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Nagabhatta (नाग भट्ट) was a Pratihara King of Mandor. There are two rulers by this name: 1. Nagabhatta I (730-756 AD) and Nagabhatta II (805-833 AD). Sun Temple at Jhalrapatan was constructed by Nagabhatta II in samvat 872 (=815 AD).



Evidence suggests that Osian is a very old settlement. Some of its early names include Uvasisala, Ukesa and Upkesapur-pattana. In its early history, the village was a center for Brahmanism. It was a major stop for camel caravans during the Gupta period.[1] The town was an important center for the Gurjar Pratihar dynasty. Tradition states that, after being abandoned for a time, the village was re-established by Utpaladeva (c. 900-950). Utpaladeva converted to Jainism, and turned the village into a center for the religion. However, Jainism had a presence in the village long before that. The town was prosperous and successful at this time. At its peak, it had over one hundred temples.[2]

A niche in Mahavira Temple contains sculpture of intertwined snakes which also is worshipped by Oswal Jain, as adhisthatyaka - devetas. This leads us to believe that a sizeable part of the populace in that period may have belonged to Naga extraction. Nagabhata II was a Pratihara ruler of Mandore near Jodhpur. It is said that the Nagabhata II must have defeated the Nagas and so he must have been given the name Nagabhatta which means 'master of nagas'. 'Nagabhatta' the son of 'Narbhatta' of Mandore line established his capital at Merta near Nagaur, whose old name as Nagapura. The Pratiharas may have conquered these areas from the nagas. Nagapriyagachha of Jain also indicates in the same direction.

In the tenth century A.D. when Pratiharas became weak the Chahamanas established its kingdom in Sambhar area. The Harsh Inscription of s.v.1030 (973) tells us that they were rulers of the area. Shakambhari was their capital, and hence this dynasty was actually called Chahamanas dynasty of Sakambhari. The early branch of Chauhans ruled in Lat Pradesh and second branch was in Shakambhari.

Guvaka-I (815 AD): Also known as Govindaraja, He was the samanta of Nagabhata II and according to Nagavaloka he had been honoured in the court of Nagabhata. It is learned from Prithvirajavijaya that Guvaka had married his sister Kalavati with king Nagabhata II of Kannauj. According to Gwalior inscription Guvaka had fought against the Muslims on behalf of Nagabhata, and had defeated Sultan Beg Varisa.

Buchkala Inscription of Nagabhatta S. V. 872 (815 AD)

Reference - Epigraphic India Vol.IX, p. 198-200, Br D.B.Bhandarkar, M.A.,Poona.

Sanskrit Text
१. ओं [।] संवत्सरसते ८७२
२. चैत्रस्य सितपक्षस्य पंचम्यां
३. निवेसित्ता महाराजाद्धिराज-
४. परमेश्वरश्रीवत्सराजदेवपा-
५. दानुध्यातपरमभट्टारकमहारा-
६. जद्धिराजपरमेश्वरश्रीनाग-
७. भट्टदेवस्वविषये प्रवर्धमान-
८. राज्ये राज्यघङ्गकङ्ग्रामे
९. राज्ञी जायावली प्रतीहार-
११.ज्जकदुहिता ताकुङ्गुवोत्पनावा-
१२. ङ्गानकस्वगोत्त्रश्रीहरगुप्त-
१३. पुत्रभुंभुवकपत्नी अत्त्र च पर-
१४. मेश्वरो निड्चीं कृत्वा अनेकजन्मा-
१५. तरस्वसिवर्तसंसारदुखाव-
१६.हरस्य परमेश्वरस्य पादा
१७. पुजयित्वा देवगृहं करा-
१८. प्य [।*] पुन तस्य उपलेपन
१९. देइया सुतप[ञ्च]हरि
२०. सूत्रधार:
Buchkala Inscription of Nagabhatta 815 AD [3]

This inscription was first discovered by a Brahmabhatta of Jodhpur named Nannurama whose zeal for antiquarian matters is as unflagging as it is disinterested. It was found at Buchkala in the Bilada district, Jodhpur State. It is incised on a pilaster on the proper right forming part of the shrine wall jutting out into the sabhamandapa of what is popularly known there as the temple of Parvati. The inscription contains twenty lines of, on the whole, well-

preserved writing. The characters belong to the northern class of alphabets. They include the somewhat rare forms of gh and n and the numeral figures 8, 7, and 2. The language is Sanskrit, bat is anything but grammatical, and the whole is in prose. In respect of orthography, r is doubled in conjunction with a following r ; dhi is written ddhi twice in the word mahdrajaddhirdja, and there is a tendency to use the dental sibilant instead of the palatal, though in one case the latter is substituted for the former viz, in suttradharah, L. 20.

