsmen. With a view to give what was to be given up, to remove the army and to fulfill other promises, Dhanya made Kalyana, his brother's son, his representative. He now totally closed operations, conciliated the enemies by humouring their anger, and thus brought them over to his side. But he dealt insincerely with them as his policy required. Active in the discharge of duty, he accomplished all that was necessary and took off the edge of the enemy's resentment. The grief caused by long absence from home demoralized the king's servants and they relaxed their anger. Truly ministers are rare who can boast of completing and bringing into order affairs which are in confusions. The soldiers who were anxious to return home, when they learnt that peace was established, disregarded the rewards of their masters and

[p.236]: departed within a short time. When the Lavanya [ Alankarachakra ] obtained the food which, was sold to him. he slackened his action.

The soldiers under Dhanya were few and it was therefore with difficulty that they could save their lives. The besiegers looked with eagerness towards the road leading to the fort where they wished and expected to arrive; Alankarachakra, however, did not permit them to come up that day but harassed them. At night when the chakravaka lamented, the soldiers saw nothing else but the chance of losing their lives, and it was with difficulty that they passed the night. They said that it was owing to foolishness that the siege commenced with care was raised, and the ministers pretending to grieve for what was destroyed ridiculed the plans of their master who was favorably inclined towards them, add they wished to bring him to grief, though he disregarded the words of his ministers, out of respect towards them. " Or is it," they continued, "that the other ministers not seeing how the work would end, would bring disgrace on us by the circumstances of today's march? Having consulted the evil-wishers of the king, the villain (Dhanya) has thus acted deceitfully and now his purpose being fulfilled, he is surely laughing at us." Thus they made many conjectures. At last, the night, during which many soldiers died, came to an end, and the day dawned. In the morning Alankara who was in the palace and was anxious to do some courageous deed ascended the fort,

[p.237]: and by his tactics and menaces he subdued the Damara. He had brooked the delay of Lothana's departure so long but this day he was relentless towards Lothana, and he plainly told him to go. Some persons made a proposal which might have removed the grief and disgrace of this proud man. [They said] that " the time was such as blinded the eyes of the crowd but gave light to those of the good Kshetriyas. The blade of the sword, dark as the cloud, is connected with the Apsaras, and has a wonderful and clear affinity with the fiery sun. Although we may not subdue the king, yet if we die in the field of battle, we attain the sphere of the sun, or the bosom of the lovely Apsara full of love. In a death like this we do not fool the pain which is felt in the bed made rough by constant rolling, nor the acute pain felt at the departure of life from the joints, nor is the heart alarmed at the loud lamentations of weeping friends. But that death (in battle) is as pleasant as the desire for a beautiful woman. Your father went to heaven by the way covered with the forests of sword blades, your two brothers after having roamed in the wood of daggers found the good path [to heaven]. So do thou too walk in the way trodden by your ancestors, and by high deeds enter the sphere of the sun in the sky, and in this world remain endeared in the hearts of spirited men. Fate brought to you, several times, the kingdom which you have lost through weakness, and in that kingdom you behaved like a boy at an age when

[p.238]: you should have acquired composure. Fate at present has given you an expiation of your deeds, you have become dumb in the discharge of your duty, but you should not miss the expiation as you have missed the kingdom. Bhikshachara lost the kingdom after he had obtained? it. He then spent his time in eating the remains of other's meals — a conduct which was unworthy of a king, and by remaining in the country, he was the cause of the death of many persons. Yet that powerful man did something eminent which received its perfection after his body had perished, and for which he stands superior to all." Though thus excited, the powerless man did not take courage. Men without spirit and moist wood do not burn even when in contact with fire. But he felt fear and anxiety, and like a child, when soothed after being roused from sleep, he was inclined to weep pouting his lower lip. The dependents of the king who came to take him, saw him given up by the Damara (Alankara) in that condition, and out of pity, they came before him to pacify him. "Be not cast down." They said, " In the king's heart illuminated by the advent of kindness, as by the rising of the moon, foul passions which darken the heart by their gloom do not grow uncontrolled. He is the sea of the nectar of gentility ; in firmness he is like the mountain of the gods, and in removing the troubles and griefs of others, he is like the sandal tree. Like the Ganges in autumn is his holy and pure person, at the sight of which your

[p.239]: anxious heart will be relieved. Like his stainless ancestors, he respects the high characters. He is disliked by the light hearted. He will keep you at a distance from harm. He shows mercy to enemies who do him harm, if they are immersed in danger; and he considers them as benefactors for testing his power of forgiveness." When they had thus said, Lothana, with his long and quivering beard, issued, delighted, from the house, like an old hairy ox from a cowpen.

Lothana captured once more 1143 AD

Reception of the victorious army and of Lothana by the king: Dhanya humbled himself out of shame when he saw Lothana riding in a carriage, and without ornaments and with clothes and weapons dirty and worn out. His eyes were large and motionless, his moustache and beard thick and rough and he had taken with him an image of a god. Lothana was seen like an owl fled from his cavern home. As the party moved on and lighted fire in the camp, the light brightened the hill which looked as if it were, a touch-stone to test the power of the king. "When the encampment broke up, all of a sudden the sky poured snow, and thus removed all doubt about the divinity of the king. Scaring that the snow fall would be heavy and that men falling under it would die in a moment, the soldiers went within caverns and looked as if besmeared with red powder. Thus in the year 19 (=1143 AD), on the tenth lunar day, bright moon, of Phalguna, aged fifty-nine was Lothana captured once more.

The disinterested king ascended a high building in order to honor the army returning after a long residence

[p.240]: in a foreign country ; and with befitting gifts, honors, and kind conversation and inspection he pleased the soldiers and took leave of them. He then looked on Dhanya and others who had bent themselves down.

There was Lothana, his hands over his shoulders, his face covered with the ends of the garments given to him by the soldiers, without nose, and with the rough white beard on his cheek entering the ends of his ears which were without ornaments; his weakness and troubles were apparent. The citizens were talking with a loud or in low voice, and at times, Lothana looked on them through the corner of his eyes, the eye-balls of which were feeble and moist. Afflicted with agitation, wretchedness, apprehension, weariness, hunger and distress, and with limbs shaking for want of sleep, he was like a cow tormented with cold. He felt as if the world was swinging, the hills thrown down on every side and the sky fallen down. His lips were parched and dried. " I who have come near the palace am unable to stay before the king to whom I have done all kinds of injury. Or am I covered with darkness or weakened by rheumatism." While he thought thus, his legs failed him at every stop. He was surrounded by many men, so that glimpses only of him were seen, and the guards pointed him out to the spectators. In such a state the king saw Lothana in the court-yard. By the king's order which was communicated by the movement to his brow, Lothana entered the court on which the eyes

[p.241]: of the spectators feasted. Then with his eyes the king indicated the place where he was to wait. Lothana knelt on the ground and with his head touched the lotus feet of the king. The great king with his lotus hands held Lothana's forehead, bent down and humbled out of respect, and raised his head. The touch of the hands adorned with jewels and herbs removed all grief from Lothana's heart, and the king's person, cool as the sandal, relieved him of his misery ; and Lothana soon felt confidence in the holy authority of the merciful king. " Fear not, you will prosper " would have been the words of pride ; to say that " your goodness is marred by your angry disposition" would hare been an allusion to former enmity ; " you are our friend " would at that moment have been irony ; " you have suffered? pain" would have indicated his own power and authority. Thus thought the king, and when he saw Lothana, he spoke no word to console him. Lothana bent down his head to touch the king's feet, in order to crave assurance of safety, the king touched the hairs on Lothana's head with the feet of the image of a god. " I am not worthy of respect " said the uncle (Lothana), but the king compelled him to take the betel which the king had in his hand. To the humble lord of Dvara he said smiling that he had undergone fatigue, and he touched the principal personages, Dhanya and Ṣhaṣhṭha with his left hand. When Lothana saw the king endowed with skill, mercy,

[p.242]: gravity, humility and other qualifications, and saw him surrounded with petty kings, he thought very poorly of himself. Dhanya who out of bashfulness had remained with his face bent down was consoled and sent home, with kind words, his face beaming and his hands clasped together. But the composure of the king's face, who acted in observance of good manners was the same whether engaged in active exertion or in reaping fruits. The sea is not heated by the boiling of the sub-marine fire, nor does not cool at the access of the waters from the Himalaya. The dignity of those minds which always remain the same in grief as in pleasure is profound. The king effaced the shame of those two whose lives had become void of manliness, by steady and sincere benefits, cheerfully conferred, such as is due to kinsmen, But while the king, like a kind relative, fed them, he feared them also like the teeth of serpents because he had deprived them of the kingdom.

The king intended to sub due Salhana together with the remnant of the enemies who afraid of the difficulties of living in a foreign country, had cooled down their anger and relaxed their exertions. Salhana therefore remained sleepless, living in a vacant house, and when he came out of his hole, he found no persons waiting for him from his uncle Vigraha. The king saw Alankara come to the Damara in his house and thought it probable that the rebels would rise from behind. The way leading to the capital was spread out with camps, but owing to

[p.243]: distance, the extent of the encampment was not visible. The uncle (Lothana) rode in a vehicle between the vehicles of Dhanya and Shashtha, but owing to the great distance he could not be distinguished. The king wondered what the cause of the approach of the army could be, and who the third person besides Dhanya and Shashsha was, riding on a vehicle and following them. Then from behind the army came a Damara, happy in appearance. He established peace between Lothana and Vigraha, whereupon they both went to the capital.

That day discord was removed from among the multitude, and fear which had risen high was for a short time driven away by the love of kinsmen. When the army had departed, swarms of birds made sounds on the river bank vacated by the army, and he [Alankara !] fancied that -the river wept for the departure of the two forces. In the noise of the water-fall heard at time he feared the return of the royal army to take him away. Then at noon the clouds covered the earth with darkness displaying the beauty of midnight. From that time till the month of Vaishakha clouds prevented the performance of the festivity of snow on the earth. The villain [Alankara ?] accused himself saying that he was faithless, irreligious and shameless and sat down before Bhoja. The son of Salhana, however, was not grieved ; he opportunely checked his anger and even consoled him and said, that he did not blame him in that matter.

[p.244]: He further said, "you have acted thus in order to save the sons, kinsmen and others who were in danger and who sought your help, and you deserve no censure therefore from any one. If you wish to rebel, it would be a cruelty to me. According to the exigencies of the time be your conduct towards me as of a stranger. We two are not the objects of the king's wrath as those born in the dynasty of king Harsha ; but we who have submitted to the king's administration should be kept under check. You who are wise have protected your own party, retrieved your reputation, prevented the opposition of those two men, and hindered the king from going in his own way." When Bhoja had said thus, the villain [ Alankarachakra ] freed himself from the weight of shame, and after having repeatedly praised Bhoja, said, " you are my witness in " all things." "At present for a moment send me away," said Bhoja, but he replied that he would send him after the termination of the fall of snow, and he went away. Bhoja was told by some that the villain would show his anger towards him, so Bhoja did not eat nor drink in that place. But after the termination of the snow, fall, the villain told him that he would surely send him away that day or on the day following, but still he did not let him go for two months. Bhoja believed that the king knew that he was there, andd would, at the termination of the cold, behead him, and consequently he hurried to depart. The villain evaded the pretext

[p.245]: which Bhoja made for his departure which was delayed and Bhoja was convicted of guilt.

Rajavadana Balhara — Flight of Bhoja to Darat

Rajavadana was born of Ojas, a leader in the army and in the womb of a chaste woman. This Ojas beamed with prowess, and during the civil war, adorned Sussala's army which was, as it were, a test stone of heroism for the principal warriors. Rajavadana was, during his childhood, called the long-blanket-clad. Owing to the faithfulness of his father, he was retained by the king in his service, and the possession of the estates of Ebenaka &c. was gradually given to him. But Nāga, born in the hermitage of Khuya, turned the king against Rajavadana, whereupon the latter, with a view to fight, held him in subjection. All feared that being a servant, he would not act cruelly towards the king, and not being a Lavanya, would not stand against the sovereign.

