Musaksen (मूसक सैन) (Mor) (326 BC) (Greek Musikanus (मूसीकेनस), was an ancient King of Sindh, Pakistan. He was King of the Patala Kingdom, who was defeated by Alexander, as mentioned by Arrian He was of Moeris (Mor) clan.
H. W. Bellew writes that ...Musa is an old tribe, and anciently held the Indus valley about the modern Lower Derajat and Upper Sind. Their chief, Musikanus of the Greeks and Muse Ka = "Chief of the Musa," of the Indians, having been excited by the Brahmans says Arrian, to rebel against Alexander, was reduced, and along with many Brahmans crucified as an exemplary punishment. The Musa are now found widely distributed along the Indian border and Suleman range, as clans and sections of several of the larger Afghan tribes.
Alexander Cunningham writes about Musikani — Alor.....[p. 257]: From the territory of the Sogdi or Sodrae, Alexander continued his voyage down the Indus to the capital of a king named Musikanus, according to Strabo, Diodorus, and Arrian, 1 or of a people named Musicani, according to Curtius. 2 From Arrian we learn that this kingdom had been described to Alexander as " the richest and most populous throughout all India ; " and from Strabo we get the account of Onesikritus that " the country produced everything in abundance ; " which shows that the Greeks themselves must have been struck with its fertility. Now these statements can apply only to the rich and powerful kingdom of Upper Sindh, of which Alor is known to have been the capital for many ages. Where distances are not given, and names disagree, it is difficult to determine the position of any place from a general description, unless there are some peculiarities of site or construction, or other properties which may serve to fix its identity. In the present instance we have nothing to guide us but the general description that the kingdom of Musikanus was " the richest and most populous throughout all India." But as the native histories and traditions of Sindh agree in stating that Alor was the ancient metropolis of the country, it seems almost certain that it must be the capital of Musikanus, otherwise this famous city would be altogether unnoticed by Alexander's historians, which is highly improbable, if not quite
2 Vita Alex., ix. 8.
[p. 258]: impossible. That the territory of Alor was rich and fertile we know from the early Arab geographers, who are unanimous in its praise.
The ruins of Alor are situated to the south of a gap in the low range of limestone-hills, which stretches from Bhakar towards the south for about 20 miles, until it is lost in the broad belt of sand-hills which bound the Nara, or old bed of the Indus, on the west. Through this gap a branch of the Indus once flowed, which protected the city on the north-west. To the north-east it was covered by a second branch of the river, which flowed nearly at right angles to the other, at a distance of 3 miles. At the accession of Raja Dahir, in A.D. 680, the latter was probably the main stream of the Indus, which had been gradually working to the westward from its original bed in the old Nara. 1 According to the native histories, the final change was hastened by the excavation of a channel through the northern end of the range of hills between Bhakar and Rori.
The true name of Alor is not quite certain. The common pronunciation at present is Aror, but it seems probable that the original name was Rora, and that the initial vowel was derived from the Arabic prefix Al, as it is written Alror in Biladuri, Edrisi, and other Arab authors. This derivation is countenanced by the name of the neighbouring town of Rori, as it is a common practice in India thus to duplicate names. So Rora and Rori would mean Great and Little Rora. This word has no meaning in Sanskrit, but in Hindi it signifies "noise, clamour, roar" and also "fame." It is just possible, therefore, that the full name of the
1 See Map No. IX.
[p. 259]: city may have been Rora-pura, or Rora-nagara, the " Famous City." This signification suggested itself to me on seeing the name of Abhijanu applied to a neighbouring village at the foot of the hill, 2 miles to the south-west of the ruins of Alor. Abhijan is a Sanskrit term for " fame," and is not improbably connected with Hwen Thsang's Pi-chen-po-pu-lo, which, by adding an initial syllable o, might be read as Abhjanwapura. I think it probable that Alor may be the Binagara of Ptolemy, as it is placed on the Indus to the eastward of Oskana, which appears to be the Oxykanus of Arrian and Curtius. Ptolemy's name of Binagara is perhaps only a variant reading of the Chinese form, as pulo, or pura, is the same as nagara, and Pichenpo may be the full form of the initial syllable Bi.
The city of Musikanus was evidently a position of some consequence, as Arrian relates that Alexander " ordered Kraterus to build a castle in the city, and himself tarried there to see it finished. This done, he left a strong garrison therein, because this fort seemed extremely commodious for bridling the neighbouring nations and keeping them in subjection." It was no doubt for this very reason that Alor was originally founded, and that it continued to be occupied until deserted by the river, when it was supplanted by the strong fort of Bhakar.