The inscription is dated Samvat 872, the fifth of the bright fortnight of Chaitra, and refers itself to the reign of the P.M.P. Nagabhatta-deva meditating on the feet of the M. P. Vatsaraja-deva. It is thus clear that Nagabhatta is no other person than Nagabhata, son of Vatsaraja, of the imperial Pratihara dynasty wielding sway over the larger portion, of North India. Of the princes of this royal family we have had but few dates earlier than the time of Bhojadeva I. In fact, we had only one date, viz. Saka 705 = A.D. 783-84, for Vatsaraja furnished by the Jaina work Harivamsa-Purana,. And our inscription now supplies the second date, V. S. 872 = A.D. 815 for his son Nagabhata.

The purport of the inscription, however, is not quite clear. Something is said therein to have been set up (nivesita), but what that 'something' was is far from evident. This something, we are told, was set up, after building the temple (divagriha) and worshipping the feet of Parameshvara, in the village of Rajyaghangakam, by the queen Jayavali, the daughter of Jajjaka, who himself was a son of the Pratihara Bapuka, and wife of Bhumbhuvaka, the son of Haragupta of the family called Avanganaka. As Jayavali has been spoken of as queen (rajny), her husband must have been some kind of ruler, most probably a chieftain, feudatory to Nagabhatta, and reigning at, or at any rate, holding, Rajyaghangakam, which must be supposed to be the old name of Buchkala. The name of the sutradhara or mason is Panchahari, the son of Deia.

The temple is, as we have seen, said to have been dedicated to Paramesvara, which is usually taken to be a name of Siva. This, however, does not agree with the sculptural details of the temple. Although it is now-a-days called a temple of Parvati, there is, truly speaking, no image in the sanctum. But on the dedicatory block of the shrine door and in the principal niche at the back, the images in which enable one to determine to what god the temple is dedicated, is a figure, with four hands, doubtlessly representing some form of Vishnu, as the mace, discus, and conch-shell can be distinctly seen in its hands. Other images, also carved on the inner and outer walls of the temple, show that it was a Vaishuava structure. The word parameshvara, must, therefore, be taken in its ordinary sense and as referring to Vishnu.

Note -

  • Ghangakam (घङ्गकङ्) = Ghangas (घनगस) Jat clan or Ghanghu village ? Jatland considers the the chieftain mentioned in connection with the village of Rajyaghangakam is probably chieftain of Ghanghu in Churu district who is connected with Jeenmata, whose history we get from Burdak clan Bards. As per bards of Burdaks Jeen of Ghanghu became deity in year 933 AD. If we take period of 30 years for one generation, Jeen's father Harakarana lived in 900 AD, his father Indrachandra lived in 870 AD and thus Ghangha was chieftain in about 840 AD. On this basis Ghangakam (घङ्गकङ्) may be a chieftain of Ghanghu or Ghangas Jat clan.
  • Bhumbhuvaka (भुंभुवक) = Bhambu is a Jat clan.
  • Deia (देइया) = Dehiya (दहिया) is a Jat clan.
  • Avanganaka (आवाङ्गानक) = Avan + Ganaka. Avan Jat Gotra in Pakistan and Punjab, India.
  • Jajjaka (जज्जक) = Jajja (जज्ज) is a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan.
  • Jayavali (जायावली) = Jaiwalia (जैवालिया) is a Jat clan.

Badhal Nagabhatta Pratihara inscription of s.v. 872 (815 AD)

Note - This inscription is yet unpublished.