Then Alankara who had reached Dranga and had taken possession of the estates was sent by the king with money, to subdue Bhoja. Bhoja said to the Damara [Alankara], " I am ready to go to you, but should yon depart leaving me, I will kill myself." The other promised to see him on the next morning. When thus promised, [Bhoja] without saying any thing to any body left Kotta at the fourth watch of night And when he [Alankarachakra] inquired after him who, though then rained, was looking after the road, he heard that [Bhoja] had gone out of the fort at the latter end

[p.246]: of the night. The irrepressible Bhoja, with a limited number of followers, journied on by day and went to the shrine of the goddess Shāradā. But out of pity and feeling ashamed to appear before the females of his kinsmen, without the two kinsmen who accompanied him, he, though advanced in years, like a young man, five times tried [to leave the place]. He believed that he would be blamed by men, and felt no desire to go to Durāṅḍa. He went by the road along the banks of the Madhumati with the intention to fight with the help of the people of Darad. He spent five or six days in the way, and the days were very dreadful. Sometimes he passed over rough and broken stones, sometimes the clouds hid the light and darkened all sides, spreading themselves like the net of death. At times masses of snow, like elephants, slided down making the day dreadful. At times the rush of the water fall, like arrows, pierced his body. Sometimes the wind, hurtful to the body, penetrated him into the skin. And at times his eyes, distressed by the sun, were fixed on the moon. The days became fearful on account of the fall of snow. He then descended down a plain not quite level but extended. The descent was difficult, and though he walked down, yet he frequently thought as if he was ascending. At last he reached a village in the skirts of Darad.

His own things which was privately given to him were lost, nor did he receive much respect on the way. But the lord of the fort of Dugdhadhaāṭṭ now bowed to him and paid him respects.

[p.247]: When Bhoja's messengers announced to Viddasimha, who was at a distance, of Bhoja's arrival, Viddasimha sent him umbrella and music and royal insignia befitting a king. In that kingdom, the lord of the fort (kotta) raised him to prosperity, but prevented the appropriation of the treasures belonging to the Rājavīji.

Rajavadana and his son: Rājavadana's son went over to the side of Bhoja who was behaving like a king, and brought him to a place befitting a sovereign. But the father (Rajavadana) who was a determined enemy sent his son who was worthy to be tied with a string, to the king. The father did not trust his son with any important work, and he acted as he should have acted. After giving him notice he sent turn to the king without either acknowledging or disclaiming his acts. Rajavadana informed his son, through messengers, that he would soon come to know whether he (Rajavadana) was in the confidence of the king or his determined enemy.

The great Nāga attained such fame that his own countrymen did not feel ashamed to serve him. He was adorned with the virtues of charity, forgiveness, activity and want of avarice, and he shone as one who always enjoyed riches, and he was accessible to men. The composure of Prithvihara and others who had means of protection at their command was not to be wondered at, but the great grandeur of this man who had none to help him was praiseworthy. He filled the ranks of his army with thieves, dwellers of forests,


criers, &c. He overran several villages and then stopped. He protected Bhoja and others. The Damaras became disorderly either through the advice of ministers who on account of mutual disagreement had become jealous of one another, or for the love of plunder.

The desire of the people for rebelling which destroyed the affairs of the state and which was manifested at the time of arresting Lothana now assumed a hundred branches. Trillaka and Jayaraja, though favored by the king, could by no kind treatment be persuaded from attempting to reduce the kingdom. As the hole is to the lice, the wasting disease to other diseases, the nether world to infernal beings, the sea to the aquatic animals, so was the hypocrite Trillaka, the shelter of all the villains. He securely imprisoned the lord of Devasara and commenced rebellion.

The Brahmanas wished his fall and the deliverance of the world ; they therefore commenced religious fast for the king at Vijayeshvara. The king anticipated the untimely destruction of the villains, but the Brahmanas did not act according to his request. Then out of charity, the king consented to go to their assembly. But when he armed himself to start, Jayaraja, that chief among the wicked, died of carbuncle.

The fortunate king who [beheld] on one hand the destruction of the villains, came to Madavarajya to please the Brahmanas. The Brahmanas, whose action was disapproved by the minister Alankara and who were vexed at his craftiness, caused him to be removed from

[p.249]: the side of the king. Alankara who had always tried to keep the wicked villains under control appeared to the jealous Brahmanas as the encourager of their enemies. The king, by making a promise to root out Trillaka, after he had crushed the civil war, prevented the Brahmanas from performing their religious fast. Trillaka struck with fear by several disagreeable acts, harassed the king, as an undetected disease harasses a man with various complications.

Yashoraja, the younger brother of Jayaraja, was employed by the king. He was attacked by his nephew (brother's son) named Rājaka. Sanjapala went to relieve Devasarasa where the proud enemies were ; but as the number of his soldiers was small, he was doubtful of victory. He then learnt the account of Rilhana who was favored with victory at a terrible fight. When like Mandāra, Rilhana churned the enemies who were like a mass of water, the sea like Sanjapala remained tranquil and acquired some advantage from the enemies. When Rajaka was subdued, Yashoraja, like a boy in a lonely place, was unable to stay without a protector. Trillaka waited the suppression of the civil war by the king, and spent time in various devices which wore never completed. He privately disbanded the men who were, the thorns of the state, and in due time, he spread out, like a porcupine, the spikes on all sides. Then Koshtaka's younger brothers, Paṁktīhari and Chatushka, whom the king had imprisoned fled from the jail.


Note: The text of pp. 250-251 is not available online so only brief of these pages is given here.

[p.250]: ...The Shashtachandra, son of Garga, opposed the proud Rajavadana. Jayachandra and Shrichandra, younger brothers of Shashtha fled from the camp and went to Rajavadana. ... Rajavadana who wished to obtain the wealth of past kings caused Bhuteshwara to be plundered by the Khashakas who were travelling the hill road in great number.... The king then ordered Udaya, lord of Kampana and Rilhana to fight with Chatushka.

[p.251]: Help from the Mahomedans: ... But Viddasimha learnt the accounts about Bhoja and sent many messengers to Uttarapatha in order to bring the Mlechchha kings. Thence they came to the camp of lord of Darad. (This is first instance of Kashmirians sought help of Muhammadans from plains) The kings and their feudatory chiefs from various quarters came to Bhoja.... Sent by Rajavadana, Jayachandra and others, the Kiras and Kashmirians also arrived by the side of Rajaviji. The son of Salhana, who was possessed of immense riches, satisfied Balhara and other soldiers who were far

[p.252]: or near, with gold. Rajavadana, an irrepressible conspirator, fearlessly joined Bhoja because he was greatly injured. They two became friends with each other, and their previous distrust was soon forgotten. Bhoja did not wish to begin hostility without the lord of Darad ; but Rajavadana, out of pride, came to help him with a few soldiers and desired to engage in battle atonce. " If our enemies in the camp give, vent to their pride, it will be checked now, though we have borne it before, and a defeat will destroy their union. Therefore I wish for a battle with the whole of our strength, and after one day my victory or defeat will be known." Thus said Bhoja, but Rajavadana smiled in pride, disregarded the soldiers of Darad and led on the advancing army. After the followers of the Rajaviji had crossed over the Sankata, he heard that the lord of Darad had arrived in his neighbourhood. With a view to join him, he returned to Kotta. Balahara caused his soldiers to enter the village of Matṛigrāma.

The son of Garga who was naturally of an equable disposition saw the horses on all sides wandering like deer against the wind, but he did not lose his composure. The Damaras who rode black horses and his own soldiers who leagued with the enemies, went to create a mutiny among the troops. Thus encompassed by danger and requested by his friends to leave the place, the son of Garga only replied, with a sad face that he was unable to see his king. Suryyavarmma

[p.253]: was not born in the Lunar family, for he did not go to confer benefit on those born in the family of Malla.*

After this, the king and Viddasimha treated Bhoja - who was attended by his soldiers with courtesy, and allowed him to win a victory. Leaving Viddasimha and others in the rear, Bhoja led the army in which the Mlechchhas predominated. Followed by the army which disturbed the world, the son of Salhana thought that he had already conquered the whole earth. With this powerful and proud force consisting of cavalry and Mlechchha kings, he encamped at a place called Samudradhāra. With this powerful and invincible force the beaming Rajavadana thought that Shashthachandra was doomed to death within a short time.

After , this, the clouds of the rainy season accompanied by lightnings flooded the country, and land and water assumed one uniform appearance. Such became the state of the world. The earth was full of water, like a drinking cup with wine. The trees were drowned and their tops which were slightly visible appeared like blue lotuses. The king knew the danger to which Shashtha was exposed, and with the remainder of the army sent Udaya, lord of Dvara, and Dhanya. The way of their army was obstructed, but they pursued their road even as Yudhishthira and Bhima did after Arjjuna's death. In both instances the clouds hung down from

* The dynasty to which Simhadeva belonged.

[p.254]: the sky, and the world was full of water, and between them, the flashes of lightning were seen and the roar of thunder was heard. It seemed as if both the sky and the earth were stitched with lightnings. At this time the king, attended by a handsome, retinue, remained without a division in his camp.

The Rājavīji disregarded Rajavadana, and Trillaka informed the men of Darad by messengers, that in the first instance neither force nor opposition should be employed in the affair. He strengthened Pamktihari who was in his hands, and wished to win over one of the forces [under Rajaviji or Rajavadana]. The king saw Balahara's force like a picture not painted on a wall [i. e. unsubstantial] and exposed to various dangers from the encodes. The king divided his innumerable force. Trillaka, whose evil intention was known, and who was aware of the king's prowess and also knew that he was strengthening his weak points, behaved like a fattened porcupine. He openly deserted the haughty enemy [ Chatushka ?] whom he had once before kept hidden in his own person.

Lothaka — His defeat

In the darkness caused by the gathering of clouds and covered with a load of dust raised by high wind, Loṭhaka, son of Prithvihara, suddenly arrived at Shurapura, with many Damaras, and was re-enforced by [Trillaka,] Lothaka had learnt from informants of the efforts made by the two sections of his party. He had on various occasions and under great difficulties des-

[p.255]: troyed men of royal blood. He was the cause of tumultuous risings and was the encourager of evil things. He arrived there after a long time, and changes were perceptible in him, as in the full banks of the river in the rainy season when the embankment is broken. At the advent of the rains, his troops appeared all collected together, like the world as it issued from the navel of Vishnu when he slept contented at the time of the deluge. Pinjadeva, lord of Dranga, attended by a handful of warriors, such as were not sufficient even to count the soldiers of Lothaka, sent the latter in the direction of death or in the river. A multitude of blazing pyres were reflected in the river, and it seemed, as if the last rites of those who were drowned were being performed. Thus one day, Lothaka, forgetful of death, and taking with him his faithful men, fought an arduous battle and on the next day, he was beaten back with a broken force. He had thought that it would be easy to take within two or three days that lonely town in which he had collected an army from all sides.

The desire of Trillaka to attack Padmapura abated out of fear of Yashoraja and of the lord of Kampana who were at his back. During the civil war in Sussala's time, no such calamity happened to Sussala as befel his son. As one disregards the disease of the leg and attends to, the inflammation of the throat, so the king disregarded Chatushka and sent Rilhana to destroy Trillaka. When Rilhana departed with this object, he

[p.256]: was followed by the people of Shamāla, as Aryyuna was followed by determined warriors when he went to kill the king of Pragyotisha. He turned round, faced them bravely, killed them and ran about, as does an elephant, stung by bees on his back when- he goes towards a tank. Weary of battle, he spent the night at Rāmasha where he was disturbed by the cries of the enemy's troops fallen into the roaring canal. In the morning [Rilhana] entered Kalyanapura, but (Trillaka] arrived there before him and filled all directions with troops and opposed him. He destroyed the spies and the infantry who were marching, as soon as he saw them, as a huge serpent devours the goats; before it. When he arrived like a strong wind, the infantry of Rilhana deserted him, as the leaves desert the tree in the dewy season. Rilhana saw the wicked men disregarding him and fleeing, and they were not ashamed to do so. Who can perform his duty properly if he takes excessive care of his own person? When his trusty men came to his side and begged, him to flee, he remembered the devotion due to his master whom he considered equal to Brahma, and smiled and said. " Though shame exists equally in all, yet people allow a victor to gain ascendancy over them. Fie to his life who being a servant performs not his duty. During my service at the king's feet, my black beard round the face has turned white with age, as the blue lotuses, beautifying a tank, close at the decline of the sun and white kumudas expand at

[p.257]: night. When the king dies, useless then is the enjoyment of fortune which is transcient as the movement of the brow. It is the custom of the wise not to take cowards into service ; for their employers come to grief through their reluctance even to perform a slight task. One is afraid of cold when he puts off his clothes, but when he has bathed in the waters in a place of pilgrimage, he feels pleasure and the comfort, as if he becomes conscious of the presence of the great Brahma. It is so in battle ; those who leave their bodies there, feel a little afraid in the beginning but afterwards obtain the repose which arises from great pleasure." Thus said he, and taking the arrows whose whizzling sound was like the breathing of a lion, he descended among the enemy's soldiers. The reflection of the golden hilt of the Sword made the blade look yellow like arsenic, and the blade was as active in the battle as an actor is on the stage. His sword destroyed the swords of the enemies. Surely men wore drawn on his weapon as if by magic, as a grass is drawn on the grass-jewel. He was followed by cowardly men who could only fight with the beasts that they saw and the grass which was the food of the animals. Somehow he came out from the mouth of death into which he had entered, as the water issues out of the ears of the whale when he shuts his mouth. Rilhana who behaved proudly towards his foes came out from them to relieve his weariness. He had continually compelled the enemies to retreat, and his strength was exhausted.

