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The maximum extent of the Scythian kingdom in West Asia and East Europe
The Massagetae
Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent
Reconstruction of the Oikumene (inhabited world) Ancient Map from Herodotus circa 450 BC

Massagetae (Sanskrit: महाजट) were an Ancient Iranian peoples [1][2][3][4][5] of antiquity known primarily from the writings of Herodotus. Their name was akin to Getae[6] (=Jat) and Thyssagetae.[7] (=Small Jat). Massagetians were a people dwelling to the north-east of the Caspian, who were chiefly remarkable for having defeated and killed Cyrus the Great. [8]

Variants of name

Jat Gotras Namesake

Massagetae habitations

Massagetae habitations the steppes of Central Asia east of the Caspian Sea, in modern-day Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, western Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan.

Origin of name

Massagetae map in 323 BC

From time to time, reputed history scholars scholars have advocated that the word "Massagetae" means "Great Getae". In Pehlevi, a language that was spoken in Persia (or Central Asia), the meaning of the word "massa" is "great".[10][11][12] Hence, the Pehlevi language word "massa", and the English language word "great" are synonyms.

Professor Balbir Singh Dhillon[13] wrote:"The classical and modern authorities say that the word "Massagetae" means "great" getae (Jats). The ninth-century work De Universo of Rabanus Maurus[14][15] states, "The Massagetae are in origin from the tribe of the Scythians, and are called Massagetae, as if heavy, that is, strong Getae."

Mention by Pliny

Pliny[16] mentions The nations of Scythia and the countries on the Eastern Ocean..... Beyond this river (Jaxartes) are the peoples of Scythia. The Persians have called them by the general name of Sacæ,1 which properly belongs to only the nearest nation of them. The more ancient writers give them the name of Aramii. The Scythians themselves give the name of "Chorsari" to the Persians, and they call Mount Caucasus Graucasis, which means "white with snow."

The multitude of these Scythian nations is quite innumerable: in their life and habits they much resemble the people of Parthia.

The tribes among them that are better known are the Sacæ, the Massagetæ,2 the Dahæ,3 the Essedones,4 the Ariacæ,5 the Rhymmici, the Pæsici, the Amardi,6 the Histi, the Edones, the Came, the Camacæ, the Euchatæ,7 the Cotieri, the Anthusiani, the Psacæ, the Arimaspi,8 the Antacati, the Chroasai, and the Œtei; among them the Napæi9 are said to have been destroyed by the Palæi.

1 The Sacæ probably formed one of the most numerous and most powerful of the Scythian Nomad tribes, and dwelt to the east and north-east of the Massagetæ, as far as Servia, in the steppes of Central Asia, which are now peopled by the Kirghiz Cossacks, in whose name that of their ancestors, the Sacæ, is traced by some geographers. 2 Meaning the "Great Getæ." They dwelt beyond the Jaxartes and the Sea of Aral, and their country corresponds to that of the Khirghiz Tartars in the north of Independent Tartary.

3 The Dahæ were a numerous and warlike Nomad tribe, who wandered over the vast steppes lying to the east of the Caspian Sea. Strabo has grouped them with the Sacæ and Massagetæ, as the great Scythian tribes of Inner Asia, to the north of Bactriana.

4 See also B. iv. c. 20, and B. vi. c. 7. The position of the Essedones, or perhaps more correctly, the Issedones, may probably be assigned to the east of Ichim, in the steppes of the central border of the Kirghiz, in the immediate vicinity of the Arimaspi, who dwelt on the northern declivity of the Altaï chain. A communication is supposed to have been carried on between these two peoples for the exchange of the gold that was the produce of those mountain districts.

5 They dwelt, according to Ptolemy, along the southern banks of the Jaxartes.

6 Or the Mardi, a warlike Asiatic tribe. Stephanus Byzantinus, following Strabo, places the Amardi near the Hyrcani, and adds, "There are also Persian Mardi, without the a;" and, speaking of the Mardi, he mentions them as an Hyrcanian tribe, of predatory habits, and skilled in archery.

7 D'Anville supposes that the Euchatæ may have dwelt at the modern Koten, in Little Bukharia. It is suggested, however, by Parisot, that they may have possibly occupied a valley of the Himalaya, in the midst of a country known as "Cathai," or the "desert."