Arrian writes....THERE, at the confluence of the Acesines and Indus, he waited until Perdiccas with the army arrived, after having routed on his way the independent tribe of the Abastanians1. Meantime, he was joined by other thirty-oared galleys and trading vessels which had been built for him among the Xathrians, another independent tribe of Indians who had yielded to him. From the Ossadians, who were also an independent tribe of Indians, came envoys to offer the submission of their nation. Having fixed the confluence of the Acesines and Indus as the limit of Philip’s viceroyalty, he left with him all the Thracians and as many men from the infantry regiments as appeared to him sufficient to provide for the security of the country. He then ordered a city to be founded there at the very junction of the two rivers, expecting that it would become large and famous among men.2 He also ordered a dockyard to be made there. At this time the Bactrian Oxyartes, father of his wife Roxana, came to him, to whom he gave the viceroyalty over the Parapamisadians, after dismissing the former viceroy, Tiryaspes, because he was reported to be exercising his authority improperly3. Then he transported Craterus with the main body of the army and the elephants to the left bank of the river Indus, both because it seemed easier for a heavy-armed force to march along that side of the river, and the tribes dwelling near were not quite friendly. He himself sailed down to the capital of the Sogdians; where he fortified another city, made another dockyard, and repaired his shattered vessels. He appointed Peithon viceroy of the land extending from the confluence of the Indus and Acesines as far as the sea, together with all the coast-land of India. He then again despatched Craterus with his army through the country; and himself sailed down the river into the dominions of Musicanus, which was reported to be the most prosperous part of India. I-Ic advanced against this king because he had not yet come to meet him to offer the submission of himself and his land, nor had he sent envoys to seek his alliance. He had not even sent him the gifts which were suitable for a great king, or asked any favour from him. He accelerated his voyage down the river to such a degree that he succeeded in reaching the confines of the land of Musicanus before he had even heard that Alexander had started against him. Musicanus was so greatly alarmed that he went as fast as he could to meet him, bringing with him the gifts valued most highly among the Indians, and taking all his elephants. He offered to surrender both his nation and himself, at the same time acknowledging his error, which was the most effectual way with Alexander for any one to get what he requested. Accordingly for these considerations Alexander granted him an indemnity for his offences. He also granted him the privilege of ruling the city and country, both of which Alexander admired. Craterus was directed to fortify the citadel in the capital; which was done while Alexander was still present. A garrison was also placed in it, because he thought the place suitable for keeping the circumvent tribes in subjection.
1. This tribe dwelt between the Acesines and the Indus. Diodorus (xvii. 102) calls them Sambastians; while Curtius (ix. 30) calls them Sabarcians. The Xathrians and Ossadians dwelt on the left bank of the Indus.
2. We find from Curtius (ix. 31) and Diodorus (xvii. 102) that the name of this was Alexandria. It is probably the present Mittun.
3. Curtius (ix. 31) calls this satrap Terioltes, and says he was put to death. His appointment as viceroy is mentioned by Arrian (iv. 22 supra).
Arrian writes.... THEN he took the archers, Agrianians, and cavalry sailing with him, and marched against the governor of that country, whose name was Oxycanus,1 because he neither came himself nor did envoys come from him, to offer the surrender of himself and his land. At the very first assault he took by storm the two largest cities under the rule of Oxycanus; in the second of which that prince himself was captured. The booty he gave to his army, but the elephants he led with himself. The other cities in the same land surrendered to him as he advanced, nor did any one turn to resist him; so cowed in spirit2. had all the Indians now become at the thought of Alexander and his fortune. He then marched back against Sambus, whom he had appointed viceroy of the mountaineer Indians and who was reported to have fled, because he learned that Musicanus had been pardoned by Alexander and was ruling over his own land. For he was at war with Musicanus, But when Alexander approached the city which the country of Samb held as its metropolis, the name of which was Sindimana, the gates were thrown open to him at his approach, and the relations of Sambus reckoned up his money and went out to meet him, taking with them the elephants also. They assured him that Sambus had fled, not from any hostile feeling towards Alexander, but fearing on account of the pardon of Musicanus3. He also captured another city which had revolted at this time, and slew as many of the Brachmans4 as had been instigators of this revolt. These men are the philosophers of the Indians, of whose philosophy, if such it may be called, I shall give an account in my book descriptive of India5.
1. This king is called Porticanus by Curtius (ix. 31), Diodorus (xvii. 102), and Strabo (xv. 1).
2. An expression imitated from Thucydides (iv. 34). Cf. Arrian, ii. 10; v. 19; where the same words are used of Darius and Porus.
