Kaswan

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Jat Ruler Kanishka of Kaswan gotra

Kaswan (कसवां) Kashvan (कशवां)[1] Kaswa (कस्वा) Kasba (कस्बा) Kasvan(कसवां) Kuswan (कुसवां) Kasuan (कसुवां) Kusuma (कुसुमा) Kushman (कुशमान)[2] Kuswan (कुसवान) Kashwan (कश्वां) Kaswan (कसवान)[3] is a Gotra of Jats in Rajasthan,[4] Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana in India. The word Kaswan is 'XWN' of Tocharian language meaning King. Dilip Singh Ahlawat has mentioned it as one of the ruling Jat clans in Central Asia. [5]

Origin of Kaswan

  • Some Jat historians consider Kusha (कुश) , the son of Rama, as the ancestor of Kaswan clan of Jats. [6]

In Mahabharata

Ancestry of Kusamva as per Bhagavata Purana

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 63 mentions about a King of the Paurava race named Uparichara (Vasu) of Chedi Kingdom. Vasu had five sons:Vrihadratha (King of Magadha), Pratyagraha, Kusamva (also called Manivahana), Mavella and Yadu. [10] Here Kusamva is nothing but the Kaswan tribe. This fact is conformed from the Hathigumpha inscriptions of King Kharavela in Orissa.

Mahabharata Vana Parva mentions a country called Kushavan, in the north of Manasarovara Himalayas. [11]

Shalya Parva, Mahabharata/Book IX Chapter 44 shloka 35 mentions about Kaswan tribe among the high-souled five companions, given by Dhatri, who came to the ceremony for investing Kartikeya with the status of generalissimo. [12]

History

Ram Swarup Joon[13] writes about Hanga Chaudhary: Hangamas was a General of the Kushan, Yuechi or Tushar kings. Hanga is very well known in history. He belonged to Tushar or Kasvan dynasty and was appointed as the Governor of Mathura. His descendants came to be called Hanga. They have about 80 villages in district of Mathura.


Ram Swarup Joon[14] writes....Kasva appears to be a distorted form of Kushana. They have 350 villages in a compact group in Bikaner. Previously Sidmukh was their capital which was occupied by the Bika and the Godara Jats. Ratangarh and Churu were their territories. They had 2000 camel riders in their army.


Ram Swarup Joon[15] writes about Shahikasva or Shawal: This is an old gotra. They call themselves the descendants of Kasva. Their kings Anta Raj Devputra acquired the royal title. His coins were found in the Punjab and Kabul. On these, coins is inscribed the name of Kasva King Tames, who ascended the throne in 935 AD. Coins of Bhimsen Shahi were also found near Kabul. He founded Bhimnagar near Kot Kangra. His uncle, Savkpal, was the first to accept Islam. In the Gazeteer of district Jhelum they are called Kabuli belonging to the town of Shahiwal. Their ruler was later on ousted from Bhera by Mahmud Ghazni. The Shahi Jats is found both among the Hindus and Sikhs.


Ram Sarup Joon[16] writes that...Kasana or Kasvan is a Jat Gotra in Rajasthan at present. King Kanishka was a foreign Yuchi (Yuti Jat and Khathans were Khotani or Turkish Jats. Turkistan has been a pure Jat country and the ancestors or Turks were of Takshak Ghorsi (Ghosi) (Ghorzay), the Zablastanis of Kabul were Indians.

Gorzai a big tribe of Pathans in Ghazni (Zabilastan) claim their origin from Gazni.

The Gaur Jats and Rajput had their kingdoms in Rajasthan also.

This was because Afghanistan was a province of India and tribes often shifted from one province to another.


Rajatarangini[17] mentions that Lava was a renowned prince of Kashmir. He had a vast and powerful army under him, and probably carried on many wars with his neighbours. It is said of him that the noise of his army made his people sleepless, but lulled his enemies to long sleep (death). He built the town of Lolora which, it is said, contained no less than eighty-four lacs of stone-built houses. Nothing more is said of him than that he bestowed the village of Lovara in Ledari on Brahmanas before his death. He was succeeded by his son Kusheshaya, who was a powerful prince. He bestowed the village of Kuruhara on Brahmanas.