8 The first extant notice of them is in Herodotus; but before him there was the poem of Aristeas of Proconnesus, of which the title was 'Arimaspea;' and it is mainly upon the statements in it that the stories told relative to this people rest—such as their being one-eyed, and as to their stealing the gold from the Gryphes, or Griffins, under whose custody it was placed. Their locality is by some supposed to have been on the left bank of the Middle Volga, in the governments of Kasan, Simbirsk, and Saratov: a locality which is sufficiently near the gold districts of the Uralian chain to account for the legends connecting them with the Gryphes, or guardians of the gold.

9 The former reading was, "The Napæi are said to have perished as well as the Apellæi." Sillig has, however, in all probability, restored the correct one. "Finding," he says, "in the work of Diodorus Siculus, that two peoples of Scythia were called, from their two kings, who were brothers, the Napi and the Pali, we have followed close upon the footsteps of certain MSS. of Pliny, and have come to the conclusion that some disputes aro


Massagetae Map 500 BC

Historian Satya Shrava has dicussed about the mention of the Massagetaeans in Mahabharata; He writes:

"The Sakas are mentioned in our literature dating back to almost 5000 years to the period of the Mahabharata battle."[17]
"The Mahabharata says that the Mrgas, a part of the Sakadvipa, or the people of the Margiana, were brahmanas and the Masakas or the Massagetae were kshatriyas or warriors."[17]
"The Jats are none other than the Massagetae (Great Getae) mentioned in Diodorus as an off-spring of the ancient Saka tribe.... a fact now well-known."[17][18]

A number of different versions have been transmitted concerning the death of Cyrus the Great. One version reported Herodotus, [1.201] When Cyrus had achieved the conquest of the Babylonians, he conceived the desire of bringing the Massagetae under his dominion. Now, the Massagetae are said to be a great and warlike nation, dwelling eastward, toward the rising of the sun, beyond the river Araxes, and opposite the Issedonians. By many, they are regarded as a Scythian race.

Guida Myrl Jackson-Laufer describes the Massagetaeans as follows: "The Massagetae was a large, warlike, half-nomadic Sakan tribe whose land lay eastward beyond the Araxes River in Eastern Persia. Tomyris was the widow of a Sakan chief and was both queen and leader of the army. She had at least one son, Spargapises."[19]

According to Herodotus, Cyrus the Great of Persia met his death in a battle with the Massagetae living beyond Araxes river. They were a people from the southern deserts of Khwarezm in today's Bukhara, Uzbekistan. The queen of the Massagetae, Tomyris, prevailed, although Cyrus had defeated Tomyris's son Spargapises. Herodotus mentions: Of all the combats in which the barbarians [a term meaning non-Greeks which was not a derogatory term in Herodotus's time] have engaged among themselves, I reckon this to have been the fiercest.

Jat History

Prof. B.S. Dhillon[20]Jats writes....Jats are the one component of a group of people known as the Scythians in the Western countries and Sakas in India. Diodorus (first century B.C.) [21] wrote, "But now, in turn, we shall discuss the Scythians who inhabit the country bordering India. But some time later the descendants (Scythians) of these kings, because of their unusual valour and skill as generals, subdued much of the territory beyond the Tanais river (far eastern Europe) as far as Thrace (modern north of Greece), and advancing with their power as far as the Nile in Egypt. This people increased to great strength and had notable kings, one of whom gave his name to the Sacae (Sakas), another to the Massagetae ("great" Jats), another to the Arimaspi, and several other tribes". The recent edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica [22] states "The Scythians were a people who during the 8th-7th centuries B.C. moved from Central Asia to Southern Russia, where they founded an empire that survived until they were gradually overcome and supplanted by the Sarmatians (another Scythian people) during the 4th century B.C. 2nd century A.D.".

Shiva Stotra is another most ancient epic, which mentions one thousand names of Lord Shiva, also mentioned in ‘Shalya Parva’ of Mahabharata, in which one of the names of god is ‘Jat’ and appears at serial number 489. Mahabharata Anushasan Parva chapter 17 shloka 89 [23] tells ...Mahanakha, Maharoma, Mahakosha, Mahajata, Prasanna, Prasada, Pratyaya, Girisadhana are the names of Lord Shiva.

