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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.), Jaipur

Manakrao or Manakrai or Manika Rae or Manika Ray Chauhan was lord of Ajmer and Sambhar in the year S. 741, or AD. 685.

Genealogy of Manakrao

Anhal → → → Ajaipal (Maheshwar - Ajmer) → Pirthi Pahar (had 24 sons) → Manika Rae (lord of Ajmer and Sambhur, S. 741 = AD.685) → LotHarsharaja (S. 812 = AD 755) → Dujgan-deo (Bhatner) → Eleven princes from Manakrao to Visaladeva (A.D. 1153-1163) → → → Prithvi Raj (1149–1192 CE) (39th from Anhal)[1]

VisaladevaAnuraj (Hansi) (d.1022 AD) → Ishtpal (Hansi: 1025 AD) (founder of Haras) → ChandkarnLok PalRao Hamir (+ Gambbir) → KalkurnaMah MugdRao BachaRao Chand (Asir) → Rainsi (Asir) → Kolun (+Kankal) → BangoRao Dewa (S. 1398 = A.D. 1342) (Bundi founded)[2]

SamarsiNapujiHamuji (S. 1440) → BirsingBiru (d. S. 1526) → Rao Bando (famine in S. 1542 = A. D. 1486) → NarayandasRao Surajmal (S. 1590 = A.D. 1534) → Soortan (S. 1591 = A.D. 1535) → Nirboodh (son of Rao Bando) →Rao ArjunSoorjun (S. 1689 = A.D. 1633)[3]

KoolunJaipal (=Bango) → Deva-Raj (Bundi:S. 1398 = A.D. 1342) → Hara-Raj (Bumaoda) → RitpalKelhanKuntal (+ young brother Deda-Raj) → Rao Mahadeva (S. 1446 = 1389 AD) → Durjan (=Jiva-raj) + Subatsal+ Kumbhakarn[4]

Note - We need to search continuous genealogy of early Chauhans. The last mentioned names are based on Menal Inscription of Mahadeva Hara (Chohans) S. 1446 (1389 AD).

Foundation of Ajmer

James Tod [5] writes that a Chohan scion from Macaouti (Maheshwar), named Ajaipal, established himself at Ajmer and erected its castle of Taragarh. Pirthi Pahar was brought from Macaouti to Ajmer. He had twenty-four sons, whose progeny peopled these regions, one of whose descendants, Manika Rae, was lord of Ajmer and Sambhar, in the year S. 741, or AD. 685.

With the name of Manik Rae, the history of the Chohan emerges obscurity.

Manakrao slain by Islamites

It was at this era (A.D. 685) that Rajasthan was first visited by the arms of Islam, being the sixty-third year of the Hejira. Manika Rae, then prince of Ajmer, was slain by the Asuras and his only child, named Lot, then an infant of seven years of age, was killed by an arrow while playing on the battlements (kangras).

The invasion is said to have been from Sind, in revenge for the ill-treatment of an Islamite missionary, named Roshan Ali, though the complexion of the event is more like an enterprize prompted by religious enthusiasm. The missionary being condemned to lose his thumb, " the disjointed member, flew to Mecca," and gave evidence against the Rajpoots idolater; when a force was prepared, disguised as a caravan of horse-merchants, which surprised and slew Doola Rae and his son and obtained possession of Gurh-beetli, the citadel.

Puerile as is the transaction, its truth is substantiated by the fact that the Caliph Omar at this very time sent an army to Sind, whose commander, Abul Ais, was slain in an attempt on the ancient capital Alore. Still nothing but the enthusiasm of religious frenzy could have induced a band to cross the desert in order to punish this insult to the new faith.

Whatever were the means, however, by which Ajmer was captured and Doola Rae slain, the importance of the event has been deeply imprinted on the Chohans ; who, in remembrance of it, deified the youthful heir of Ajmer : "Lot putra" is still the most conspicuous of the Chohan penates. The day on which he was killed is sanctified and his effigy then receives divine honours from all who have the name of Chohan. Even the anklet of bells which he wore has become an object of veneration, and is forbidden to be used by the children of this race.

" Of the house of Doola Rae of Chohan race, Lot-Deo, the heir apparent, by the decree of Siva, on Monday the 12th of the month of Jeyt, went to heaven."

Manika Rae, the uncle of the youth (putra), (who is still the object of general homage, especially of the Chohan fairs, upon the occupation of Ajmer, retired upon Sambhar, which event another couplet fixes, as we have said, in S. 741.

Samvat, stsoh ektalees
Malut bali bes
Sambhur aya tuti surr-us
Manik Rae, Nur-es

Here the bard has recourse to celestial interposition in order to support Manika Rae in big adversity. The goddess Sakambhari appears to him, while seeking shelter from the pursuit of this merciless foe, and bids him establish himself in the spot where she manifested herself, guaranteeing to him the possession of all the ground he could encompass with, his horse on that day ; but commanded him not to look back until he

[p.411]: had returned to the spot where he left her. He commenced the circuit, with what he deemed his steed could accomplish, but forgetting the injunction, he was surprised to see the whole space covered as with a sheet. This was the desiccated sirr, or salt-lake, which he named after his patroness Sakambhari, whose statue still exists on a small island in the lake, now corrupted to Sambhar.

An inscription on the pillar at Feroz Shah's palace at Dehli, belonging to this family, in which the word Sakambhari occurs, gave rise to many ingenious conjectures by Sir W. Jones, Mr. Colebrooke, and Colonel Wilford.