Lava and Kushama gotra are descendants of Rama’s son Lava and Kusha. Both these Jat gotras are found in Nagla Magola (नागला मगोला), Soniga Kheda (सोनिगा खेड़ा) district Badaun.[18]

Jat historian Thakur Deshraj writes that Kushans were the people from Krishnavanshi who moved with Pandavas in the great migration after Mahabharata. There is no doubt that Kushan word is derived from sanskrit word karshneya and karshnik. The word is not 'Kushan' but Kaswan clan found in Jats. [19]

The Taxila Ladle Copper inscription bears this as 'Kaswin' word. In Mahabharata there is a word Khawakasha which becomes 'Kashwa' when 'Kh' is changed to 'x' and tellies with the word 'kasuwa' of "Panchtar inscription". The word 'Kaswan' is in fact 'XWN' word of Tokharian language which means 'King'. In Mahabharata also there is mention of a country named 'Kuswan' which was situated in the north of Mansarovar lake. [20] [21]


James Legge has mentioned in the book : A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, chapter XII about the rule of Kanishka in footnote 4 that “Kanishka appeared and began to reign early in our first century, about A.D. 10. He was the last of three brothers, whose original seat was in Yueh-she, immediately mentioned, or Tukhara.”

He further mentions in footnote 6 that “This king was perhaps Kanishka himself, Fa-hien mixing up, in an inartistic way, different legends about him. Eitel suggests that a relic of the old name of the country may still exist in that of the Jats or Juts of the present day. A more common name for it is Tukhara, and he observes that the people were the Indo-Scythians of the Greeks, and the Tatars of Chinese writers, who, driven on by the Huns (180 BC), conquered Transoxiana, destroyed the Bactrian kingdom (126 BC), and finally conquered the Punjab, Cashmere, and great part of India, their greatest king being Kanishka (E. H., p. 152).” [22]

An article about Raja Kharavela in Orissa mentions about the rule of Kaswan in 2nd century of Vikram samvat. It has been mentioned in ‘Hathi Gumpha and three other inscriptions’ (page 24) in Sanskrit as under:

Sanskrit - कुसवानाम् क्षत्रियानां च सहाय्यतावतां प्राप्त मसिक नगरम्
IAST - “Kusawānāṃ kshatriyānāṃ ca Sahāyyatāvatāṃ prāpt masika nagaraṃ”.
This translates that the city of 'Masik' was obtained with the help of 'Kuswan' Kshatriyas [23] 'Masika' has been identified with Asikanagara.[24]

Besides Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela there are some other minor Brahmi inscriptions in the twin hillocks of Udayagiri and Khandagiri, which were deciphered earlier by Prof R D Banergy during 1915-16 (Epigraphic Indica-XIII) and BM Baraua (Indian Historical Quarterly-XIV). Sadananda Agrawal has given further clarifications about them. Those seem to be related with Kaswan Jats are as under:

X-Tatowāgumphā inscription (Cave No -1):The record of this inscription is incised over one of the entrances to the inner chamber. The Text reads in Sanscrit as

पादमुलिकस कुसुमस लेणं x [।।]

Translation: The cave of Kusuma, the padamulika.

Notes:- There is a syllable after the word lenam, which may be read as ni or phi,. padamulika literaly means, one who serves at the feet [of king].

Here Kusuma seems to be related with Kaswan clan of Jats.

According to historian Bhim Singh Dahiya, the correct name for Kushan in India is Kasuan, the present Kaswan clan of Jats of Rajasthan and Haryana. This title remains in use by the Jat clan and indicates their possibility of ancestral lineage from Kushans. [25]

We find evidences of Kaswa tribe in Central Asia. Qazvin (Persian: قزوین, also spelled as Ghazvin) is the largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin (Kaswan Jat clan) in Iran. Qazvin (historically also rendered as Kazvin, Kasvin (Kaswan Jat clan), Casbeen, and Casbin in the West) is a city in Iran, some 165 km northwest of Tehran, in Qazvin Province. Archaeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal urban agricultural settlements for at least nine millennia. The name “Qazvin” or “Kasbin” is derived from Cas (Kaswa or Kasya Jat clan), an ancient tribe which lived south of the Caspian Sea a thousand years ago. The Caspian Sea itself in fact derives its name from the same origin.

Sir H. M. Elliot[26] mentions about Káshbín. James Tod identifies Káshbín with Kach Bhúj, while Reinaud supposes it to be Mysore. All the description given of it is that it is an inland country, so that in the absence of any closely resembling Indian name, its locality is a mere matter of guess.