गुर्जरत्र, मस्सागेटी, महाजट

इतिहासकार मानते हैं कि गुजरात नाम गुर्जरत्रा से आया है। गुर्जरो का साम्राज्य गुर्जरत्र या गुर्जरभूमि के नाम से जाना जाता था। इस तथ्य की विवेचना आवश्यक है। कुछ गुर्जर इतिहास लेखक चेची (गुर्जर गोत्र) का सम्बन्ध सीधे-सीधे यूची (कुषाणों) से जोड़ते हैं। जबकि चेची (चेष्टम) और क्षयरात तथा नहपान गोत्र शकों के थे जिनको कुषाणों और गुप्तों ने हराया था। कुषाण का मूल चीनी नाम यूची है जिसका भारतीय रूपांतर जेटी या जाट ही बनता है। जाटों में ही कस्वां और कुश गोत्र आज भी मिलते हैं। ये सीधे कुषाण से जुड़ते हैं। जाट शासकों सम्राट हर्षवर्धन और उनसे पूर्व यशोधर्मा ने हूणों और गुर्जरों को मालवा में परास्त कर उनको सुदूर कन्नौज और कश्मीर में बसने के लिए बाध्य कर दिया था। तभी से उनकी आवास भूमि या तो राजस्थान का मरुस्थल या जम्मू कश्मीर का पर्वतीय क्षेत्र है अथवा यमुना और गंगा के कछार (खादर) हैं। किसी भी वैदिक संहिता अथवा संस्कृत साहित्य ग्रन्थ में भारत में गुर्जरों किवां हूणों का उल्लेख नहीं मिलता। महाभारत में अर्जुन के द्वारा और रघुवंश महाकाव्य में राम के द्वारा किवां हूणों को पाटल प्रदेश किवां अफगानिस्तान में पराजित ही दिखाया है। ये दोनों 5वीं शताब्दी की हैं अतएव इस काल के पश्चात् ही हूणों और गुर्जरों का प्रवेश भारतवर्ष में हुआ। गुजरात के कुर्मी अधिकांश में शक हैं। यहाँ पर यह ज्ञातव्य है कि कर्नल टॉड ने राजस्थान के इतिहास में लिखा है कि शक और कुषाण दोनों ही कैस्पियन सागर के पूर्वी तट से चलकर ईरान के सिस्तान किवां शकस्तान में बसने वाली मस्सागेटी किवां महाजट जाती के ही अंगभूत अवयव हैं। उनको किसी भी इतिहासकार ने गुर्जर नहीं लिखा है।[24]

प्रो. विंगले ने तो जाटों की एक शाखा का ही नाम गुर्जर बताया है जो अफगानिस्तान के रास्ते से पंजाब होते हुए गुजरात में आये थे। पुनः वहीँ से राजस्थान के मार्ग से उसने सौराष्ट्र को विजित किया था, अतएव नामकरण गुजरात किया था। इसी आधार पर ठाकुर देशराज[25] भी अपने जाट इतिहास में अफगानिस्तान में बसने वाली गूजर शाखा को जाट जाति का ही अभिन्न अंग बताया गया है। आज तक भी जाटों में गूजर और गाबर जैसे गोत्र हैं, गूजर जाति में जाट जैसा गोत्र नहीं है। संस्कृत साहित्य में हमें जर्त अथवा जट्ट जैसे गणों या गणसंघों का नामकरण मिलता है। जैसे कि पाणिनि के अष्टाध्यायी में 'जट झट संघाते' सूत्र से परिलक्षित होता है।[26]

गुर्जरत्र यहाँ जातिसूचक न होकर क्षेत्र सूचक है। इतिहासकार डी. आर. भंडारकर के अनुसार 'गुर्जरत्र' में राजस्थान के नागौर जिले के डीडवाना और परबतसर क्षेत्रों को सम्मिलित किया गया है। गुर्जरत्र का संधि विच्छेद करें तो इस प्रकार बनता है: गुर्जरत्र = गुर + जर्त। यहाँ 'गुर' का अर्थ होता है 'बड़ा' या 'महा' और 'जर्त' का अर्थ है 'जाट'। इस प्रकार गुर्जरत्र का अर्थ है महाजाट अर्थात हिरोडोटस (c. 484 BC - c. 425 BC) का मस्सागेटी

Mentioned in Mahabharata

They have been mentioned in Mahabharata Shalya Parva in Sanskrit shloka 80 along with Tarakas as under:

महाजठर पादाङ्गास तारकाक्शाश च भारत
पारावत मुखाश चान्ये तदा वृषमुखाः परे ।। 80 ।।

M. K. Kudryavtsev's views on the subject

M. K. Kudryavtsev, a Soviet Indologist and ethnographer who is regarded as one of the "fathers" of Indian Ethnography in Russia along with D. A. Suleykin and V. E. Krasnodembskiy,[27] researched the origin of the Jats and pointed out that some legends speak of the Jats as having lived in Sind long before the Scythians invaded India and even of a direct association of Jat chiefs with the heroes of the Mahabharata.[28]