3. Diodorus (xvii. 102) says that Sambas escaped beyond the Indus with thirty elephants.
4. See note, page 327 supra.
5. The Indica, a valuable work still existing. See chapters x. and xi. of that book.
Arrian writes.... MEANTIME he was informed that Musicanus had revolted. He dispatched the viceroy, Peithon, son of Agenor, with a sufficient army against him, while he himself marched against the cities which had been put under the rule of Musicanus. Some of these he razed to the ground, reducing the inhabitants to slavery; and into others he introduced garrisons and fortified the citadels. After accomplishing this, he returned to the camp and fleet. By this time Musicanus had been captured by Peithon, who was bringing him to Alexander. The king ordered him to be hanged in his own country, and with him as many of the Brachmans as had instigated him to the revolt. Then came to him the ruler of the land of the Patalians1, who said that the Delta formed by the river Indus was still larger than the Egyptian Delta.2 This man surrendered to him the whole of his own land and entrusted both himself and his property to him. Alexander sent him away again in possession of his own dominions, with instructions to provide whatever was needful for the reception of the army. He then sent Craterus into Carmania with the brigades of Attalus, Meleager, and Antigenes, some of the archers, and as many of the Companions and other Macedonians as, being now unfit for military service, he was despatching to Macedonia by the route through the lands of the Arachotians and Zarangians. To Craterus he also gave the duty of leading the elephants; but the rest of the army, except the part of it which was sailing with himself down to the sea, he put under the command of Hephaestion. He transported Peithon with the horse-javelin-men and Agrianians to the opposite bank of the Indus, not the one along which Hephaestion was about to lead the army. Peithon was ordered to collect men to colonize the cities which had just been fortified, and to form a junction with the king at Patala, after having settled the affairs of the Indians of that region, if they attempted any revolutionary proceedings. On the third day of his voyage, Alexander was informed that the governor of the Patalians3 had collected most of his subjects and was going away by stealth, having left his land deserted. For this reason Alexander sailed down the river with greater speed than before4; and when he arrived at Patala, he found both the country and the city deserted by the inhabitants and tillers of the soil. He however despatched the lightest troops in his army in pursuit of the fugitives and when some of them were captured, he sent them away to the rest, bidding them to be of good courage and return, for they might inhabit the city and till the country as before. Most of them accordingly returned.
2. Cf. Arrian (Indica, ii.).
3. Aristobulus, as quoted by Strabo (xv. 1), said that the voyage down the Indus occupied ten months, the fleet arriving at Patala about the time of the rising of Sirius, or July, 325 B.C.
4. Curtius (ix. 34) calls this king Moeris.
ठाकुर देशराज लिखते हैं कि इसे यूनानी लेखकों ने मूसीकेनस लिखा है, किन्तु काशीप्रसाद जायवाल इसे एक जाति मानते हैं। इसका वर्णन हम पिछले पृष्ठों में कर चुके हैं। यह सिकन्दर का समकालीन था। जब सिकन्दर इसके राज्य में होकर गुजरने लगा तो इसने बिना युद्ध किए उसे उधर से नहीं जाने दिया। इसकी राजधानी अलोर थी। अलोर में आगे एक दूसरे जाट वंश का भी हम राज्य पाते हैं।
हिन्दूकुश से सिन्ध तक जाने में सिकन्दर को केवल 10 महीने लगे थे, किन्तु उसे सिन्ध से व्यास तक आने में 19 महीने लग गए। इसका कारण सिन्ध के लोगों का सिकन्दर से पग-पग पर लोहा लेना था। ये लड़ाइयां उसे जाट और मेडों के भिन्न-भिन्न वंशों से लड़नी पड़ी थीं।
सिकन्दर की वापसी में जाट राजाओं से सामना
