Maues

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Maues (Greek: Μαύης; r. 85–60 BCE) was an Indo-Scythian king who invaded the Indo-Greek territories.

History

Maues had his capital in Sirkap and minted most of his coins in Taxila. Maues did not manage however to conquer the Punjab territories of the Indo-Greeks east of the Jhelum, which remained under Greek control. After his death the Indo-Greeks regained most of their territory.

Maues is mainly known through his coins, which are often very closely inspired from Indo-Greek coinage. He represented Greek and Indian deities, and used Greek and Kharoshti in coin legends.


This tends to be indicative of a level of respect for Greek culture and a wish to assimilate it, rather than destroy it. Maues probably ruled his conquered territories based on his military might, but otherwise maintained cohabitation with local Greek and Indian communities. It has been suggested that Maues may have been a Scythian general hired by the Indo-Greeks, who would have briefly seized power, before the Indo-Greeks managed to take it back ("Crossroads of Asia").

Maues took the tile of "Great King of Kings", an exceeded version of a traditional Persian royal title.

Maues (Moga) inscription of Takshasila

One inscription is known which mentions Maues (usually called the "Moga inscription", and starts with:

"In the seventy eighth, 78, year the Great King, the Great Moga, on the fifth, 5, day of the month Panemos, on this first, of the Kshaharata and Kshatrapa of Chukhsa - Liaka Kusuluka by name - his son Patika - in the town of Takshasila..." [1]

Maues issued joint coins mentioned a queen Machene ("ΜΑΧΗΝΗ"). Machene may have been a daughter of one of the Indo-Greek houses.[2]

An Indo-Greek king, Artemidoros also issued coins where he describes himself as "Son of Maues".

Maues and Buddhism

A few of the coins of Maues, struck according to the Indian square standard, seemingly depict a King in a cross-legged seated position. This may represent Maues himself, or possibly one of his divinities. It has been suggested that this might also be one of the first representations of the Buddha on a coin, in an area where Buddhism was flourishing at the time.

Also, Maues struck some coins incorporating Buddhist symbolism, such as the lion, symbol of Buddhism since the time of the Mauryan king Ashoka.

The symbolism of the lion had also been adopted by the Buddhist Indo-Greek king Menander II. Maues therefore probably supported Buddhism, although whether sincerely or for political motives is unclear. His coins also included a variety of other religious symbol such as the cow of Shiva, indicating wide religious tolerance.

Jat History

James Todd[3] writes that the origin of the Scythic nations, as related by Diodorus; . when it will be observed the same legends were known to him which have been handed down by the Puranas and Abulghazi.

The Scythians had their first abodes on the Araxes.[4] Their origin was from a virgin born of the earth[5] of the shape of a woman from the waist upwards, and below a serpent (symbol of Budha or Mercury) ; that Jupiter had a son by her, named Scythes," whose name the nation adopted. Scythes had two sons, Palas and Napas (qu. the Nagas, or Snake race, of the Tatar genealogy ?), who were celebrated for their great actions, and who divided the countries ; and the nations were called after them, the Palians (qu. Pali ?)[6] and Napians. They led their forces as far as the Nile on Egypt, and subdued many nations. They enlarged the empire of the Scythians as far as the Eastern ocean,


[p. 71]: and to the Caspian and lake Moeotis. The nation had many kings, from whom the Sacans (Sakae), the Massagetae ( Getae or Jats), the Ari-aspians (Aswas of Aria), and many other races. They overran Assyria and Media . [7] , overturning the empire, and transplanting the inhabitants to the Araxes under the name of Sauro-Matians. [8]

As the Sakae, Getae, Aswa, and Takshak are names which have crept in amongst our thirty-six royal races, common with others also to early civilization in Europe.

External links

References

  1. The Minor Indo-Parthian Eras
  2. RC Senior "Indo-Scythian coins and history", Vol IV, p.xxxvi.
  3. James Todd Annals/Chapter 6 Genealogical history of the Rajput tribes subsequent to Vikramaditya, Vol I, pp.70-71
  4. The Arvarma of the Puranas ; the Jaxartes or Sihun. The Puranas thus describe Sakadwipa or Scythia. Diodorus (Mb. ii.) makes the Hemodus the boundary between Saka-Scythia and India Proper.
  5. Ila, the mother of the Lunar race, is the earth personified. Ertha of the Saxons ; e'pa of the Greeks ; ard in Hebrew [?].
  6. The Pali character yet exists, and appears the same as ancient fragments of the Buddha inscriptions in my possession : many letters assimilate with the Coptic.</
  7. The three great branches of the Indu (Lunar) Aswa bore the epithet of Midia (pronounced Mede), viz. Urumidha, Ajamidha, and Dvimidha. Qu. The Aswa invaders of Assyria and Media, the sons of Bajaswa, expressly stated to have multiplied in the countries west of the Indus, emigrating from their paternal seats in Panchalaka ? (Midha means ' pouring out seed, prolific,' and has no connexion with Mede, the Madai of Genesis X. 2 ; the Assyrian Mada.]
  8. Sun-worshippers, the Suryavansa.

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