Ta-Yue-Che and Siao-Yue-Che

Bhim Singh Dahiya writes:

"It is important to note that the Chinese word 'Yue-che" is pronounced as "Gut-tia" according to Karl-Gren, meaning the "Moon People".[29] Later on, the Chinese chronicles show, that under pressure of another tribe of the same stock, called by the Chinese as Hiung-nu or Hoa, the Yue-che moved southward and westward. The branch that was numerically weaker went to the South towards Tibet and were called 'Siao-Yue-Che", meaning the "little Yue-che". The main body moved westward and occupied Dahia (or Tahia, Bactria, Balkh). They were called "Ta-Yue-che" meaning the "Great Guttia" or great Jats. As shown above the word 'Yue-che' is pronounced as Guttia and therefore Ta-Yue-che is exactly the same as the word "Massa Getae" of the Greeks and the Persians. All the Chinese sources agree that the Kusanas were from the Yue-che race. The Chinese author of Thung-Kiang-Nu, writes in the year 555 A.D. that the Aptal or Hephthalites were of the race of Ta-Yue-che. Further the encyclopaedia of Ma-Tuan-g-Lin says that the Yeta are of the race of Ta-Yue-che, and further that the I-Tan belonged to the same race as Yue-che."[30]

Bhim Singh Dahiya goes on to state that:

"The Chinese were right in stating that the Hiung-nu were a part of the Yue-Che (reads as Guti) people, and these Guti people had two divisions, the Ta-Yue-Che and the Siao-Yue-Che, exactly corresponding to the Massagetae and Thyssagetae of Herodotus (a classical Greek writer of fifth century BC), meaning the "Great-Jats" and the "Little-Jats" respectively. Almost every tribe of Ancient Middle East (West Asia) and Central Asia, is represented among the present day Jats in India."[31]


According to Herodotus:

"Herodotus [1.215], In their dress and mode of living the Massagetae resemble the Scythians. They fight both on horseback and on foot, neither method is strange to them: they use bows and lances, but their favourite weapon is the battle-axe. Their arms are all either of gold or brass. For their spear-points, and arrow-heads, and for their battle-axes, they make use of brass; for head-gear, belts, and girdles, of gold. So too with the caparison of their horses, they give them breastplates of brass, but employ gold about the reins, the bit, and the cheek-plates. They use neither iron nor silver, having none in their country; but they have brass and gold in abundance."

"Herodotus [1.216], The following are some of their customs; - Each man has but one wife, yet all the wives are held in common; for this is a custom of the Massagetae and not of the Scythians, as the Greeks wrongly say. Human life does not come to its natural close with this people; but when a man grows very old, all his kinsfolk collect together and offer him up in sacrifice; offering at the same time some cattle also. After the sacrifice they boil the flesh and feast on it; and those who thus end their days are reckoned the happiest. If a man dies of disease they do not eat him, but bury him in the ground, bewailing his ill-fortune that he did not come to be sacrificed. They sow no grain, but live on their herds, and on fish, of which there is great plenty in the Araxes. Milk is what they chiefly drink. The only god they worship is the sun, and to him they offer the horse in sacrifice; under the notion of giving to the swiftest of the gods the swiftest of all mortal creatures."

They were similar to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living. Each man had one woman, yet their wives were held in common, this custom differentiating the Massagetae from the Scythians. Queen Tomyris succeeded her dead husband, the former king of the Massagetae. The Massagetae worshipped only one god, the sun, and sacrificed a horse in its honour.


Esther Jacobson notes that the Massagetae (part of the wider Scythian cultures)[32] "worshipped only the sun, to whom they sacrificed horses, "the swiftest of mortal things"."[33]

It should be noted that according to Bhim Singh Dahiya, the primordial religion of the Jats was that of the original Iranic race, namely monotheist Sun-worship, which they and their Maga priests (Iranic sun-priests) carried wherever they migrated.[34][35]


Ammianus Marcellinus considered the Alans to be the former Massagetae.[36]. At the close of the fourth century CE, Claudian (the court poet of Emperor Honorius and Stilicho) wrote of Alans and Massagetae in the same breath: "the Massagetes who cruelly wound their horses that they may drink their blood, the Alans who break the ice and drink the waters of Maeotis' lake." (In Rufinem)