[p.258]: At this time Chatushka with a large army fell on his rear and Rilhana at first took him to be some one who had come to help him. As a peacock is not enraged, but dances with joy at the sight of a serpent, even in the same manner did he behave when he saw the enemies facing him on both sides. He then exposed his front and his rear by turns to the two enemies and reduced their armies in battle, even as the churning hill were away the two shores of the sea, when the ocean was churned. Between the two armies fixed as pegs, he, fleet as a horse, constantly moved about, like a weaver with his warp and his woof. He shone in the midst of the battle. As waters rush over the side of an island in which there is a break, so he was attacked by the enemy's army on whichever side he was weak. He performed very rapid movements, as if in play, and caused the weapons and ear-rings of the enemy's soldiers tremble, and they were stupified and unable to behave like men. He made their faces, like so many water pots, pale through fear, and drenched with perspiration and it seemed as if he again anointed the king in the kingdom.

At night Rilhana and Panktihari having arrayed themselves sought each other's weak points, as the magician and the, evil spirit do towards each other. On the next day, Rilhana drove into the forests, the soldiers of the king who were sent to help him but who had hitherto behaved as witnesses. Sanjapala who

[p.259]: thought that Trillaka was no longer innocent, came on the third day to Rilhana. Trillaka had already been exhausted by the prowess of the king, he was now destroyed by these two, even as a tree in the forest is weakened by worms and is then quite dried up by the hot season and fire. Udaya gradually reduced the courage of Chatushka whose fire, like that of the funeral pyre, had not been quenched in useless battles.

Defeat of the army of Darat: The proud soldiers of Darad, eager for battle, rode on horses, bore golden armours, and descended from the mountain caverns. The people feared that the countries attacked by the Turashkas would be subjected to them and believed that the whole world would be overspread by the Mlechchhas.* Dhanya, lord of Dvara, marched out without any help, except his sword, on which rested his courage, and obstructed the enemy's troops who shone brightly in their golden armour, even as a hill with waterfalls arrests the course of the forest fire accompanied with cloud like flames. The soldier of Darad, proud of their number, bent back Jayachandra and others who had been preventing their march to the front, and descended into the battle field. The son of Garga [Dhanya] with twenty [thousand] horse speedily went and opposed, their thirty thousand cavalry and defeatcd them. His enemies saw his superhuman

* The army of Darad as stated before, consisted mostly of the Mahomedans. Their power had already speared all about Kashmira and the people of that country now began to fear of losing their independence.

[p.260]: prowess, for he appeared before each with his whole force. With their faces thrown over the reins of their horses, these cowardly men fled within a short time, and entered the hills like the Kimpurushas.

Rajavadana Valahara and Naga

At night Rajavadana, Jayachandra and others thus addressed the men of Darad who were ready to flee : — " It was owing to want of knowledge of the ground and owing to treachery that this defeat has happened. Tomorrow therefore take us to the front and restore victory." They falsely replied,— "So will it be." The powerful Valahara wished to establish peace ; he caused Dhanya and the lord of Dvara to proceed far, and then obstructed the road from behind. The Rajaviji (Bhoja ?) who was with the camp at Taramulaka thought of coming into terms. When Valahara wished for peace, the villains became glad, and the son of Salhana (Bhoja) expected the conquest of the whole kingdom. Though he was accompanied by innumerable leaders of armies, he gained no victory ; and yet he became proud, for he believed that his position was strong and his expectations would be realized. When the unfriendly tusk of the elephant destroys the lotus, the body of the friend of the lotus [black bee] is also cut to pieces. When the moon rises, the beautiful and graceful sun-jewel parts with its heat. So at the time of danger good or evil may arrive, quite unexpected.

Nāga was a Damara and had therefore always neglected Bhikshu at the time of trouble and headed the

[p.261]: rebels against the king on account of his kinship with Tikka and others. Rajavadana, on the other hand, was always trusted because he was not a Lavanya, and also, because of his wonderful prosperity and his beneficial service in a time of difficulty. It is curious that both these men now turned unfriendly in order to serve their own kids ?. Naga saw the rebellion commenced by others which he should have commenced and lamented, as does a poet when a brother poet obtains credit by explaining an easy passage. The king inorder to bring his enemies to his side, asked Naga with an assumed composure, to leave Rajavadana and to come under his protection. Naga, who was like a milch cow addressed [the soldiers] saying, — "Here is Rajavadana, the son of Tejas, a leader in the army, riding in the carriage in your presence. Why do you wait for him, as a sentinal waits , for his time?" But they left him and laughed at him ; for no work is done by the help of a goat. Men are engaged in pleasant or unpleasant work to serve their own ends, not alas! to do service to others. The two rows of teeth [of Rāhu] which the moan surpasses in luminocity still harass, that luminary. The favorite places, of the black bees are the elephants' temples because they long to taste the fluid issuing from them. The lotus loves not the moon because the moon is the sun's, enemy ; but it does not dislike the black bee who serves it though it serves the moon also.

Naga then published it among his own men that

[p.262]: Rajavadana who was not estranged from [the king] would destroy the men of Darad who were routed in battle, together with Bhoja. The celebrated Kshemavadana and Madhubhadra, two leaders of the lord of Kampana who were brought before the lord of Darad, and the terrified Ojas, lord of Keṭṭa ; — these three privately held a consultation. But Bhoja who knew the hearts of men laughed at them. Though the king was surrounded by the soldiers, as the sun is by a crystal, yet Bhoja fell on Viḍḍasūryya, as on fuel with a desire to burn the king. Viddasuryya labored under anxiety on account of the danger of the king, as if he labored under consumption, and he became like the waning moon in the nights of the dark fortnight.

Flight of the Valahara: Suffering from disease, but chief in war and the defender of the rear, — even such a leader as Valahara was, at the place of attack, overcome with fright. On the next day he was deserted by all while he was at his meals. He descended the hill on horse-back and fled. They said that they would come again on the morning, after visiting Bahumata. They then sought the son of Salhana (Bhoja) and took him with them. Bhoja had secured his wealth, and was compelled to follow them. But when his purpose was frustrated, he became anxious, like a man sunk in a hollow. All his arteries were filled with blood and swelled his body, and it looked like the stone of a staircase over which dirty water had flowed. Though his fall had been anticipated, yet

[p.263]: he now repeatedly thought as if he had fallen from the sky, and owing to his shame none could look upon his eyes. " Fie to us," he thought, " that we who saw the prowess of the king did not know ourselves, though we knew the ways of mortals. Great poets who by their genius have made truth graceful do not mislead us in describing the power of kings. If the fire of royal power had not existed in the world, wherefore then at his approach have we become restless ? The bodies of heroes often soaked in rains could not be dried up except by the heat produced by such a flame [as royal power]. What else but the line of smoke arising from the fire should, like darkness, mislead us, whose eyes are wide open, from knowing the right from the wrong path ?

Leaving the men of Darad who were on the other side of the Madhumati, he arrived on the banks of that river and remained hid behind the waves.

The difficulties which the men of Darad had given rise to gradually disappeared, and they who were so long agitated by a desire to rebel against the king, took Bhoja within their tent and wished for peace with the king. They wished to serve the king as guards, and the king who was well versed in policy gave away much wealth to them. They thus said to Rajavadana, — " The approach of the dewy season which is nigh is not the time for war. In the month of Chaitra we will again begin to make preparations for battle. If you can afford to wait for sometime, then for the present, we

[p.264]: will place you in the loose of the powerful Trillaka, on the road leading to the kingdom of Bhuṭṭa."

Thus they said to Rajavadana who was in the neighbourhood of the king, and according to the policy of their country (Darad) they wished to establish peace between him and the king. They surpassed even the people of Rajapuri in cunning, even as the length of a summer day is surpassed by the length of the day of separation.

Valahara sent messengers, to Rajavadana reproaching him by saying that he had fallen into the well by the breaking of the rope. In the midst of the battle Valahara saw the son of Garga (Dhanya) coming in advance and the soldiers of the king approaching, yet he did not lose his composure. When he heard of the sudden flight of the lord of Darad and of Bhoja and others his composure was not destroyed, and this indicated that he possessed that virtue in an eminent degree. Though there was difference in his party yet his battles did not cease, and he fought eagerly. Who can behave like him except a superhuman being or one possessed of special merit?

According to the necessities of the time, Dhanya and the lord of Dvara wished for peace. But Valahara expected the return of Bhoja and caused delay. Then came Alankarachakra to take the son of Salhana from the lord of Darad. The lord of Darad, was his kindred and refused him nothing. He [the lord of Darad] suppressed, the meeting of those who were determined to rebel and resolved against all persuasion to die at the bridge

[p.265]: on the rood. When his soldiers saw him, with servants mostly youths, about to die, they were afraid and became distressed. An offshoot of the River Balaharī had destroyed the road, and seemed to speak in disparagement of the soldiers of Darad by the noise of its dashing waves.

Viddasimha was put to shame by the ladies of his household, by the jealous Mlechchha kings and by the undaunted soldiers, and he deserted the lord of Darad. Then the advanced guards broke the bridge and drove the enemy's soldiers to the other side of the river. Viddasimha arrived among the latter with the sound of trumpet which pierced all sides. But when he and his soldiers were unable to cope with the antagonists, he sued for peace, and sent a messenger, whom he had brought with him, to the king. [The messenger thus said] :-*-" ! Master ! Chief of the wise, of superhuman power ! It is not possible to challenge you," as if you were a petty neighbouring chief, I and Jayaraja will soon go to the realm of Death, and will easily be in heaven, the proclaimers of your prowess. The defeat I have sustained from your superhuman prowess is like a victory unto me, — even as the death of a pilgrim from the falling of a river bank in a holy place is a gain to him." He then resided for sometime in his town, and then set out and entered the house of Death, fittingly-decorated by the garland of his evil deeds.

Not knowing that Bhoja was coming that day,

[p.266]: Rajavadana concluded peace with the lord of Dvara and with Dhanya. He then returned and welcomed Shashtha, the chief among the noble minded, Shashtha came on horseback and entered the presence of the king, but when the Rajaviji Bhoja, who received no wounds, refused to come out either owing to vanity or ignorance or grief, the king became very anxious and repeatedly invited Rilhana. But Rilhana had not then destroyed all his enemies, so he did not return. He could by no means come before his master while his work yet remained undone, as a cook who longs to eat the remnant of the food partaken by his master cannot eat in his presence. During the war Rilhana kept apart the two sons of Prithvihara and made them useless for any work, even as Bhima divided the body of the king of Magadha. As Aryyuna cut the serpent at Khandava, so did he sever Loshtaka in battle, and Loshtaka fell on the earth, as if on his own mother's lap. Chatushka, deprived of his courage and pride, entered the invulnerable house of Trillaka, even as a tortoise enters his shell.

By his heroism, Rilhana completed the work, and he then proceeded to the king ; as if desiring to obtain the light reflected from the nails of the king's feet, as a turban on his, head.