Kaswans in Jangladesh

Kaswans were rulers in Sindh in ancient times. After the Kaswan rulers lost their kingdom they came from north-west India to Jangladesh. Around 4th century, they inhabited Jangladesh. Jangladesh coincided with the princely state of Bikaner in Rajasthan. Rathores under the leadership of Bika, were spreading their rule in Jangladesh. Bika founded Bikaner as their capital in 1488. At that time, Kaswan Jats were ruling in about 400 villages in Jangladesh. Kanwarpal was their king, and their capital was at Sidhmukh town. The people of this clan were known as warriors who used to fight with patience. They had 2000 camels and 500 riders always ready for defence. They were good cultivators as well as superb soldiers. Kaswan Jats had war with Rathores, but the Godara Jats had aligned with Rathores due to which Kaswan Jats faced a defeat. Rathores annexed their kingdom in 17th century. They used to elect their king with a democratic process. Chahar Jats were their neighbourhood rulers. [27]

As per above Jat historical traditions it is clear that the Kushan rulers and Kaswan clan of Jats were the same people.

Villages founded by Kaswan clan

कसवां गोत्र का इतिहास

ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि आरम्भ में यह सिन्ध में राज्य करते थे। ईसा की चौथी सदी से पहले जांगल-प्रदेश में आबाद हुए थे। इनके अधिकार में लगभग चार सौ गांव थे। सीधमुख राजधानी थी। राठौरों से जिस समय युद्ध हुआ, उसय समय कंवरपाल नामी सरदार इनका राजा था। इस वंश के लोग धैर्य के साथ लड़ने में बहुत प्रसिद्ध थे। कहा जाता है दो हजार ऊंट और पांच सौ सवार इनके प्रतिक्षण शत्रु से मुकाबला करने के लिए तैयार रहते थे। यह कुल सेना राजधानी में तैयार न रहती थी। वे उत्तम कृषिकार और श्रेष्ठ सैनिक समझे जाते थे। राज्य उनका भरा-पूरा था। प्रजा पर कोई अत्याचार न था। सत्रहवीं शताब्दी में इनका भी राज राठौंरों द्वारा अपहरण कर लिया गया। इनके पड़ौस में चाहर भी रहते थे। राजा का चुनाव होता था, ऐसा कहा जाता है। चाहरों की ओर से एक बार मालदेव नाम के उपराजा का भी चुनाव हुआ था।[30]

सीधमुख के कसवा

सीधमुख राजगढ़ तहसील में चुरू से 45 मील उत्तर-पूर्व में बेणीवालों की राजधानी रायसलाना से 18 मील दक्षिण-पूर्व में स्थित है. कर्नल टाड ने यद्यपि जाटों की कसवा शाखा का उल्लेख जाटों के प्रमुख ठिकानों में नहीं किया है लेकिन दयालदास, पाऊलेट, मुंशी सोहन लाल आदि ने कसवा जाटों को प्रमुख ठिकानों में गिना है. उनके अनुसार कसवां जाटों का प्रमुख ठिकाना सीधमुख था और राठोडों के आगमन के समय कसवां कंवरपाल उनका मुखिया था तथा 400 गाँवों पर उसकी सत्ता थी.[31]

कसवां जाटों के भाटों तथा उनके पुरोहित दाहिमा ब्रह्मण की बही से ज्ञात होता है की कंसुपाल पड़िहार संघ में सम्मिलित था। वह 5000 फौज के साथ मंडोर छोड़कर पहले तालछापर पर आए, जहाँ मोहिलों का राज था. कंसुपाल ने मोहिलों को हराकर छापर पर अधिकार कर लिया. इसके बाद वह आसोज बदी 4 संवत 1125 मंगलवार (19 अगस्त 1068) को सीधमुख आया. वहां रणजीत जोहिया राज करता था जिसके अधिकार में 125 गाँव थे. लड़ाई हुई जिसमें 125 जोहिया तथा कंसुपाल के 70 लोग मारे गए. इस लड़ाई में कंसुपाल विजयी हुए. सीधमुख पर कंसुपाल का अधिकार हो गया और वहां पर भी अपने थाने स्थापित किए. सीधमुख विजय के बाद कंसुपाल सात्यूं (चुरू से 12 कोस उत्तर-पूर्व) आया, जहाँ चौहानों के सात भाई (सातू, सूरजमल, भोमानी, नरसी, तेजसी, कीरतसी और प्रतापसी) राज करते थे. कंसुपाल ने यहाँ उनसे लड़ाई की जिसमें सातों चौहान भाई मरे गए. चौहान भाइयों की सात स्त्रियाँ- भाटियाणी, नौरंगदे, पंवार तथा हीरू आदि सती हुई. कंसुपाल की संतान कसवां कहलाई. फाल्गुन सुदी 2 शनिवार, संवत 1150, 18 फरवरी, 1094, के दिन कंसुपाल का सात्यूं पर कब्जा हो गया. फ़िर सात्यूं से कसवां लोग समय-समय पर आस-पास के भिन्न-भिन्न स्थानों पर फ़ैल गए और उनके अपने-अपने ठिकाने स्थापित किए. [32] [33]