Massagetaeans as "Great Jits or Jats" of Asia

  • Tadeusz Sulimirski wrote: "The evidence of both the ancient authors and the archaeological remains point to a massive migration of Sacian (Sakas)/Massagetan ("great" Jat) tribes from the Syr Daria Delta (Central Asia) by the middle of the second century B.C. Some of the Syr Darian tribes; they also invaded North India."[39]

  • Arnold Joseph Toynbee, also wrote: "It had been carried from the Oxus-Jaxartes Basin into the Indus Basin by the Massagetae themselves, together with their tribal name (the Jats), in their Volkerwander- ung in the second century BC."[43]

  • Sir John Marshall, (Former Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India) wrote: "These Scythian invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae (great Jats), Sacaraucae, and Dahae (still exists as a Jat clan of Punjab)[50], whose home at the beginning of the second century B.C. was in the country between the Caspian sea (sea) and the Jaxartes river (Central Asia)."[51]

  • James Francis Katherinus Hewitt wrote: "Further evidence both of the early history and origin of the race of Jats, or Getae, is given by the customs and geographical position of another tribe of the same stock, called the Massagetae, or great (massa) Getae."[52]

  • Syed Muhammad Latif wrote: "A considerable portion of the routed army of the Scythians settled in the Punjab, and a race of them, called Nomardy, inhabited the country on the west bank of the Indus (river). They are described as a nomadic tribe, living in wooden houses, after the old Scythian fashion, and settling where they found sufficient pasturage. A portion of these settlers, the descendants of Massagetae, were called Getes, from whom sprung the modern Jats."[53]