When by the prowess of the king, the rebellion was thus quelled, it again broke forth owing to the dullness of his minister's intellect. Since Rajavadana, who deserved punishment was soothed by gifts, he became

[p.267]: bold and again welcomed Bhoja who had arrived there. In a place called Dinnagrama inhabited by the Khashas, Bhoja gave a large bribe to Rajavadana. He then told Rajavadana : — " If either you or your retainers do not come tomorrow, then the lord of Dvara, who is accompanied with a limited number of followers will come to me" When the stream of courage was reduced, Trillaka with a trembling heart, spread out the rope of policy and fixed the lord of Dvara like a boat. Tillaka had expected that the king, in exulting over the difficulties overcome, would become negligent, and this cunning man was the first to create disorder again.

Though Alankara and other ministers kept the king at ease, yet they had no self command over themselves, and did not give up difficult and crooked ways. The king neglected Trillaka, as physicians neglect diseases not yet developed, and began to root out other enemies who wore like boils fit to be opened. Alankara said to Bhoja: — "Come to our assistance when we are in fear." and he set out and commenced civil war. The villain named Jayānandavāra, son of Anandawar and others of Kramarajya who wore renowned for their valor followed him.

The king fell on Alankara who had advanced with a small force, even as, the Sea falls on an embankment made of sand. But Alankara fought alone against many enemies, and in the first part of the battle, he harassed the men. The field of battle was filled by the

[p.268]: Rakshasas excited by drinking [human blood,] and it was soon washed by blood, even as a tavern is washed by wine. What else need be said? Even as the wind blows away a heap of cotton, so did the king, drive away the dreadful army of the enemies. In the battle he killed the son of Anandavara with arrows and left him as food for flights of swooping birds, vultures and Kankas.

Bhoja who was longing to rise, and the king who was longing to seize him, were like a partridge running in the mire and the fowler following. As the partridge, unable to fly, gets tired by running over the mire, and as the Fowler, constantly following it, gets weary, so in this work of violence Bhoja became weakened, and the king too, wishing to capture him, was every moment bewildered even more than Bhoja.

When Bhoja was at Dinnagrama, the king said to Rajavadana: — "What! Will the thieves and the Damaras again obtain the ascendancy?" At this time the Damaras, whose party had been broken before, took over to their side, the powerful men from outside the town in larger numbers than before. But when the lord of Dvara arrived, these men were not only not able to withstand him, but were frightened out of their purpose, in an irresistible battle. Fer the relief of these men, Alankarachakra gave money to the son of Salhana (Bhoja) and informed him of the defeat, and brought him near himself. On the next day when [Bhoja] intended

[p.269]: to go over to them, the lord of Dvara, whose soldiers lay weary at Hāyāshrama, understood his purpose. But as if not knowing their secret union, the lord of Dvara went on some pretence to Sannāramulaka which was situated in a difficult position. When he was there, Bhoja heard a noise in the evening coming from some distant place, and he became uneasy and said something. Though his own men laughed at this causeless apprehension, he remained afraid but arranged the horses.

At this time Alankarachakra was also struck with fear, and he cried out: — ."Where art thou O! Rajaputra," and swiftly fled from Dashagrama. At night fall, the sound of trumpet bespoke an attack, and the noise of the soldiers rose from the village. Bhoja, invisible in darkness, fled ; and Alankarachakra busied himself in making preparations for the battle on the next day. The fire lighted by the lord of Dvara, which showed the mountain way, became advantageous to those bewildered in the dark. The Damaras who had consented to the terms of peace of the lord of Dvara, in the expectation of the arrival of Bhoja, disbanded themselves when they heard of this occurrence.

Bhoja remained with a composed mind and did not deprive himself of the delights arising from affection for his children, and enjoyed the pleasures of eating and drinking. In anger the began an inauspicious quarrel with Alankarachakra, and as Alankarachakra was strong, he did not put up with the quarrel. At the burning, of

[p.270]: Tripura, the fire arose from the arrow; and at the churning of the ocean, the heat arose from the submarine fire ; the friendship of the lord of the serpents a with Mandara was not productive of happiness. Similarly the friendship between Alankarachakra and Bhoja did not prove happy in result.

In order to destroy the weariness caused by hunger and thirst, Bhoja came to his own possession, and the sons of Alankara wished to establish peace with him again. Their father intending to accomplish various results, concluded peace with Bhoja, either by his own will or according to their plan. Bhoja came out of his estates and went to others. The other [Alankara,] who understood business felt certain that the work could not be accomplished by the Valahara. So without depending on the Lavanyas, he again went to Dinnagrama. The lord of Dvara who was an able man and was steady in bringmg about the good of his friends was, in the meantime, suddenly checked in his career by an eye disease. The two girls whom the Damara had wished to give to Bhoja, were given by him to Parmmadi and Gulhana, sons of the king, now that Bhoja was worsted.

At the time when punishment was inflicted on the rebels, the lord of Dvara was suffering from serious illness ; so when he came to the place of punishment he ordered a conciliation. At the time when the battle was raging, even Shashthachandra, son of Garga, weakened by piles, met his death. And at the time when he

[p.271]: was suffering from illness, his two younger brothers being under excitement, harassed the earth, by inroads.

Hostile attitude of Trillaka: Trillaka who had greatly fixed his mind on war, made up his differences with the powerful enemies of the king and did not accept the proposal of the king.

Dhanya at Taramulaka: When Shashtha died and the lord of Dvara was laid up with illness, Dhanya, employed by tile king, went to Taramulaka. Bhoja who was liked by others was driven out [from the place where he went] and was within the reach of the strong.

King's desire to conclude peace with Bhoja

But the king thought that whether Bhoja remained fixed in a place or was driven out of the country, he should be brought under the king's power by such means as conciliation, and he wished to get hold of him. He had mortally offended Bhoja who was acting as his enemy. This unwise policy, the result of which could not be foreseen, proved fatal to the king, like a serpent when pulled by the tail. For the people both within and without [the capital] believed that Rajavadana was strong and that the king was weak ; and they gradually turned against the king. Alas ! There are many hollows to be found in the ground, and a policy of inflicting punishments is similarly fall of dangers. He who enters these hollows may either find spacious room therein, or not knowing the ground may fall. The Valahara said to Rajavadana : — " It is the king's desire that Bhoja should be sent away from us, and if Bhoja be in need of money, he will, of his own accord, depart from us." Thus saying he settled a maintenance

[p.272]: for Bhoja. Rajavadana saw that the king was about to succeed in his design, and bent on adopting some wily means, be agreed to the proposal.

At every step Dhanya made peace with, the Valahara and held personal communication with him ; and so he became the object of laughter of the people. The king's affair was constantly thrown backward, and like the rope of the wheel in a well, it found no end. His tactics though clever did not prevail, and were unsuccessful, even as a sharp arrow canned penetrate a wheel in motion.

Proposal to exchange Naga with Bhoja

In the civil war during which two sovereigns were removed and which is now carried on by the remaining one, the king became confounded, as in chess play. The Valahara intended to win over Naga, but had neither infantry nor cavalry to execute his purpose; he nevertheless persisted in his aim without such assistance. He deceived his enemies by craft. The villains (party of the Valahara) were addicted to dice, and were waiting for the end of the winter season. The Valahara consequently apprehended the destruction of his own men by Naga who was strong and remained unslackened in his enmity and had commenced to commit unfriendly acts. Naga and Dhanya ran (after the Valahara) who trembled with fear. He then consulted Bhoja and sent a message to Dhanya to the following effect : — " Bring Naga bound to me, and I will give up Bhoja." Dhanya had in previous instances arrested many enemies, but he was now confounded by the danger, and did not understand the

[p.273]: policy of the enemy. The mind of kings becomes deprived, of its intelligence when impelled by elf interest, and it is not surprising if they are led to bad acts. For the sake of his beloved, even the heroic descendant of Kakutstha, [ Rama ] sided with Sugriva and blind with self interest, killed Vail unfairly. The king of the Pandavas, Yudhishthira, was virtuous, but his intellect was clouded by vanity and the desire for a kingdom; and thus he abandoned his truthfulness and caused the death of Drona.

But the action of the king on the present occasion was not blamable. Since the time of Bhikshu, Naga was always rebelling, and on account of his hostility, the king was waging war, for self interest, and had become indifferent towards him. The king arrested Naga without taking any pledge for obtaining Bhoja. Sensible men became for this reason angry with him. This action of the king was finally productive of good results, but such results were not foreseen by him, and could not be foreseen except by superhuman intelligence. Bhoja, as if estranged [ from the Valahara ] sent information to Naga that " the Valahara intends to give me up to the king after taking from the king a pledge for his surrendering you to the Valahara." Bhoja did not believe that he would be seized, but said this to Naga in the hope that Naga, out of fear of the king, might remain neutral.

When Shashthachandra died, the king caused Naga to be brought to him, by means of Jayachandra whom

[p.274]: he had won over to his side. Fearing that Jayachandra whom the king had brought over to his side would kill him, the minister Naga was preparing to depart, but Bhoja caused him to be obstructed. Even after knowing that he had been drawn there by these two men, Naga lost his self control, and sent a message, through messengers, to Bhoja. When a man sinks in the womb of the stream of fate, his cars can not hear the voice of one warning him, from the banks, of his condition.

When Naga was arrested, his terrified relatives came and took protection of the crafty Valahara who could with difficulty be seen. Dhanya took with him Naga who was the price for buying Bhoja, ran together with Rilhana, and went to the Valahara. The Valahara who was deceiving them, laughed internally and misled them saying : — " Give up Naga to me first, and I will give up Bhoja to you."

The Valahara, who was difficult of access, engaged himself in battle with Dhanya and Rilhana. The soldiers of the two had become united, and had come a long way, to fight. But they were weakened by the disadvantages of carrying on war during the rains. The Valahara told them that he would act according to their wish i. e. would give up Bhoja at the time when they would retire. One of them marched away, and they became detached from each other in the way, and being involved in battle they were confounded and they lost their senses. The Valahara's firmness and strength were

[p.275]: ample. In these wonderful times such merits are rare in heroes. Dhanya lost his way and boldly came up to the side of [the Valahara ; but the Valahara] did not attack him, and out of greed, he did not act against Bhoja, but he thought that should the ministers give up Naga to him, in their bewilderment, he would ask [ the king ] for his reinstatement in his post.

Murder of Naga and the rise of the Damaras: Loshtaka, son of Naga's brother, was a determined man and had obtained property when Naga was afar ; and was secretly [Naga's] enemy. He caused Naga to be killed by Dhanya and others. When Naga was destroyed by the ministers blinded by causeless enmity, [the king's] own men and others blamed the ill advised act. The Damaras, followers of Naga, became angry at the murder of their own tribes-men, and set themselves up against [the king) and took refuge of the powerful Valahara. When a man gets confused at the approach of danger, and wanders from his object, and does evil deeds, Fate determines his work. Auspicious Fate puts an end to the miseries of the man who, having obtained money, finds it difficult to enjoy it, who first allows his mind to travel in evil ways, loses self control and then turns about hastily into a hollow, and who shows on his person the marks produced by the stroke of the scabbard of other wen. Bhoja did not know the fate of Naga, after whom none enquired, and who was thus murdered, by the wise ministers. Bhoja entertained fears about him and entertained these suspicions ;-

[p.276]-[p.277]: Note: The text of p. 276-277 is not available online so only brief of these pages is given here.

[p.276]: "It can not be apprehended that the wise king who has not yet established peace will do this evil deed (murder of Naga) to obtain his wished-for end. Rajavadana who is busy and glad because the war is to continue, has got me in his possession but he will deceive the party headed by Dhanya by saying that I am in other hands and beyond his reach, and that he is at loss to find out what to do. Perhaps Rajavadana will inform me if something else has happened to Naga. Tempted as Rajavadana is, by the frequent occurrence of continuous rebellion, owing to anarchy, since the time of Bhikshu will he not take pity on the world?

In order to assuage his fears fearless Khāsakas' protected the treasury. Bhoja gave expression to his fears and placed guards all around where he stayed. The Valahara who was difficult of access came to the side of Bhoja in order to gain his confidence.