दलीप सिंह अहलावत के अनुसार व्यास नदी के तट पर पहुंचने पर सिकन्दर के सैनिकों ने आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया। इसका कारण यह था कि व्यास से आगे शक्तिशाली यौधेय गोत्र के जाटों के गणराज्य थे। ये लोग एक विशाल प्रदेश के स्वामी थे। पूर्व में सहारनपुर से लेकर पश्चिम में बहावलपुर तक और उत्तर-पश्चिम में लुधियाना से लेकर दक्षिण-पूर्व में दिल्ली, मथुरा, आगरा तक इनका राज्य फैला हुआ था। इनका प्रजातन्त्र गणराज्य था जिस पर कोई सम्राट् नहीं होता था। समय के अनुकूल ये लोग अपना सेनापति योग्यता के आधार पर नियुक्त करते थे। ये लोग अत्यन्त वीर और युद्धप्रिय थे। ये लोग अजेय थे तथा रणक्षेत्र से पीछे हटने वाले नहीं थे। इनकी महान् वीरता तथा शक्ति के विषय में सुनकर यूनानियों का साहस टूट गया और उन्होंने आगे बढ़ने से इन्कार कर दिया। इनके राज्य के पूर्व में नन्द वंश (नांदल जाटवंश) के सम्राट् महापद्म नन्द का मगध पर शासन था जिसकी राजधानी पाटलिपुत्र थी। यह बड़ा शक्तिशाली सम्राट् था। यूनानी लेखकों के अनुसार इसकी सेना में 20,000 घोड़े, 4000 हाथी, 2000 रथ और 2,00,000 पैदल सैनिक थे। सिकन्दर को ऐसी परिस्थिति में व्यास नदी से ही वापिस लौटना पड़ा। 
सिकन्दर की सेना जेहलम नदी तक उसी रास्ते से वापिस गई जिससे वह आयी थी। फिर जेहलम नदी से सिन्ध प्रान्त और बलोचिस्तान के रास्ते से उसके सैनिक गये। परन्तु वापिसी का मार्ग सरल नहीं था। सिकन्दर की सेना से पग-पग पर जाटों ने डटकर युद्ध किए। उस समय दक्षिणी पंजाब में मालव (मल्लोई), शिवि, मद्र और क्षुद्रक गोत्र के जाटों ने सिकन्दर की सेनाओं से सख्त युद्ध किया तथा सिकन्दर को घायल कर दिया। कई स्थानों पर तो जाटों ने अपने बच्चों को आग में फेंककर यूनानियों से पूरी शक्ति लगाकर भयंकर युद्ध किया।
मालव-मल्ल जाटों के साथ युद्ध में सिकन्दर को पता चला कि भारतवर्ष को जीतना कोई सरल खेल नहीं है। मालव जाटों के विषय में यूनानी लेखकों ने लिखा है कि “वे असंख्यक थे और अन्य सब भारतीय जातियों से अधिक शूरवीर थे।”
सिन्ध प्रान्त में उस समय जाट राजा मूसकसेन का शासन था जिसकी राजधानी अलोर थी। जब सिकन्दर इसके राज्य में से गुजरने लगा तो इसने यूनानी सेना से जमकर युद्ध किया। इससे आगे एक और जाटराज्य था। वहां के जाटों ने भी यूनानियों से लोहा लिया।
सिकन्दर की सेना जब सिंध प्रान्त से सिंधु नदी पर पहुंची थी तो इसी राजा मूसकसेन (मुशिकन) ने अपने समुद्री जहाजों द्वारा उसे नदी पार कराई थी।
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-363
अलग-अलग स्थानों पर हुए युद्ध में जाटों ने सिकन्दर को कई बार घायल किया। वह बलोचिस्तान से अपने देश को जा रहा था परन्तु घावों के कारण रास्ते में ही बैबीलोन (इराक़ में दजला नदी पर है) के स्थान पर 323 ई० पू० में उसका देहान्त हो गया। उस समय उसकी आयु 33 वर्ष की थी।
भारत से लौटते समय सिकन्दर ने अपने जीते हुए राज्य पोरस और आम्भी में बांट दिये थे और सिन्ध प्रान्त का राज्यपाल फिलिप्स को बनाया। परन्तु 6 वर्ष में ही, ई० पू० 317 में भारत से यूनानियों के राज्य को समाप्त कर दिया गया और मौर्य-मौर जाटों का शासन शुरु हुआ। इसका वर्णन अध्याय पांच में किया गया है।
- Arrian:The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.15,16,17
- Arrian:The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.17, f.n.4
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.16
- The Ancient Geography of India/Western India, pp.257-259
- The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.15
- The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.16
- The Anabasis of Alexander/6b, Ch.17
- जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज, पृष्ठ-699
- मौर्य-साम्राज्य का इतिहास, लेखक सत्यकेतु विद्यालंकार
- जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.363-364
- जाट्स दी ऐनशन्ट रूलर्ज, लेखक बी० एस० दहिया ने पृ० 256 पर लिखा है कि यह कहना उचित है कि नन्द जाट आज नांदल/नांदेर कहे जाते हैं।
- भारत का इतिहास, पृ० 47, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी; हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 161-162)
- हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 162 भारत का इतिहास पृ० 47 हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड, भिवानी।
- जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
- जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
- जाट इतिहास क्रमशः पृ० 695, 192, 695 लेखक ठा० देशराज।
- भारत का इतिहास पृ० 47, हरयाणा विद्यालय शिक्षा बोर्ड भिवानी; हिन्दुस्तान की तारीख उर्दू पृ० 162।