See also


External links


  1. Karasulas, Antony. Mounted Archers Of The Steppe 600 Bc-ad 1300 (Elite),Osprey Publishing , 2004, pg 7, ISBN 184176809
  2. Wilcox, Peter. Rome's Enemies: Parthians and Sassanids, Osprey Publishing , 1986, pg 9, ISBN 0850456886
  3. Gershevitch, Ilya. The Cambridge History of Iran, 1985, Volume two, Cambridge University Press, 1985, pg 48 ISBN 0521200911
  4. Grousset, René. The Empire of the Steppes, 1989, Rutgers University Press, pg 547 ISBN 0813513049
  5. All the year round - Page 422 by charles dickens
  6. Leake, Jane Acomb (1967). The Geats of Beowulf: a study in the geographical mythology of the Middle Ages (illustrated ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 68.
  7. Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1939). A Study of History. Volume 2. London: Oxford University Press. p. 435.
  8. Arrian:The Anabasis of Alexander/4b, Ch.16
  9. Balbir Singh Dhillon (1994). History and study of the Jats: Canada: Beta Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 1895603021.
  10. Rishi, Weer Rajendra (1982). India & Russia: linguistic & cultural affinity. Roma Publications. p. 95.
  11. Elliot, H. M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 134.
  12. Dhillon, Balbir Singh (1994). History and study of the Jats: with reference to Sikhs, Scythians, Alans, Sarmatians, Goths, and Jutes (illustrated ed.). Canada: Beta Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 1895603021.
  13. Balbir Singh Dhillon (1994). History and study of the Jats: Canada: Beta Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 1895603021.
  14. Leake, Jane Acomb (1967). The Geats of Beowulf: a study in the geographical mythology of the Middle Ages (illustrated ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 68.
  15. Maurus, Rabanus (1864). Migne, Jacques Paul. ed. De universo.
  16. Natural History by Pliny Book VI/Chapter 19
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Shrava, Satya (1981). The Sakas in India (revised ed.). New Delhi: Pranava Prakashan, 1981.
  18. Common Origin of Croats, Serbs and Jats
  19. Guida Myrl Jackson-Laufer (1999): Women Rulers Throughout the Ages: An Illustrated Guide (2, illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 395. ISBN 1576070913, 9781576070918.
  20. History and study of the Jats/Chapter 2, p.31
  21. Diodorus of Sicily (published around 49 B.C.), translated by C.H. Oldfather, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936, pp. 27-28 (Vol. II), pp. 377, 382-383 (Vol. VIII).
  22. Scythians, The Encyclopaedia Britannica, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1984, pp. 438-442.
  23. महानखो, महारोमा, महाकोशो, महाजट:, प्रसन्नश्च, प्रसादश्च, प्रत्यो, गिरिसाधन:
  24. धर्मंचन्द विद्यालंकार: जाट समाज, अगस्त 2013, पृ.20-21
  25. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter IX, p.695, s.n.114
  26. धर्मंचन्द विद्यालंकार: जाट समाज, अगस्त 2013, पृ.20-21
  27. – Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
  28. Kudryavtsev, Mikhail Konstantinovich (1964). On the Role of Jats in Northern India's Ethnic History.
  29. Jari-Churpentier, Die-Ethno Graphische Stellung der Toohaser, 1917, Pp. 347-388.
  30. Dahiya, Bhim Singh (1980): Jats, the ancient rulers: a clan study (First Edition: 1980). Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 25
  32. Unterländer, Martina (March 3, 2017). "Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe". Nature Communications. Quote: "During the first millennium BCE, nomadic people spread over the Eurasian Steppe from the Altai Mountains over the northern Black Sea area as far as the Carpathian Basin... Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture..."
  33. Jacobson, Esther (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World. Brill. p. 54. ISBN 9004098569, 9789004098565.
  34. Bhim Singh Dahiya: "The Mauryas: Their Identity", Vishveshvaranand Indological Journal, Vol. 17 (1979), pp. 112-133.
  35. Iran Chamber Society: History of Iran: Dehiya on the Jat Iranic Identity of the Mauryas | Dr. Samar Abbas, India
  36. "iuxtaque Massagetae Halani et Sargetae", "per Albanos et Massagetas, quos Alanos nunc appellamus", "Halanos pervenit, veteres Massagetas"
  37. Collins, Steven M. (2005). Israel's Tribes Today (illustrated ed.). Book 4 of Lost tribes of Israel, Steven M. Collins. Bible Blessings. ISBN 0972584935, 9780972584937.
  38. Israel's Tribes Today - The Two Houses of Israel Information Center
  39. Sulimirski, Tadeusz (1970). The Sarmatians. Volume 73 of Ancient peoples and places. New York: Praeger. pp. 113–114.
  40. Rishi, Weer Rajendra (1982). India & Russia: linguistic & cultural affinity. Roma Publications. p. 95.
  41. Rishi, Weer Rajendra (1982). India & Russia: linguistic & cultural affinity. Roma Publications. p. 95. "Some of the Indian writers including Rahul Sankrityayan and Ujagar Singh Mahil in his book "Antiquity of Jat Race" say that Jats inhabiting the northern India are the descendants of Massagetae, or Malta (great) Getae or Jat."
  42. Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1939). A Study of History. Volume 2. London: Oxford University Press. p. 435.
  43. Royal Institute of International Affairs; Toynbee, Arnold Joseph (1962). A Study of History (2 ed.). Volume 10. Oxford University Press. p. 54.
  44. Rawlinson, George (1873). The sixth great Oriental monarchy: or, The geography, history, & antiquities of Parthia. Longmans, Green, and co. p. 118.
  45. Rawlinson, George (1893). The story of Parthia. G. P. Putnam's sons. p. 110.
  46. Rawlinson, George (2004). The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World (2, illustrated ed.). Volume 3 of The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World, Or: The History, Geography and Antiquities of Chaldaea, Assyria, Babylon, Media, Persia, Parthia, and Sassanian, Or the New Persian Empire, George Rawlinson. Gorgias Press LLC. p. 66. ISBN 1593331711, 9781593331719.
  47. Rawlinson, George (2007). Parthia. Cosimo, Inc. p. 110. ISBN 160206136X.
  48. Rawlinson, George (2010). The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern World: Or, The History, Geography and Antiquities of Chaldæa, Assyria, Babylon, Media, Persia, Parthia, and Sassanian Or New Persian Empire. Volume 3. Nottingham Society. p. 66.
  49. Rawlinson, George (2012). The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 6. (of 7): Parthia The History, Geography, And Antiquities Of Chaldaea, Assyria, Babylon, Media, Persia, Parthia, And Sassanian or New Persian Empire, With Maps and Illustrations. Tredition. ISBN 3847205145, 9783847205142.
  50. Dahiya, B. S., Jats, the ancient rulers: a clan study, Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, p. 23.
  51. Sir John Marshall, (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge University, and formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India), A Guide to Taxila, Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, p. 24.
  52. Hewitt, J. F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, South-Western Asia and Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481-487.
  53. Latif, S. M., History of the Panjab, Reprinted by Progressive Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, p. 56.
  54. Burton, Richard Francis (Sir) (2008). The Book of the Sword. Cosimo, Inc. p. 90. ISBN 1605204366, 9781605204369.
  55. Shrava, Satya (1981). The Sakas in India (revised ed.). New Delhi: Pranava Prakashan, 1981.
  56. Common Origin of Croats, Serbs and Jats

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