On the other hand, the fearless king who understood his work was angry because, owing to the dullness of the minsters' intellect, his work was frustrated, and soon came to a close. ..... Even so the king Simhadeva was not instrumental in causing the

[p.277]: failure of deeds that should have been accomplished. ... By means of bribes he caused Bhoja to suspect the council that was held around him.... Bhoja saw a dvija who had received deep wounds in a strife; the blood had been a little dried up, his hair was

[p.278]: torn, and foam was issuing from his month and he was weeping. When questioned, the Brahmana said that the wicked Damaras had taken all he had; and had thus wounded him ; and he blamed Bhoja for being unable to protect him. Oppressed with grief every day, Bhoja became like one who had been wounded, and bled anew. He consoled the Brahmana and said, " ! Brahmana ! I am not to be blamed, I am in difficulty myself, and am therefore an object of your favor." Then said the other, " O ! Son of a king ! thou who knowest good from bad, thou who art a youth, and born in a good family and proud, say what is the use of your striving for the unattainable ? What object have you in view in endangering your life, in bowing to the low-minded, and in oppressing men with hardships? The king appears to you as one who can be subdued, but do not you know that he is like gold, fire-proof, and can plunge into the fire of the enemy's valor? Even the points of the weapons have no effect on him, as the oval shaped petals of the blue lotus have none on the moon-jewel. Even the Avatara Prithvihara and others were subdued by him, and will not weaker people be ruined by fighting against him? Why do you vaunt even after you have understood the acts of those who live by the civil war, and who are like serpents wishing to sting him who feeds them, but caught by the serpent-catcher ? Alas ! it is in vain that the young ones of serpents, born to bear the world, take shelter in holes in villages where serpent catchers abide.

[p.279]: These serpent-catchers frighten people by making the serpents rise and sink in the road, not with a view to make the serpents known, but to earn their own livelihood by begging." When thus spoken to, Bhoja left the Brahmana after consoling him. Bhoja's good sense instantly returned to him at this time. Good behaviour leads to peace, otherwise the mildness of character would be cruelty. When the nectar is touched by the beams of the sun, it becomes solid, and the moon-jewel, although a solid stone, melts speedily when touched by the beams of the moon. Bhoja, born in a royal family, had not lost all sense of shame. He thought for a moment about the great difference between himself and the king. " In heroism, policy and gifts, in truth and goodness and other virtues, even the former kings dwindled in comparison with our master (king). What are we, little beings, that vie with him? Even in moments when his power blazes forth he retains his coolness and patience. We fools, though made inert by being subdued, become fiery ! The high sandal, tree, though thickly beset with serpents, with fire-like poison, remains cool ; but the cavity of the deep well, becomes warm in the dewy season when we shiver to our ribs with cold. If in order to find relief, shelter should be sought of the king ; his heart is strong, and he will not be angry because of the troubles planned against him. If a man sets fire to a vigorous sandal tree, in order to burn it, and if scorched by that fire, ho comes near the tree

[p.280]: to relieve his burning, will not that sandal tree be beneficial to him? Dhanya, in order to relieve the wise king from all troubles, served him repeatedly, as if in atonement of some injury done.

Bhoja who was seeking means to appease the king saw messengers come to the Valahara, one by one. In order to learn the news beforehand, Bhoja called in his side one of them who was going to the country of Darad. As the messenger bowed to him, he smiled a little and said : — "What is the use of the king's making peace with others, let him make peace with me. Physicians give diet to the sick through sensible men." The messenger did not at first believe him and laughed in jest. But he afterwards understood him, and after some conversation on various subjects, was somewhat convinced. Bhoja's speech, which was without vanity, inspired confidence in the man, and when it ended, the messenger praised the king in the presence of Bhoja and said : — " Only the virtuous can obtain the shadow of the feet of the king who is born of a prince, is of a happy disposition, and is like the shadow of the golden mountain.

His anger is assuaged by small persuasion, as the heat of the autumn sun is removed from the water by the beams of the moon. Do you remember that when you were about to enter the Darad country, I was present before you, engaged as a spy? When I returned, I told the king about the principal events respecting you ; and in order to cause delay, I engaged myself in a long conversation with him.

[p.281]: In the midst of this conversation, I told him that weary with hunger, thirst and the toils of journey, your followers were blaming you, but that when you saw me, you rebuked them and said : — 'The king is the ornament of his dynasty and is to us like a god, we are without virtues, that we cannot serve his feet. It is owing to him that we who are extremely worthless have become great, the wood that is scented with sandal is mistaken for the sandal wood.' As soon as the king heard this, he felt pity for you, and asked as a father does of a child, ' what does that boy Bhoja say of me ?' — and he looked as if he were your father. When Bhoja heard this, his heart melted, and with tears with in him, he thought as if the king had come before him and had consoled him. Not accustomed to understand the clear expressions of the mind, the messenger could not know his heart as a philosopher would have known.

Bhoja's attempt to make peace with the king

The purpose of Bhoja, who was safe from danger, was not believed by Dhanya, and he disbelieved the king's spy who was sent as a messenger to Bhoja. Bhoja privately told the Valahara that he was not in earnest, but was playing a part as in the case of Naga, that he was acting as a hypocrite and trying to impose upon the king, so there need be no quarrel between them (Bhoja and the Valahara). Thus pretending simplicity, he tried to establish his peace with the king. Bhoja without delay employed a boy, a native of the place, as messenger. He was fit to be a counselor at that time,

[p.282]: and was skillful in conspiracy. As Bhoja was young, the Valahara did not suspect that he would act independently and engage himself in a conspiracy every day. The boy returned and told Bhoja that the king who was solicited [to establish peace with Bhoja] was waiting to receive a trustworthy messenger for the purpose. There being no trustworthy person about Bhoja, he sent to the king, his own nurse who was known by various names, even though she was a woman and did not possess a brilliant intellect. She was worthy of honor, and was the younger sister of Bhoja's father; and when his parents died and left him an orphan, she acted as his mother. In order to please her husband, she served without jealousy as a companion to her co-wives, removing disagreement between them and offering them ornaments. By the due fulfilment of her duties, she convinced her husband of her trustworthyness. She was a gentlewoman and a good Kshetriya woman on whom the king always looked with no small delight. When the king was crowned, it was she, the principal queen, who wore that desirable object, the tiara made by her father-in-law and the subjects. Her mind, though affected by the love of offspring, the desire of enjoyment, and the wish to please her husband, does not run after evil things. In the present treaty of peace, as on other treaties of peace, she did not differ in opinion from her husband. She was not vain at the time of the ascendancy of her fortune, and her good purpose was

[p.283]: never defeated. From her young age she understood the purpose of her husband. She preserved her dignity and her family name, and in her acts there is no probability of her having recourse to cunning. Such was lady Kalhaṇīkā whom Bhoja thought of making, a mediator between him and the king. She journeyed on foot till she reached the frontier. For her protection, Bhoja gave much wealth, and the wealth was kept in the centre of the party. For her expenses on the road, he gave much money in which gold predominated ; and he sent her with eight well-born Rajputs to serve her, and with every mark of royalty.

Dhanya took with him a messenger, and, together with the king, went to her and assured her of the fulfillment of her yet unaccomplished desire, since it was likely that the king would soon confide in her. But the mind of the king was vacillating, and he had not yet come to a decision. He was without animosity, and thought thus : — " Is it owing to the indifference of the world or through hypocrisy that her mind has been thus changed ? She should be rescued from difficulty. The gun rising in the midst of an undispelled mass of clouds prevails at last ; and even so the feeling of entire resignation at last prevails over all worldly attachments. Is it that Bhoja knows our opposition to the foolish and careless Naga, and is he therefore acting with hypocrisy? This sort of indifference to worldly things is never seen in persons who have attained their objects, who are totally weak, who are

[p.284]: young, who have the support of their numerous adherents or who are engaged in the work of a Kshatriya. Or as the saffron flower grows without the plant, the fig fruit without the flower, is it that the feeling of indifference, to worldly things in great minds does not wait for adverse circumstances? If this prince Bhoja be the receptacle of hypocrisy, he should not be left aside ; but if he is really changed, what is the use of our sight without seeing him ?

This princess and these Rajputs bespeak the loss of dignity ; and she is so simple that she cannot see through any object clearly. The river that flows circuitously is not clearly seen by all, even like the drops of water flowing through a woman's hair."

Thus thought the king, and listening to the advice of Dhanya and Rilhana, he dismissed others and performed the duty of a king according to true wisdom.

The messengers told Dhanya that Bhoja, in order to serve his own interests, wished, to have an interview with him, and took Dhanya with them. "Fear not the soldiers, Bhoja wants to make peace." Thus they told Dhanya. Dhanya, with a limited number of followers, stationed himself on an island in a river, expecting Bhoja. But when the snow from Charmma melted, the river became waist deep, and was formidable with waves that embraced the sky, and became unfordable by elephants, as if by reason of jealousy against these animals. Then blocked up in the river, Dhanya came within the power of the enemies who were seeking for an opportunity.

[p.285]: On both sides the water extended to the banks and in the midst, they, pressed together and dressed in pale colored clothes, looked like the foam of the water.

When Bhoja's army arrived, many thousands of Khashakas belonging to that army planned the destruction of Dhanya who was in this critical situation. Anxious to avoid the perpetration of a crime, and also touched by pity at locking at Dhanya's timid and pitiable eyes, the son of Salhana pacified his wicked followers and thus whispered into their ears. " If he who has come running, in humility and confidence for us, be doomed to death, surely our descent to hell will be unavoidable. If he be killed, the strength of the master who has many servants will not be reduced. The speed of Garuda is not destroyed by the loss of one feather. If we betray the confidence of king thus, we will get a bad name. Deal fairly with a foe in equal position ; why murder deliberately ? I am inclined to serve the same king, leaving other work aside, whom he serves for money." When he had said these words of reason, and even resolved on his own death [in case they did not hear him], they were dissuaded from their firm purpose. At night Bhoja boldly went to protect Dhanya in his disadvantageous position. The Khashas were made to drink, and the fact was intimated to Bhoja. The king was informed without reserve, by Bhoja, [of what was going on], but that wise sovereign whose senses were not bewildered, felt doubtful about the

[p.286]: conclusion of the peace and uncertain about the success of the negotiation without making an impression on the heart of the enemy ; and he sent, queen Sāmānyā to Taramulaka. She consented to go according to her lord's request, but she feared some unavoidable cruelty, the outcome of the king's policy, and said : — "O ! son of Arya ! How can the enemies trust us, having once seen the depravity of the great ministers ; or how can human being fathom the superhuman depth of your intelligence? My life, I deem, is for your service, but the virtue of the chaste woman cares naught for the policy of king. This Bhoja will behave badly towards you, as may be expected in this Kaliyuga. O ! lord ! Bhoja has commenced to sell snow in the Himalaya. Now-a-days even an ordinary man admits none to he his equal, nor knows the difference between his mind and those of others, and is generally guilty of excessive pride. Even well behaved kings, lose their sense when angry with a son or annoyed at an advice, and fly against trustworthy men. Your orders are never given in vain, and there can be no delay in carrying them out.; you are quaffing the drink of fame from three worlds, as from a vessel, in company with me. I disregard the destruction of my life, and am also earning that fame. But you should save my reputation from being exposed before such men as have different motives and are selfish." Thus said the chaste queen and remained silent ; but the truth-abiding king, without soothing her fear, deputed a step-mother of his, of inferior caste, to accompany her.

[p.287]: "What is the king revolving in his mind ?" Thus wondered all the people. The king employed various means, after sending the queen, and did not leave untried any means that might have been employed. Owing to the division in the king's own party, all the Damaras, both great and small, who were neutral, examined the strength and weakness of the king, and the chain of their friendly attachment became feeble, and they went over to those whom Bhoja had attracted to his side. " Even by our remaining neutral," said they, " Bhoja has in the civil war become powerful " and they threw off their neutrality.

Trillaka sent his son to Bhoja without delay and caused Chatushka with a large army to enter Shamāla. The Damaras of Nilashva who had even at the time of Bhikshu's rebellion preserved their friendliness towards the king, now went over to the enemies. Of the Damaras from Lahara, Devasarasa and Holarat, only three remained faithful and only one Damara woman of all the Damaras from Nilashva remained so. The snow fell on the Lavanya force of the son of Salhana, which became like roaring ocean waves maddened by the fall of rain.