ज्ञानाराम ब्रह्मण की बही के अनुसार कंसुपाल के बाद क्रमशः कोहला, घणसूर, महसूर, मला, थिरमल, देवसी, जयसी और गोवल सीधमुख के शासक हुए. गोवल के 9 लडके थे- चोखा , जगा, मलक, महन, ऊहड, रणसी, भोजा और मंगल. इन्होने अलग अलग ठिकाने कायम किए जो इनके थाम्बे कहे जाते थे.

भाटों की बही के अनुसार कंसुपाल के एक वंशज चोखा ने संवत 1485 माघ बदी 9 शुक्रवार (31 दिसम्बर 1428) को दूधवाखारा पर अधिकार कर लिया. [35]

विक्रम की 16 वीं शताब्दी के पूर्वार्ध में अन्य जाट राज्यों के साथ कसवां जाटों के राज्य को भी राठोडों ने अधिकृत कर लिया. यद्यपि मूल रूप में कसवां जाटों के प्रमुख सीधमुख के कंवरपाल ने राठोडों की अधीनता ढाका युद्ध के बाद ही स्वीकार कर ली थी, लेकिन हो सकता है कि बाकी कस्बों के स्थानीय ठिकानों पर छोटे-मोटे भूस्वामी काबिज बने रहे हों, जिन्हें हराकर राठोडों ने शनैः शनैः उन सब ठिकानों पर अधिकार कर लिया. [36] [37]

राव बीका और राव जोधा की जाटों को समूल नष्ट करने की चाल

राव बीका और राव जोधा ने जाटों को समूल नष्ट करने की चाल चली। उन्होंने राजपूतों को मन्त्र दिया कि हम जाटों से लड़कर नहीं जीत सकते इसलिए धर्मभाई का रिवाज अपनाकर जब विश्वास कायम हो जाये तब सामूहिक भोज के नाम पर बाड़े में इकठ्ठा करो। नीचे बारूद बिछाकर नष्ट करो। इस कुकृत्य से असंख्य जाटों को नष्ट किया गया। [38] बीकानेर रियासत के मुख्य गाँव जहाँ जाटों को जलाया गया -

Distribution in Rajasthan

Kaswan Jats live in about 300 villages of Bikaner, Churu, and Ratangarh region of the state of Rajasthan.

Locations in Jaipur city

Ambabari, Bagruwalon ka Rasta, Ganpati Nagar, Hanuman Nagar, Murlipura Scheme, Tonk Road,

Villages in Jaipur district

Kaswa (कस्वा) Jats live in villages: Chandrapura Chandma (1), Nareda (2), Rupbas Kadeda (4), Nayagaon Chaksu (3),

Kaswan (कसवां) Jats live in villages: Dhamana (12), Nayagaon (2), Rupbas Kadeda (1), Nolya,

Villages in Sikar district

Chachiwad Bara, Dhani Baijnath, Hetamsar, Gyangiasar, Karanga Bara, Kumas Jatan, Mukundpura (Dhaud), Rookansar, Sikar, Tiroki Chhoti

Village in Jhunjhunu district

Bahadurwas, Bhurasar, Bhurasar Ka Bas, Hetamsar, Lutoo (20), Nayasar,

Villages in Hanumangarh district

Alayala, Amarpura Jalukhat, Barwali, Bashir, Bhadi, Bhadra, Bhairuchhani, Bharwana, Bolanwali Chak Bhidasra, Choubara, Dingarh, Gandhi Badi, Ghotda, Jagasari Bari, Jigasari Taal, Kalana, Kharakhera, Khat Jalu, Khothanwali, Kelaniya, Kirara Bara, Kirara Chhota, Maliya Nohar, Mehriya, Mirjawali Mair, Mundaria, Mundariya Bara, Nagrana, Naurangdesar, Pacca Saharana, Palari, Ramgarh, Ramgarh Ujjalwas, Ratna Desar, Sangaria, Shoratada, Tibbi Hanumangarh, Utradha Bas,

