Identification of Mount Meru
The Suryasiddhanta mentions that Mt Meru lies in 'the middle of the Earth' ("Bhugol-madhya") in the land of the Jambunad (Jambudvipa). Narpatijayacharyā, a 9th-century text, based on mostly unpublished texts of Yāmal Tantr, mentions "Sumeruḥ Prithvī-madhye shrūyate drishyate na tu" ('Su-meru is heard to be in the middle of the Earth, but is not seen there'). Vārāhamihira, in his Panch-siddhāntikā, claims Mt Meru to be at the North Pole (though no mountain exists there as well). Suryasiddhānt, however, mentions a Mt Meru in the middle of Earth, besides a Sumeru and a Kumeru at both the Poles.
There exist several versions of Cosmology in existing Hindu texts. In one of them, cosmologically, the Meru mountain was also described as being surrounded by Mandrachal Mountain to the east, Supasarv Mountain to the west, Kumuda Mountain to the north and Kailash to the south.
Tej Ram Sharma writes:
king Kumaragupta is mentioned as the lord of the earth. In No. 32 it has been named as Amarabhudhara. Its other names are Meru, Karnikacala, Ratnasanu, Svargiri, Svargigiri and Kancanagiri. 92
Sumeru is identified with Rudra Himalaya in Garhwal, where the river Ganga has its source, it is near Badarikasrama. 93 According to the Matsya Purana 94 the Sumeru Parvata is bounded on the north by Uttara-Kuru, on the South by Bharatavarsa, on the west by Ketumala and on the east by Bhadrasvavarsa. 95 It is also mentioned in the Padmapurana. 96 and the Kalikapurana. 97 According to the Kalikapurana Siva saw the summit of it. We also learn from this text that the Jambu river flows from this mountain. 98 We also find the mention of the Meru in the Sisupalavadha of Magha. It was on account of the eminence of Sumeru among the mountains that for praising kings they were described as 'Meru' among kings. 99 This metaphor may have been applied after the contention of the Puranas that the earth is supposed to be like lotus, with four Mahadvipas as its four petals and mount Meru as its pericarp. 100
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...शीतांभ (AS, p.903) - विष्णु पुराण (2,2,26) के अनुसार मेरुपर्वत के पश्चिम में स्थित एक पर्वत - 'शीतांभश्च कुमुन्दश्च कुररी मालवांस्तथा वैंककप्रमुखा मेरो: पूर्वत: केसराचला:'.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...कुमुन्द (AS, p.204) विष्णु पुराण 2,2,26 के अनुसार मेरुपर्वत के पश्चिम में स्थित एक पर्वत --'शीतांभश्च कुमुन्दश्च कुररी मालवांस्तथा वैंककप्रमुखा मेरो: पूर्वत: केसराचला:'.
- The Geopolitics of South Asia: From Early Empires to the Nuclear Age, 2003, p 16
- Graham P. Chapman - Social Science; The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus, p 15
- George Nathaniel Curzon; The Hindu World: An Encyclopedic Survey of Hinduism, 1968, p 184
- Benjamin Walker - Hinduism; Ancient Indian Tradition & Mythology: Purāṇas in Translation, 1969, p 56
- Jagdish Lal Shastri, Arnold Kunst, G. P. Bhatt, Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare - Oriental literature; Journal of the K.R. Cama Oriental Institute, 1928, p 38
- K.R. Cama Oriental Institute - Iranian philology; The Occult in Russian and Soviet Culture, 1997, p 175
- Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal - History; Geographical Concepts in Ancient India, 1967, p 50
- Bechan Dube - India; Geographical Data in the Early Purāṇas: A Critical Study, 1972, p 2
- Dr M. R. Singh - India; Studies in the Proto-history of India, 1971, p 17
- Dr Dvārakā Prasāda Miśra - India.
- cf. second verse of Koorm-chakr in the book Narpatijayacharyā
- J.P. Mittal, History of Ancient India: From 7300 BC to 4250 BC, page 3
- Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of the Rivers and the Mountains,pp.299-300
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.903
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.204
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.205
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