Mention by Panini
V. S. Agrawala writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālva (शाल्व) (IV.2.135). It was confined to limited geographical horizon in the central and north eastern Punjab. Shalva may coincide with the territory extending from Alwar to north Bikaner. Salvas were ancient people who migrated from west through Baluchistan and Sindh where they left traces in the form of Śālvakāgiri, the present Hala mountain, and then advancing towards north Sauvira and along the Saraswati and finally settled in north Rajasthan.
V. S. Agrawala writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālvāvayava (साल्वावयन) - Several members were grouped in this confederacy which include, 1. Udumbara, 2. Tilakhala, 3. Madrakāra, 4. Yugandhara, 5. Bhūliṅga, 6. Śaradaṇḍa
V. S. Agrawala writes that the Madrakāra (मद्रकार) - Madrakāra signifies the warrior troops of Madras (kāra in old Parsian means army). Madra princess Savitri married with Salva prince Satyavan (Vanaparva, 279.15). Consequent to this marriage three new small kingdoms came into existence. 1. Sāvitrīputrakāḥ, 2. Madrakāraḥ and 3. Śālvasenyaḥ. Sāvitrīputrakāḥ represents hundred sons of Savitri and Satyavan. Putra denoted a clan such as Shakyaputras. Senā in Sanskrit denotes kāra in Iranian.
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.386
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 57
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.55
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.56
- V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.57
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,p.143
- चंद्रव्याकरण 11,4,103: उदुम्बरास्तिलखला मद्रकारा युगन्धरा । भूलिंगा शरदण्डाश्च साल्वावयव संज्ञिता: ।। Buddha Prakash connects Yugandhara with modern Jagadhari in Punjab: Buddha Prakash, Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, p. 110.
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