Villages in Churu district

Asal Kheri, Asloo, Badhki, Balrasar, Baniyala, Bas Jaiseka, Beeghran, Bharang, Bhairoosar, Bhamasi, Bhuradki, Binasar, Birmi Patta, Boontiya, Chalkoi Kheenchran, Chanana Chhota, Churu, Dabri Chhoti, Dalman (10), Depalsar, Dhadhar, Dulchasar, Dhadhar, Dhadharia Charnan, Dhani Mana, Dheerasar Charnan, Dokwa, Dudhwa Khara, Dudhwa Meetha, Gadana, Ghanghu, Ginri Patta Lohsana, Godas, Gogtiya, Hadiyal, Indrapura Churu, Jasrasar Churu, Jhariya Churu Jharsar Chhota, Jothra Taranagar, Kalari, Kharia, Khasoli, Ladariya Churu, Lakhau, Lalasar, Mahansar, Mathori, Mikhala, Moti Ka Bas, Nawan, Nunwa, Nyangali, Pandreu Tiba, Pithisar, Poonusar, Rampura Taranagar, Ramsara Tal, Rirkhala, Sahwa, Satyun, Sidhmukh, Sirsala, Sirsali, Somasi, Sujangarh (7), Taranagar, Thalori, Thelasar,

Villages in Bikaner district

Akkhasar, Kapoorisar, Kesar Desar Jatan, Khajuwala, Nathoosar Bikaner, Ramnagar, Ramsar Bikaner, Ranjeetpura, Satasar, Soniasar (Dungargarh), Surnana (Lunkaransar), Takhatpura,

Villages in Ganganagar district

Dhingtania, Pakka Bhadwan,

Villages in Jodhpur district

Jodhpur, Khinchan, Loona, Ratkudia, Shaitan singh nagar, Poonasar,

Villages in Nagaur district

Dabriya, Degana, Gotan, Gudha Bhagwandas, Kameriya, Kaswan Ki Dhani (Ramnagar), Khushiya, Lunsara, Merta City, Mandookara, Nimbola, Rajlota, Raliyawata, Ramnagar (Gotan), Sangwanon Ki Dhani (Harsolav), Sanjoo, Sardi, Tanwara,

Villages in Barmer district

Hiran Ki Dhani,

Villages in Tonk district

Kaswa (कस्वा) Jats live in villages: Taharpura (3), Mauja Jharana (3),

Villages in Alwar district

Haldeena, Kudiyana,

Distribution in Haryana

Villages in Gurgaon District

Mau,

Villages in Fatehabad District

Jandwala Sotter,

Villages in Sirsa District

Ban Sudhar, Chautala, Jandwala Jattan, Jhorad Nali, Jhorad Rohi, Kusumbi, Madho Singhana, Nirwan, Panihari, Panniwala Mota, Teja Khera, Umedpura,

Villages in Hisar District

Kalirawan Hisar,

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Villages in Badayun District

Kushama Jats found in Nagla Magola and Soniga Kheda villages in Badayun district of Uttar Pradesh.

Distribution in Punjab

Bhagsar,

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Haidara Mata,

Villages in Ratlam district

Badauda 2, Delanpur 1,

Villages in Harda district

Chhipaner, Devtalab, Uman,

Villages in Dewas district

Hatpipalya,

Notable persons

  • Dr. Harish Kumar Kaswan, RESIDENT MS, MEDICAL & HEALTH, V.P.O.- Dudhwa Khara, T.& DISTT.- Churu, Present Address : NAYAR HOSPITAL,BOMBAY, Resident Phone Number : 01562-286542, Mobile Number : 9323342361
  • Kamla Kaswan - MLA, Sadulpur,Permanent Address : Deep Niwas,Near Railway station, Sadulpur,Churu, Present Address : B-11, MLA Quarters, Jaipur, Resident Phone Number : 01559-224800, Mobile Number : 9414421800
  • Shiv Kumar Kaswan (Transpoter) Village Mehriya Tehsil: Bhadra Distt.Hanumangarh Rajasthan Mobile.No.: 8000 06 8000
  • Mr. Vidyadhar S. Kaswan - Govt. Service Chairman RRB, Ajmer Northern Railway, Railways Chairman, Railway Recruitment Borad, Ajmer (Rajasthan). P-93, Badwar Park, Colaba, Mumbai400005, Ph: 022-22830230, 9001196650, vdskaswan@gmail.com Maharastra (PP-677)
  • Dr Hanuman Singh Kaswan - Kaswan Hospital Bikaner, Mob:9414138421