The Valahara's speech

But when the Valahara heard that Bhoja had gone to the queen with the fixed intention of establishing peace, he spoke thus in no ambiguous terms.

" Man was misled by man during these days, but now that female relatives have become mediators, men belonging to their own family must come to terms. When Bhoja, the chief of the family, has acted thus out of love, how can men,


like myself whom no one reckons, behave rudely. This you say is hypocrisy, be it so. He begot my confidence and then I am deceived ; I will not have a bad reputation. All men have united against us, be not therefore hopeful of victory. We have seen armies like ours destroyed, before this."

He spoke these reasonable words, and many other words after deliberation; but neither he nor others could turn Bhoja from his purpose. Two or three days before the battle, the king asked Bhoja why he acted contrary to previous arrangement, just at the eve of reaping the fruit of his good work.

At the time when the king stayed at Taramulaka, Dhanya and Rilhana accompanied with armies and Rajputs went to Pānchigrāma. When Bhoja learnt that the two had arrived on the southern bank of the river and were staying there, he too sat down in the woods on the opposite bank. When the king's army saw that the soldiers from various quarters incessantly enter the camp of the enemy, none of them believed that there would be peace.

Dhanya and others had entered the place forcibly and were unable to come out, they had a small force with them; and Rajavadana constantly meditated the plan for their destruction.

With a view to destroy the king's army, some people cut the bridge from Suryyapura, and sat hid on the boats which were at the Mahapadma lake. Others of the king's enemies who sought for bold adventure and were about to fall on the king's army stayed at various points on the road.

[p.289]: Bhaṅgileya and other Damaras meditated an attack on the town of Shankaravarmma from the Kshiptika to the Samala. Trillaka and others calculated that they would reach the banks of the great river, and that the Damaras of Nilashva would commence hostility outside the town. What more should be said ? It was planned that all should fall simultaneously on the followers of the king who were like ducks surrounded by water, and kill them. But this plan, which was not well directed, was stopped by the rains which fell at that time, as the planets for the drought were afar.

The Valahara wished to pursue the road taken by the royal army, but Bhoja busied himself in thwarting his desire at every step. At every moment Bhoja feared the breaking up of the peace, and removed the obstacles which arose to the execution of his scheme. He himself boldly and speedily removed all those difficulties which arose in the two camps.

Flatterers of the king who bragged about the duties of messengers and pretended to devise plans of operations became frightened and uneasy at this time of difficulty. Men of low position, who whisper in the king's ears old news which have bean proclaimed to the world by the boating of drums, who repeat in a miserable tone what men are likely to be ashamed of, who praise the heartrending deeds of the cruel enemies, and who are cunning and ignorant, become flatterers of the king. The villains who act as jesters in the dancing room, who are prone to use rude words, who are like a poet in an

[p.290]: assembly, like a dog in the courtyard of one's own house, and like a bawd in the hill and cavern ; — enter the house of a king as heroes in eating. It is strange that in other places they go like tortoises drawn out of the lake.

When the power of the sun declined, the heat abated, and the day soon rested on the summit of the mountain ; in the round earth, the sun gave up his post to his brother twilight, and having placed his rays on the mountain head, became a blood-red disk ; and men with clasped hands adored that conjunction between day and night ; — when the moon was about to rise, the tusk of the elephants glittered, the moon-jewel was dewed on the surface, the sea swelled, and the black bees rested on the meagre lotuses which seemed like the frontal globes on the heads of elephants ; — the ministers being in danger, and not knowing how the thing would terminate, lamented by the banks of the river. An those who are carried off by the waves do not know what to take hold of, so their light and bewildered minds did not display intelligence.

The Valahara who sat on the other side of the river and whose plan for the battle was matured, was constantly opposed by the son of Salhana. The ministers who arrived there too late for the work, and with a limited force, could have been easily destroyed by the Valahara whose army continued to swell, as men continue to pour in the place of pilgrimage, at the confluence of the Vitasta and the Indus, crowded like a town.

[p.291]: In order to prevent the destruction of the Damaras, Bhoja sent letters with a small detachment of foreigners under Naga, and a body of Rajputs. Neither by his own cunning followers nor by tumults could the patient Bhoja be moved from his cool determination and fixed purpose.

Bhoja believed that when the feudatory chiefs would arrive and distrust the Valahara, he would be enraged by such distrust and do great harm ; and if the Valahara once began , the mischief, the Damaras would rise on all sides, as Brahmanas do at the sound of Onkara, He therefore pretcnded that he intended fighting against the king, and soothed the Valahara by saying that he would do some daring deed at the wane of night. When the feudatory chiefs who had come to do the work of Bhoja were in want of food, Bhoja, who was born of noble family, also abstained from food.

The mistrustful ministers did not know that Bhoja's intention was altered. They thought that he would not conic over to the king. At the fluttering of the bird's wings, or at the movement of the small fish they apprehended that their enemies came rushing and were about to attack them. Satisfied with their own position on the other side of the river, they did not sympathise with the grief of separation of any but of the Chakravaka. The wind, the father, of Hanuman, Rama's messenger who crossed the sea, gave strength to their messengers to cross over . the river. In this way they passed that night taking shelter of the enemies whose ears were

[p.292]: pained at the rustling sound of the trees on the banks and who remained sleepless.

When the night waned, when the rays of the rising sun had not yet dispelled the mistake that the tinged snow on the mountain crest was a golden lotus, when the night dew had not yet trickled from the buds which were like the eyes of the, sorrowing creepers shedding tears at seeing the separation of the Chakravaka from its mate : it was then that the hero Bhoja with a few infantry issued from the woody bank of the river and roused the war horses kicking them on the head. He wished to obstruct the progress of the Damara warriors and resisted their prowess. The warriors of that people ran away on all sides at his sight. They saw him armed with an axe, well dressed, and of youthful appearance, come in the front riding in a vehicle and reaching the bank of the river. They had not seen him like that before. His curl was marked with sandal paste and his forehead was besmeared with saffron ; and when they saw him, they knew that it was Bhoja.

Having spent the night and having deceived Rajavadana, he had in the morning taken a hasty adieu of him and had come out. When the carnage had entered the water, the delighted Dhanya and others came quickly to him from the other side, riding on horses, and surrounded him. Great noise then arose in the two camps, in the one for the departure, and in the other that of rejoicing. When the Damaras heard the noise they

[p.293]: believed that the battle had commenced, and they came running from all sides. But when they saw Bhoja joined with the enemies, they struck their heads [in despair].

Bhoja's reception by King: 1145 AD

After congratulations, Bhoja, remained true to his usual practice, and acquitted, his promise, to noble Dhanya and others. Dhanya restrained the overflowing joy of his heart and thus spoke in praise of Bhoja : —

" O ! son of a king ! Patient and of magnanimous mind ! The earth is hallowed by you as by the mountain Sumeru. Your mother has humbled the pride of all mothers by her humility. You are like cream in the sea of cream. Who else, beside yourself, has come away from the company of the low and has joined his own kindred, like the kokila ? It is not strange that the path of virtue, first trodden by you, should long afterwards be walked over by us ?"

Thus the conversation went on, and the mind of Bhoja was delighted. He rode a horse which had become ungovernable as with success, and was led by those who were praising him. The Lavanyas for many a krosha reproached Bhoja, who was being led by his kindred, as the crows reproach the kokila when it is led by its tribe, and then they went away. Thus in the year 21, on the tenth day of Jyaishtha, the king drew to his side Bhoja who was aged 33 years.

The queen welcomed Bhoja who came like a beloved son and bowed to her. His servants were weary : and the queen arranged for his meal.

[p.294]: He was possessed of qualifications not unworthy of the family of Indra, and the queen thought that the eyes which did not see him were useless. Bhoja too, on account of her unassumed virtues of honesty, compassion and mildness, thought the king to be of pure character. The color of the face is the door to the working of the mind, a bright door indicates prosperity within, and the behaviour of women is indicative of the character of the husband.

When the day declined, he felt the weariness of travelling, and he was anxious to go to the king ; but none asked him, out of kindness, to enter the room. The ministers overcame their coldness and ill feeling with difficulty and said that " the king orders the turbulent to behave well." These words spoken as a sort of a preface, entered Bhoja's ears as he was entering the presence of the king, and hurt them as with a stick. He was wounded, as it were, at a vital point, but he consoled himself, and thought with a feeling of contempt that the bravery of these low men was only lip deep. The ruffled state of the mind of Bhoja who did not care for his life was soothed by those rude speakers when they bowed their heads in humility. The conduct of the just and fluent Bhoja could not be influenced by such things, though his mind might be ruffled. Dhanya, who was ever obedient to his master, the king, thus spoke courteously to Bhoja, while the rays of his teeth issued like a fountain, " You know the rules of kingly decorum, and have always behaved in a proper manner

[p.295]: do not then get impatient if things happen in their due course. That treaty is imperfect, in which one goes away without seeing the party with whom the treaty is made. Why did you not calculate this before? The king knows you to be radiant with goodness, and attentive to the duty towards your kindred. It is not often that kings obtain such adherents as yourself, in modern times. The king will not behave towards you with vanity or pride, indifference or coldness through the advice of cunning men. The breath of men cannot soil the mirror like purity of his courtesy. The grace of his life is not equaled by the grace which appears in his kingdom.

The light which is reflected from the sun does not issue from a burning lamp. There is a holiness in pious conversation which exists only in the cottages of Rishi ; and a Similar holiness exists in this Rishi-king and draws to his side those who oppose him. What more can a wealthy king do for you whose house will soon be graced by prosperity ? The man who forsakes the water in the tank in the summer time is considered a greater fool than the serpent which coils round the cool sandal tree in summer, and in the month of Magha enters its old warm hole. The queen and the princes are a portion of the king, and even if they commit something wrong, it is right in their estimation, provided it be done for the king's good. Your work is now like water cooled after being once boiled; if you heat it again, it will be, like water, tasteless."

[p.296]: Unable to put any construction to these words and unwilling to disregard them, Bhoja behaved in a more open manner, and delayed his departure. On his way he saw on all sides, the inhabitants who had composed pieces in his praise, and this confirmed him in his determination to persevere in his good work. The dust raised by the feet of the infantry seemed like a delusion, as if the earth had established peace with the sky. The wise Bhoja meditated whether he should go to the king, or if his visit to the king would be prevented by the deceitful courtiers. Who can, thought Bhoja, by simply remaining at home and there serving his master, make his worth known to him? Deceitful men oppose him in the way. The current of water descending from the Himalaya flows to the sea with a view to cool the ocean which is heated by the submarine fire, and thus to find favour with the sea. But as soon as it falls into the sea, ft is Swallowed up by whales and is destroyed. He remained still with these and other thoughts, and consequently did not notice the noise of the city. But when the horses of the soldiers were stopped, he knew that the palace was nigh.

The king saw him at last. He was of middle stature and not very thin, his face was darkened by the rays of the sun and was fair like the pericarp of the lotus, his body was languid and relaxed with toil, his shoulders were high like the hump of an ox, his breast was expanded, and his beard which was not long disclosed his

[p.297]: high cheeks and ample neck. His nose was high and his lips were like the ripe bimba. His limbs were ample but not disproportionately so, and his head was bent. He was calm and moved slowly ; the turban on his head was made of clothes collected together, and kissed the parting of the hairs, and the lines on his forehead were fair as the moon, and seemed to extend the marks of the sandal past. The king saw him descend from the horse and approach him like the god of love, with the royal ministers around him.

The eyes of the king expanded with delight, and Bhoja at the king's request ascended the assembly. The way was obstructed by men who stretched out their necks out of curiosity. Bhoja touched the feet of the king with his hand, and sat before him, and placed before the king's seat, the dagger which he held in his hand. The king placed his hand, like the hood of a serpent, with two fingers projecting, on Bhoja's chin,' and said : — " You are not captured in battle, and will not be imprisoned now, why shall I then accept this weapon placed by you?" Bhoja replied to the king. "O king ! To take up arm for the defence of one's master is the means of securing his own salvation. You protect the seven seas by your own valour, and we rarely find on opportunity for doing you service by our weapon. The shelter of my lord's feet will be my promotion in the next world ; what is the use then of any other means of salvation in this world ?"

