Mandala

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Mandala was an ancient Kingdom in Kashmir.

Origin

History

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[1] tells that in the reign of Harsha of Kashmir (b.1059, ruled. 1089-1101 AD), The Damaras became riotous, and he ordered the lord of Mandala to massacre them. The Damaras inhabiting Madava and Lohara were first attacked and murdered like birds in the nests. Even the Brahmanas who dwelt at Madava were not spared by the destroyer of the Lavanyas (Damaras). Poles were fixed on the place where the Damaras were executed. One wife of a Lavanya was impaled, the rest were terrified, and fled on all sides. Some fled to the country of the Mlechchhas and lived on beef, others took to working wheels at wells. The lord of Mandala sent to the fierce king many garlands made of the heads of the Lavanyas. The gates of the palace was seen filled with Damara heads. Gold, cloth, and other valuable things were kept at the palace-gate, and whoever brought a Damara head obtained one of them from the door as his reward. And the birds lingered at the king's gate to feed on human heads. Wherever the king stopped, the gates were adorned with garlands of Damara heads. The bad smell which arose, and the cry of jackals, made the place appear like the spot assigned for the burning of the dead.

From the tank at Valeraka to Lokapunya, the lord of Mandala erected a row of the impaled Damaras.

After having quite depopulated — Madava of the Damaras, the lord of Mandala intended to do the same with Kramarajya, and marched towards it. In despair the Damaras of this place collected an army at Loulaha. They fought a fierce battle, and the lord of Mandala was for a time baffled. But the king, like a Rakshasa, was bent on destroying this beautiful kingdom. [VII (i), p.262]


Rajatarangini[2]tells that Uchchala was led by the Damaras, who were mostly foot soldiers, and who terrified the cavalry and once more passed through the difficult mountain path which led to Lohara. The king too again made Udayaraja Lord of of Dvara, and sent the Lord of Mandala to Lohara to subdue Uchchala. The maternal uncle of Uchchala and Sussala now arrived at Padmapura, and none of the king's ministers ventured to accept from the king the governorship of Kampana. [VII (i),p.273]


Rajatarangini[3] tells ... Many fights were then fought, and there never was heroism and valor tested as on this day. The enemies thought that the army of Lohara had come, and therefore could fight no more. On that day of trouble, the king and Bhikshu felt each others strength.

Prithvihara ordered the Madava soldiers to keep on fighting there, while he himself marched along the banks of the Kshiptika and attacked Yashoraja who had come from a foreign country, and whom the king had made lord of Mandala that he might overcome the enemies. (VIII,p.95)


Rajatarangini[4] mentions that The king Sussala, who was indifferent in mind and wished to resign his kingdom brought from Lohara, his son Simhadeva, who had just then passed his boyhood. He had made Bhagika, Prajji's brother's son, lord of Mandala and employed him at Lohara, and thus guarded the country and its treasury. When his beloved son Simhadeva arrived at Varahamula, he advanced and embraced him with joy as well as with grief....His father (Sussala) crowned him (Simhadeva) on the first of Ashada, and with tears in his eyes he taught him in the ways and policies of kings. It is in 1125 AD. [VIII (i),p.105]


Rajatarangini[5] mentions that....Distressed by internal quarrel and unable to remain there, Mallarjjuna left Kotta after taking with him his wealth. Expelled from his territory, he was plundered by the robbers and was nearly surrounded by them ; and it was with difficulty that he secured the remainder of his treasure. On the second day of Vaishakha, in the year 8 (=1132 AD), Mallarjjuna, aged eighteen years, lost the kingdom.

Udaya, lord of Kampana, reduced Kāpila, Harṣhaṭa and Kotta under the province of Mandala. He collected the officers of Kotta and, with a view to consolidate Maṇḍala, waited there for a few days. At this time the mind of the king who was about to reward the lord of Kampana, was abused by the treason of wicked and profligate men who wore jealous of one another. [VIII (i),p.179]

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References