However jejune these legends of the first days of Chohan power, they suffice to mark with exactness their locality ; and the importance attached to this settlement is manifested in the title of " Sambhri Rao," maintained by Pirthi Raj, the descendant of Manika Rae, even when emperor of all northern India.

Clans originated from Manaka Rao

Manika Rae, whom we may consider as the founder of the Chohans of the north, recovered Ajmer. He had a numerous progeny, who established many petty dynasties throughout Western Rajwarra, giving birth to various tribes, which are spread even to the Indus.

Some ofthese are: Kheechie, Hara, Mohil, Nurbhana, Badorea, Bhowrecha, Dhnnaires, and Bagrecha.

  • The Kheechies were established in the remote Do-abeh, called Sinde-Sagur, comprising all the tract between the Behut and the Sinde, a space of sixty-eight coss, whose capital was Kheechpoor-Patun.
  • The Mohils had the tracts round Nagore. In the annals of Marwar it will be shewn, that the Rahtores conquered Nagore or Naga-doorg (the 'serpent's castle'), from the Mohils, who held fourteen hundred and forty villages so late as the fifteenth century. So many of the colonies of Agniculas bestowed the name of serpent on their settlements, that I am convinced all were of the Tak, Takshac, or Nagvansa race from Sacadwipa, who, six centuries anterior to Vikramaditya, under their leader Sehehsnaga conquered India, and whose era must be the limit of Aguicula antiquity.
  • The Bhadoreas had an appanage on the Chumbul, in a tract which bears their name, and is still subject to them.
  • The Dhunaireas settled at Shahabad, which by a singular fatality has at length come into the possession of the Haras of Kotah. Another branch fixed at Nadole, but never changed the name of Chohan.The importance of Nadole was considerable, and is fully attested by existing inscriptions as well as by the domestic chronicle. Midway from the founder, in the eighth century, to its destruction in the twelfth, was Rao Lakhun, who in S. 1039 (A.D. 983), successfully coped with the princes of Nehrvalla.

[p.412]: Many chieftainships were scattered over the desert, either trusting to their lances to maintain their independence, or holding of superiors ; but a notice of them, however interesting, would here, perhaps, be out of place.

Other clans

Eleven princes from Manakrao to Visaladeva

Eleven princes are enumerated in the Jaegas catalogue, from Manika Rae to Beesildeo.

James Tod has mentioned only one the intermediate name of Harsharaja. Hursraj and Beejy Raj were sons of Ajipal, king of Ajmer, according to the chronicle.

The authority of Hursraj stretched along the Aravulli mountains to Aboo, and east of the Chumbul. He ruled from S. 812 to 827 (A.H. 138 to 153), and fell in battle against the Asuras, having attained the title of Ari-murdhan.

According to the Hamirraso Hursraj was succeeded by Doojgun-deo, whose advanced post was Bhutnair, and who overcame Nasir-oo-din, from whom he captured twelve hundred horse, and hence bore the epithet of Sultan Graha.

Jobner Inscription of Sinharaja Chohan V.S. 1022 (965 AD)

चौहानों का राज्य: ज्ञात इतिहास के अनुसार जोबनेर पर पहले चौहानों का राज्य था. यहाँ से हमें चौहान शासक सिंहराज का वि.सं. 1022 (965 ई.) की माघ सुदी 12 का एक शिलालेख उपलब्ध हुआ है जिसमें उक्त मान्यता की पुष्टि होती है. वंश-भास्कर में शाकम्भरी के नरेश माणिक्यराज चौहान द्वारा जिन नगरों एवं गाँवों को जीतने का उल्लेख है उनमें नरायणा के साथ जोबनेर का नाम भी आता है -

इत पब्वयसर डिडडवान पर आन भगानी ।
नारायणपुर जुब्बनैर दब्बे इत दानी ॥ [6]

चौहानों के शासनकाल में जोबनेर और उसका निकटवर्ती प्रदेश सपादलक्ष कहलाता था. वंशभास्कर में अजमेर के चौहान राजा बीसलदेव (सम्भवतः विग्रहराज तृतीय) के प्रसंग में भी जोबनेर का उल्लेख आया है. वह इस जनश्रुति का उल्लेख करता है कि चौहान राजा बीसलदेव अपने भ्रष्ट आचरण के कारण शापित हो ढूंढ राक्षस बन गए तथा अजमेर को उजाड़कर जोबनेर की तरफ आया तथा वहाँ के पर्वत पर उकडू बैठकर नर भक्षण करने लगा. वंशभास्कर के अनुसार उस ढूंढ राक्षस के नाम पर उसका विचरण क्षेत्र ढूंढाड़ के नाम से विख्यात हुआ. ढूंढाड़ के नामकरण की यह धरना अनैतिक और काल्पनिक है परन्तु यहाँ उल्लेख करने का आशय मात्र जोबनेर की प्राचीनता से सम्बंधित है जो कई शताब्दियों पहले की है. [7]


  1. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati, pp.409-412
  2. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati, pp.420-423
  3. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati, pp.426,429,431,433.434
  4. Menal Inscription of Mahadeva Hara (Chohans) S. 1446 (1389 AD) provides us this ancestry of Hara Chohans: Koolun → Jaipal → Deva-Raj (Hara-Raj) + Ritpal → Kelhan → Koontul (+Deda- Raj) → Mahadeva.See James Todd Annals/Personal Narrative, Vol. II,pp.683-686
  5. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume II, Annals of Haravati, pp.409-411
  6. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 82
  7. Dr. Raghavendra Singh Manohar:Rajasthan Ke Prachin Nagar Aur Kasbe, 2010,p. 83