[p.298]: The king then spoke like a wise man. " By your good qualities my present work has been accomplished, we have now other work to do." Bhoja said: — "All that I am stating now is only feigned in order to beget my master's confidence. What is the use then in repeating such statements ? What unfriendly deeds were, not thought of or tried or what not done? Know that those which were not successful were not known to the public. We who have eyes of skin, [ not of reason, ] believed you before to be our enemy. But were you not born of the family of Malla for some great purpose ? O! king ! Whenever we wished to do some unfriendly act towards you, then always occurred great earthquakes. When, O! king ! we heard of your great prowess described by the bright genius of poets, I felt a feverish impulse, on hearing of your valour, which never forsook rue, neither in the crest of mountains nor in clefts, nor in the caverns, nor in the Snows, nor in the groves of mountains. Since that time I felt a desire O! king ! to take your shelter, and, though owing to the distance between us, the establishment of peace was not possible, yet I wished to humble myself before you. After I had wished for reconciliation, all my deeds undertaken through an impious zeal for war were insignificant and obscure. It is for our kinship with you that chiefs respect us and wait upon us. In this world, a glass vessel is respected when filled with the water of the Ganges. Even to this day, there are innumerable Kshatriyas on all sides of us;

[p.299]: connected with you by blood and called Shāheva."

With adulations like these, Bhoja called his master, the arbiter of his fate, and again touched the king's feet with his head. He then rose, and in his hurry to bow down, his turban fell down, but the king covered Bhoja's head with the cloth from his own head. The king, with unabated gravity, took the dagger which was kept by Bhoja, and which was lying untouched, soothed him and placed it on his lap ; and when Bhoja declined to take it, the king spoke thus : —

" I give you this, and you should accept it and revere it ; I desire that you should not decline to accept it."

Bhoja knew the proper time and import of every act and he understood that the order of the proud king should not be disobeyed. He obeyed, bowed and took that weapon. Then, as if he had boon an old servant of the king, he behaved freely with the king ; he was reconciled with him, and became a boon companion. This fortunate man bowed to the king, praised him highly, and said : — " O! king ! He is not fortunate who engages himself in any work other than that of listenings to the account of your virtues. Neither life nor wealth is worth reckoning to day. Know therefore O ! king ! that the homage which is paid to you is without dissimulation." He again said : — " We think we can adequately express our loyalty to the king, but when we attempt to do so in words, we fail." ,

The king then for a short time made enquiries on

[p.300]: subjects both of great and little importance, and then went to the inner apartments of queen Raḍḍā, with Bhoja. Bhoja saw her beaming with courtesy, and he bowed to her and acknowledged that the king was the Pārijāta tree attended by Kalpalatā. Then the king said to the queen : — " O ! Queen ! This courteous kinsman has come to you." The queen replied: — "He should be honoured and treated with respects among our sons." The king who was full of courtesy took Bhoja with him and went to the house of the queen who had accomplished the work of reconciliation, in order to do her honor. The clever queen smiled and spoke thus to Bhoja who had come with the king : — " Have you become a confidant of the sovereign within so short a time ? " She smiled out of bashfulness as she bowed to her husband, the king, and welcomed his kinsman Bhoja, and spoke thus to the king about Bhoja. " ! Son of Arya, he (Bhoja) neglected the council of his own men and followed honor. His endeavour to satisfy his kindred should not be forgotten. Lotuses grow in the water, but when grown, they rise above the water and are taken in company by other lotuses. Do thou also, lotus of the family ! now accept Bhoja. We were tired with our task, and could not, without his help, have accomplished the work of supporting out dignity or even returning to our capital. When the tree which protects the sea shore falls, the creeper which clings to it falls also. The life of a woman is said to follow the course of her husband's

[p.301]: life. Means should be adopted for the protection of your life, so that there may not be any mishap to it." The king said to her : — " O Queen ! You are a witness to all my deeds; do you not think that Bhoja's purpose honest? I have suppressed the wicked Sujji and Mallarjuna, but my heart which labored under sorrow has not even to this day been relieved of grief."

Bhoja's residence with the king

The king then asked Bhoja to stay in the most magnificent house, and Bhoja and his followers did not think it safe to stay any whero else in the capital. He thought that those who remained at a distance became helpless, and were not able to see the king frequently, and consequently, could not serve the king. The king understood his purpose and was glad, and Bhoja lived in the house given to him by the king, within the capital, and furnished with all necessary furniture. The king also was served by his kindred and others, whose pleasure was heightened through affection , and his affection was drawn towards Bhoja, as to an old dependent. At the time of enjoyment, when there wore many strange sights to see, the king used to remember him, like a beloved son, and used to call him, by messengers, to his side. As he was a kindred, the king, when at meal, used to place him on his right side and give him delicious food before he parted with him. The king bore towards him an unfeigned affection, like a father, and along with the sons of his own blood, he favored his relative. Though attended by many attendants, the king reposed his full

[p.302]: confidence on him. He too behaved befittingly. He pointed out to the king those who were intimate with him during the civil war, and thereby removed his displeasure and reduced the number of his enemies. He did not appear in the court as a meaningless show or like an impudent man or with the assumed virtue of a heron. When through carelessness, the king proceeded too far or too short in any act, he passed them unheeded, as the minor poems of a great poet are passed unnoticed. He did not narrate with pride the deeds of his valor or his gifts given in religious ceremonies ; and when questioned, he did not speak of past events with exaggeration. With a bold look the wise Bhoja silenced those who flattered him, as equal to the king, or as born of the same family, and thus compared him with the king. Even when asked about his intentions, he would so lower his ambition, that the wicked, the cunning, and those who could see through a joke, could not fathom him. At times when the lights were extinguished, and all had retired on account of the darkness, he would go to the house of the king without betraying any fear. Even when the king slackened his vigilance, owing to his confidence in Bhoja, Bhoja acted like a tame horse, and did not run away. Always forward in other places, Bhoja felt himself embarrassed in going to the inner apartments or to the council room, although not forbidden. The king sent away even the lord of Darat who had petitioned for some concessions, for the

[p.303]: king felt his expectations could not be realized by depending on any one other than Bhoja. Guards were not set on Bhoja's way even in times of distrust, and Bhoja did not fail to disclose to the king even what he saw in dreams. He gave no account to the king of the mutual censure which the ministers and the ladies of the inner appartments indulged in, but forgot them like evil dreams. In assemblies where ill-natured jokes were indulged in, the intelligent Bhoja simply echoed the words of the bad men whose lightness was apparent in their words ; but he spoke otherwise in his own mind. Thus endued with purity of intention, he became, by his deeds, the beloved of the king who understood business and who entertained a greater affection for him than for his own sons. King Simharaja attained what can with difficulty be attained by the kings of the Kali age ; he constructed a new bridge, as it were, for saving his kindred.

Battle of Martanda

When the tumults raised by Trillaka were quelled, he thought that even burning in fire would be a relief to his body. He delayed to escape in time by the mountain road which was devoid of snow, thinking that such escape was impossible, and that he would be caught in attempting it. Therefore while the sensible Trillaka waited for an opportunity to depart, Sanjapala commenced to pursue him, without further deliberation. That great hero Trillaka who rested but little, stopped at Martanda with many good warriors of Devasarasa.

[p.304]: That country was easily accessible to the opponents, nor was he so vain as to think that the hostile soldiers who were beyond Martanda were weak. The followers of Trillaka who had not their arrows near at hand, fought with their enemies; nor did they display cowardice. The Lavanya, with his unlimited soldiers and with the Damaras of several places, and with the whole strength, fought there in anger with those who were running. The men of Devasarasa fled, full of plundered riches. They felt the power of Sanjapala. When the whole place was covered by rain and by enemies, the soldiers looked like the Kula mountains.* They who had been exposed to the powerful rays of the sun, had long withstood the rage of the foes and had destroyed several of the enemy's soldiers, were slain in these battles. The other party, when they had slain all the heroes in battle, reached Mandala. The people of Marttanda were also thickly wounded.

Gayāpāla, son of Sanjapala, became distinguished in this battle. When three horses were killed under him, he fought on foot for want of a fourth, and was unobserved. His younger brother, the boy Jarjja, who fought for the first time in this battle, astonished the heroes who had witnessed innumerable great battles. He cut down the handsome right hand of the lord of Kampana. The sun torments large elephants and the hyppopotamus

* The seven great mountains that are believed to have kept, their heads above the water at the deluge.

[p.305]: breaks their tusks. The lord of Kampana ran on horse- back, displayed his weapon in one hand and looked like a forest fire with a column of smoke on a winged mountain.* In this fierce battle with the enemies, the horse, put to flight by a wound inflicted by an arrow, ran backwards and threw him down from its back. Owing to the weight of his armour and to the heavy fall on the surface of the ground, he became senseless, and was carried away by his two sons from among the enemies. When the army was completely destroyed, his men cast him in the courtyard of the temple of Marttanda, out of the sight of the enemies, and fled. The lord of Kampana departed with the whole of the large army and found the Damara who was there, and crushed him.

When the king came to Vijayakshetra, Sanjapala completely burnt the broken house of the Lavanya. The king frowned in anger, and the Lavanya, though reduced to that plight, was not reduced to poverty. He had plenty of food in the rows of villages in the mountains. He had no friends, and was sent away out of his family, and was rebuked by servants whose wisdom becomes cheap at the time of distress. His hand was cut, and owing to the helplessness of his condition, he gave up his head as an offering to the anger of the king, as one gives a fruit to Tishnu.

* It is believed that, in ancient times, mountains) were furnished with wings.

Gulhana made king of Lohara

[p.306]: The king then anointed Gulhana, the eldest of the sons of Raḍḍādevī, as king of the prosperous kingdom of Lohara. That prince was aged six or seven years, and he surpassed older kings, as a young mango tree surpasses worn out trees. As the queen Raḍḍā went to anoint her son, the feudatory kings bowed to her, and reddened her feet by the rays of the rubies on their heads, as if by red paint. When the prince was anointed, the clouds, as if in compliance with, the wishes of the queen, drenched the earth which had been dried up by a fearful drought.

Movements of Rajavadana: Rajavadana who was anxious to create a revolution again vigorously attacked Jayachandra, in obedience to the orders of the king. Accompanied by the son of Naga's brother, he destroyed the rear of the army which followed the son of Garga, as he was entering a narrow defile. The son of Garga, whose face became dejected on account of the the discomfiture, captured Loshtaka, the eldest of the sons of Naga's brother, in battle, after a few days. Owing to the difficulty of access, Dinnāgrāma was not attacked by the enemies, but the son of Garga entered it with dexterous valor, burnt it, and came oat of it. Even then Rajavadana's power was not reduced. He did not establish peace, nor was he angry with him who had gone out of Dinnagrama and with whom he was quite able to cope.

Jayachandra and others whose army decreased day by day, and who always disregarded discomforts, fell on the

[p.307]: king. The king placed the Tikshnas who had long arms and long fingers in an ambuscade and caused Jayachandra to be killed in the midst of the battle. Jayachandra who was engaged in the unfortunate battle was soon cut down, and his life departed from his body ; his head and face rolled on the ground, and his body was cut to pieces. Seeking a pretext for the extermination of the family of Prithvihara, the king killed even Lothana after he had bestowed on him the royal umbrella and staff. He had once been saved by Trillaka when surrounded by foes, but now he again fell in the meshes of the king's policy. Mallakoṣhṭa, Kṣharajayya, Maḍḍachandra and others were harassed by poverty and disturbances, and were like dead though living, and they remained quiet.

Edifices erected by king Simharaja

Simharaja, the chief of his dynasty, as if believing that the soul of king Uchchala was imperishable, gave an endowment to a matha which had obtained the protection of many kings, but which had been thrown into disorder through vanity proceeding from the possession of wealth. The king completed the ancestral Sullā vihara, and the three temples commenced by his father, as well as the half-finished palace. He was of immovable purpose, and gathered faultless courtiers and friends around him by the gift of villages, articles and markets. In memory of the deceased Chandrāla, an inmate of the female appartments, whose face was as beautiful as the moon, he established at Dvara, a matha of exceeding beauty, in

[p.308]: which, guests were never refused shelter. The king, who had no vanity, built Suryyamatimaṭha with greater magnificence than before ; and people talked with wonder about the structure.