Gallery of Kaswan people

References

  1. B S Dahiya:Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study), p.239, s.n.113
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-137
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. क-140
  4. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX,p.695
  5. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV, p.342
  6. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998,
  7. Alexander Cunningham: The Ancient Geography of India/Northern India,pp. 37
  8. Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Mahabharata Book I Chapter 63
  9. महारथॊ मगध राड विश्रुतॊ यॊ बृहद्रथः । परत्यग्रहः कुशाम्बश च यम आहुर मणिवाहनम । मच छिल्लश च यदुश चैव राजन्यश चापराजितः।। Mahabharata (1.63.29)
  10. महारथॊ मगध राड विश्रुतॊ यॊ बृहद्रथः । परत्यग्रहः कुशाम्बश च यम आहुर मणिवाहनम । मच छिल्लश च यदुश चैव राजन्यश चापराजितः।। Mahabharata (1.63.29)
  11. हरथश च कुशवान एष यत्र पथ्मं कुशे शयम । आश्रमश चैव रुक्मिण्या यत्राशाम्यथ अकॊपना ।। Mahabharata (3.130.15)
  12. :कुन्दनं कुसुमं चैव कुमुदं च महायशाः। :डम्बराडम्बरौ चैव ददौ धाता महात्मने ।। Mahabharata (9.44.35)
  13. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 87
  14. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V,p. 92
  15. Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p. 100
  16. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter VI,p.116
  17. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book I,p.7
  18. Kishori Lal Faujdar: “Mahabharatkalin Jat vansha” Jat Samaj, Agra, July 1995, p. 7
  19. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Maharaja Suraj Mal Smarak Shiksha Sansthan, Delhi, 1934, 2nd edition 1992. Page-202
  20. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the ancient rulers
  21. Jat Samaj Monthly Magazine, Agra, May (2006) page-7
  22. James Legge : A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms, (Being an Account by the Chinese Monk Fa-Hien of his Travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414), in Search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline Translated and annotated with a Corean recension of the Chinese text)
  23. Kishori Lal Faujdar:Jat Samaj Monthly Magazine, Agra, January/February (2001) page-6
  24. Sadananda Agrawal: Śrī Khāravela, Published by Sri Digambar Jain Samaj, Cuttack, 2000.
  25. Bhim Singh Dahiya:Jats the ancient rulers
  26. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians/Note (A).- Geographical,p. 361
  27. Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas ,1992. P.-610
  28. Dr Pema Ram, The Jats Vol. 3, ed. Dr Vir Singh,Originals, Delhi, 2007 p. 203
  29. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 229
  30. जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठ-620
  31. Dr Pema Ram, The Jats Vol. 3, ed. Dr Vir Singh,Originals, Delhi, 2007 p. 203
  32. गोविन्द अग्रवाल, चुरू मंडल का शोधपूर्ण इतिहास, पेज 115-116
  33. Dr Pema Ram, The Jats Vol. 3, ed. Dr Vir Singh,Originals, Delhi, 2007 p. 203-204
  34. सात्यूं के ब्राहमण ज्ञानाराम की बहीहस्तलिखित्) , पेज 10-16 गोविन्द अग्रवाल, चुरू मंडल का शोधपूर्ण इतिहास, पेज 116
  35. Dr Pema Ram, The Jats Vol. 3, ed. Dr Vir Singh,Originals, Delhi, 2007 p. 203
  36. गोविन्द अग्रवाल, चुरू मंडल का शोधपूर्ण इतिहास, पेज 116-117
  37. Dr Pema Ram, The Jats Vol. 3, ed. Dr Vir Singh,Originals, Delhi, 2007 p. 205
  38. Dharati Putra: Jat Baudhik evam Pratibha Samman Samaroh Sahwa, Smarika 30 December 2012, by Jat Kirti Sansthan Churu, p.39
  39. Churu Janpad Ka Jat Itihas by Daulat Ram Saran Dalman
  40. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Adhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 376
  41. Jat Gatha, September-2015,p. 15

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