Gayapala made lord of Kampana: Then, when Sanjapala departed from this world, his son Gayapala was set up in Kampana by the king. People forgot line fame or the mighty and unbearable Sanjapala when his gentle son succeeded, as they forget the autumn sun on seeing the gentle moon. When at the rising of a cloud, a sudden lightning strikes down a tree which had stood on the bank of a river, unaffected by the heat of the summer, the stream does not show the destruction of the tree, but displays the beauty of its own waters.

Death of Dhanya— His character

It was Dhanya who was the main stay of the king's party from the time of Bhikshu's destruction to the time when Bhoja was won over, that is, during the period of the king's trouble. He took an unusual interest in the performance of the king's work, and by treacherous murders, reduced and annihilated the enemies. He also devoted, like a son, his dear life to the service of that grateful king who should be saved at the sacrifice of the world's life, and who, though sunk in danger at every step, was steady in his purpose to protect his subjects. The king mixed with those who were near Dhanya wishing his welfare ; and he remained sleepless and did not move from the side of Dhanya who was ill, in his last moments. The death of this dear subject and minister,

[p.309]: for a time, gave new life to the people. They had grieved at the death of Mandhata and other kings, but they now rejoiced. At the time when the kingdom of the new king was harassed by civil wars, it was his ministry which overcame all reverses and became irresistible. At the time when Sujji was killed and he became the superintendent of the capital, he put down the disorders in the kingdom which were of long growth.

The use of Dinnara, in the making of purchases, had been prohibited by law, but he repealed the law, and Dinnara has now a wide currency without any fall in its price. When the character of a married woman was lost, the master of the house used to inflict punishment ; but this practice was prohibited by him after deliberation. Thus on obtaining the superintendentship of the capital, he had become useful to men. But even he oppressed the people in conducting his affairs. He inflicted violent punishments on many dissipated men who, it was reported, had been living in houses full of immured women and dancing girls. What will you gain by thinking about the leaders of soldiers who wore ever ready to fly like husks ? Yet there was none so devoid of rebellious feelings and of avarice as he was. Even when he heard of Bhikshu and Mallarjjuna, he did not forsake the good of his master according to the prevalent custom of the time. In the time of prosperity, he never forgot his disinterestedness, and at the time of his death, he had not acquired much wealth, either-

[p.310]: honestly or dishonestly. The king divided the whole of Dhanya's wealth among his dependents, even as he would have done if Dhanya had been alive. How could he have expressed his gratitude to Dhanya more adequately than by this conduct ? Dhanya had commenced building a Vihara named Vijja, after the name of his beloved wife Vijja who had gone to the next world. But after Dhanya had gone to the other worrld, the king spent some money from the remnant of Dhanya's estate to finish the Vihara.

Religious edifices erected by the courtiers &c

Encouraged to do good works by the virtues of the king who began many sacred works, the Rajaviji Sangiya, younger brother of Kamaliya, built a temple after his own name. He was born in the family of those Kshetriyas whose only occupation was to engage themselves in battle after drink, and who, when the Turashkas entered the country, and there were numerous enemies, learned nothing but cruelty for the preservation of the native land. It was at the time when king Sussala was engaged in war that they took advantage of the discord to come into Kashmira, according to their custom. Men learn wisdom at the Vāṇalinga, set up by Sangiya, on the banks of the Vitasta, even like those who have obtained salvation on the banks of the Ganges. The sight of his matha graced with devotees satiates the curiosity to see the heaven of Mahadeva.

Having spent money to no purpose, the clear headed Lothana did not commence any other consecration.

[p.311]: Chinta, wife of Udaya, lord of Kampana, adorned the land on the banks of the Vitasta with a vihara. There the five temples in the vihara appeared like the five tall fingers of the hand of the god of virtue.

Mankhaka, minister for war and peace, brother of Alankara, set up the Shrikantha matha, and became great.

Sumanā, the younger sister [of Alankara] became equal to Rilhana by pious acts such as constructing matha, giving villages to Brahmanas, building temples of gods and repairing the worn out temples.

Rilhana raised a matha at Bhuteshvara, and he paid oblation to his ancestors with the waters of the gold bearing Vitasta, which flowed by Trigrama. In the district named Kashyapāgāra, the river Nilabhu flows eastward, as if emulating the Ganges. There he caused a bridge to be built for the crossing over of cows and other animals. He secured his salvation by this pious act. Even in the capital he built a house inscribed faith his name, for Mahadeva, and constructed mathas for the shelter of images of Shiva which were deprived of their temples. He constructed an image named Mammeshvara of pure gold, and constructed Somatirtha and a garden in a lake which was illuminated on its sides. Born in the dynasty of the king who was the master of life and property, and possessed of greatness and riches, he excited the jealousy of the ministers, even as king Mandhata, when seated in his new seat in heaven, excited Indra's jealousy and anger and was cast out of heaven by him. The king

[p.312]: who was steady of purpose saw his servants improving t in their work day by day and thought of his own groat intellect and was happy.

King Kalasha had strong common sense, and his servant Rilhana set up gold umbrellas and became his favourite. At Sureshvari where the united images of Hara and Parvati were kept, the gold umbrella, decorated with bells, won the affection of both the god and the goddess, on the " night of the lamps." The gold umbrella seemed like the mountain Meru which appeared to have travelled to the spot to breathe on the heads of Parvati and Hara who were the daughter and son-in-law of his friend the Himalaya mountain. The fire of Mahadeva's eye pondered thus : — " Mahadeva burnt Kama, the beloved Uma therefore embraced Mahadeva in terror ; she should therefore feel grateful to Kama." Thus pondering, the fire darted upwards in the form of an umbrella. There was a large gold umbrella constructed by Rilhana and fixed on the top of the temple of the beloved of Rukmini, (Krishna), and now it looks small and beautiful, as if the sun has come to see whether his master Narayana has recovered his Chakra, beautiful as itself (the sun), and which Chakra had once gone mad with drinking blood and had fled away. At the shrine which has boon deeply and everlastingly hallowed by the conqueror of Kama (Mahadeva) and by him (Vishnu) whose banner is marked with the image of a bird, there on an ornamental stick, Mahadeva's golden umbrella, the perfection

[p.313]: of workmanship, looked like the pollen of the lotus of the Ganges whirled round by the breath of the serpent on his head.* [The silver umbrella] of the other god [Vishnu] seemed like a lightning on the skirts of his cloud-like hair. Within the rich, deep and golden dome of the temple, looking like the dome of the universe, the white and the sable beauty of Mahadeva and Vishnu blends with the rays of the spreading umbrella. The beautiful golden umbrella spreads over them, as over two seas.

Queen Raddadevi, Sons and daughters of the king Jayasimha

After the king of Lohara (Gulhana), queen Radda's four sons, clever and eminent on account of their virtues, became kings. As Lakshmana bore inseparable love towards Rama, so Gulhana is loved by Aparāditya, and lives in prosperity in Lohara. As Shatrughna was brought up by Bharata, even so Jayapida lives under the fostering care of Lalitaditya.

King Ahaskara was renowned on account of humility and was the fifth virtuous king, and rose like the young sun. He was restless on account of his young age, graceful on account of his reverence and power, and although like the beautiful sun, he softened men. His fair face with eyes lined with collyrium, and his lower lip red as copper, appeared like a golden lotus on which the rays of the newly risen sun were reflected. Though

* It would appears that Mahadeva was here represented by an image with a serpent round its head and with the Ganges flowing through its hair.

[p.314]: young, his conversation was clear and full of magnanimity, and was as grateful to men as the source of the nectar, (the moon), churned out of the ocean. " He is horn of a great family, and the graceful dignity of his infancy indicates future expansion.

Four daughters, — Menila, Rajalakshmi, Padmashri and Kamala, — all bent on good deeds, were born to the king of Kashmira.

King and the queen: Always surrounded by beautiful children in the pleasure garden made for enjoyment? the unblemished king and queen look graceful like two gardens in the rainy season. By the reduction of the expenditure of the kingdom, hallowed by holy temples, the riches of queen Radda were augmented. The queen was followed by the king and petty chiefs and ministers in her pilgrimage to shrines of gods, and she beamed like the goddess of Royal Fortune. When she bathed, her companions in pilgrimage touched the person of that chaste lady and instantly abandoned their desire to touch the image of Sati. When she marched, the rain clouds in the sky always followed her, in order to see her, as they follow the rainy season ; no doubt, because, when she bathed in the shrines of this world, the shrines of heaven bathed her too, out of jealousy, in the guise of rain clouds. In her eagerness to go to shrines, the queen with her tender limbs does not think even the cloud-touching hills and the bank-breaking rivers in her way to be insurmountable. By setting up many images and repairing worn out temples, the wise and clever queen surpassed the

[p.315]: " Idle " (Nirjjitavarmma) and Didda. She set up a beautiful image of Rudra named Rudreshvara, made of white stone grateful as the source of the nectar, (the moon), and beauteous as the melting sea of cream. It shines to the day and destroys hunger, thirst, poverty and all disturbances. Set with pure gold, it is the graceful ornament of Kashmira, the essence of all beautiful things in the world. She also repaired the building named Shāntāvasāda.

Influence of the queen over the king: When the king is ruffled with anger, as the sea is by the sub-marine fire, the queen is the shelter of the servants, as the Ganges is of aquatic creatures. When the king is in even temper, punishments or favors on [subordinate] kings were awarded at her desire. She favored king Bhupala, son of Somapala, by marriage with the honorable Meniladevi. The dignity inherited from noble birth is easily discerned, and is, never, completely lost. The fiery sun has the power to destroy darkness, and the disk (moon) receives the power from the sun, and so destroys darkness. This kingdom, wonderful among all kingdoms on earth, and purified and full of jewels, displays in a befitting manner the virtues of the king. After Meniladevi was married, her father sincerely forgot his former displeasure against the bridegroom and bestowed on him a kingdom.

The king had, by his vigour, killed king Prājidhara and other enemies in battle. The powerful Ghatotkacha, younger brother of Prajidhara now tried to heal up his enmity with the king. He took shelter of Radda and

[p.316]: obtained a beautiful kingdom, and enjoyed a kingly fortune. Panchavata, helped by the ministers of the king, caused the kingdom of Angada including Prajji to he taken away from its owner who behaved with hostility towards his brother. His [ Panchavata's] prowess was as great as that of the Sohāradānā river, when full of water ; but by crossing it, he (Ghatotkacha) eluded that river as well as Panchavata's black sword flashing before enemies. The latter [ Panchavata ] created a bad name for the king, and by the prowess of the gods, took possession of Atyugrapura full of combatants. Under the beams of the white umbrella, beautiful is the moon, many joyful leaders of armies thus attained fame.

In this year 25 (=1149 AD), twenty-two years have now passed since the king obtained the kingdom. Owing to the .... of the subjects, the happiness attained by this king in the end was not equalled in any other place for many years and cycles. Water which naturally fows is, by n certain plant, consolidated, and it becomes like stone. Solid stone (sun-jewel) melts at the rising of the sun, and flows. Whose work can shine unchanged against the irresistible power of time, as long as such resistible power endures? Such is the power of Fate !

Names of the kings of Kashmira

When 653 years of Kali had elapsed,


* Nara has been left out.



* Sambhubardhana has been left out.

  • Bhikshachara was made king. Banishing him,
  • Sussala again obtained the kingdom. The trusted Luvanyas in time killed tho harassed king Sassala in a civil discord. But after destroying the whole of the Lavanyas as well as the king Bhikahachara, king Susaala's son king
  • Jayasimha of great forgiveness at present lives and delight the world.

Like the river Godavvari with its winding course, flowing rapidly through seven mouths, this wave of kings has entered for repose, the great sea like dynasty of king Shrikanta.

This is the eighth Taranga of the Rajatarangini by the great poet Shrikalhana.

Here ends the Rajatarangini by the great poet Kalhana, son of the great and clever minister Champakaprabhu.

Printed by I. C. Bose & Co., Stanhope Press, 249.

Bow Bazar Street, Calcutta.

End of Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII

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