Sanskrit Text
ओम स्वास्ति आनन्दिका सरितवट निकट भद्रासन ग्राम वासिता नेक नो हस्त्यश्वरथ-
पति सम्पन्न स्कन्धावारात् परमवैष्णाबो महारज ... नाग भट्ट... गयट्टपुर विषयान्तपति पश्चिम पथक संबद्ध लम्बकूप ग्राम मुनुपगतान् सर्वानेव यथास्थांन नियुक्तान प्रतिवासिनश्च समाज्ञापयति... स ब्रह्मचारी भट्ट दुर्गिलाय कन्या गते सवितरि सूर्यग्रहोपराग प्रति ग्रहण प्रतिपादित इति....८००-७०-२ आश्विन बदि १०-५...निबद्ध ।
Badhal Nagabhatta Pratihara inscription of 815 AD [4]

Daulatpura copper plate of Partihar Bhojadeva of V.S. 900 (943 AD)

Ref - (Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p, 208,)

Daulatpura Copper plate inscription of v.s. 900 found in Sewa village near Didwana in Nagaur, Rajasthan. The main object of this plate is the renewal of grant which was orignially issued [granted] by great grandfather of Maharaj Vatsrajdeo and continued by Maharaj Nagbhattadeva, both Pratihar rulers. This grant according to the inscription is renewed by Maharaj Bhojdev. line 3 states: ".... maharaj shri vatsraj.devastasya putr .... statpadhanudhyat shri sundri devyamutpanam"[5]

The Daulatpura plates (Ep. Ind., Vol. V, p, 208,) also lead to the same conclusion. It renews the grant of a piece of land in Gurjaratra which was originally made by Vatsaraja and continued by Nagabhata II but had fallen into abeyance in the reign of Bhoja. This seems to indicate that the province was held by Vatsaraja [Page-47] and Nagabhata II but lost by Ramabhadra and regained by Bhoja, sometime before 843 A. D., the date of the inscription.

The Daulatpura plate of the Pratihara king Bhojadeva I, dated in the Vikrama year 900, refers to Dutaka Yuvaraja Nagabhata. Records of other families refer to crown princes discharging the same function. Sometimes this office was combined with that of a Dandapasika (an official connected with police and judiciary). Dandapasika Amaraditya was the Dutaka of the Ahar stone inscription. [6]

The Chauhans of Pratapgarh

Reference - Contents of this section is mainly from "Early Chauhan Dynasties" by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 20-21

For the Chauhans of Pratapgarh we have two inscriptions, both of which were originally set up in the temples at Ghontavarsika, modern Ghotarsi, a village seven miles to the east of Pratapgarh. The first of these, besides recording a grant of Mahendrapala II of Kanauj, dated in the Vikrama year V.1003 (A.D. 946), and of Bhartripatta, son of Khommana, in V. 999, gives the following genealogy of Mahendrapala II's Chauhan mahasamanta Indraraja, the builder of the temple of the Sun-god Indradityadeva where our inscription was originally set up. In the Chahamana family, the support of Bhoja –


The temple must have been built before V. 999 (A.D. 942), the year of Bhartrpatta's grant to the god Indradityadeva.

From the Harsha inscription we learn that Guvaka I of Sakambhari held an honoured place at the court of Nagabhatta II. [7] Guvaka II gave his sister in marriage to the lord of Kanauj most probably to Bhoja I. So is it not likely that Indraraja’s ancestor who rendered conspicuous service to Bhoja might hay been a member of the Sakambhari line ? The occurrence within three generations of the two names, Govindaraja and Durlabharaja (so common among Sakambhari rulers) suggests the same conclusion. Indraraja's grandfather bore the title bhupa and is said to have helped the goddess of victory to cross the sea of battle with his powerful arms acting as oars. This might be mere conventional praise or refer to valuable help rendered by him to his overlord Mahipala against the Rashtrakutas. Durlabharaja, the next ruler, appears to have been just an ordinary prince. Indraraja has the title mahasamanta. As Madhava, the Pratihara Governor of Ujjain, was also nothing more than a mahasamanta, Indraraja must have been a fairly powerful feudatory.

The second Ghotarsi inscription is unfortunately fraggmentary. The part containing the Samvat is gone but the name Durlabhaaja is still there. So the Jaina temple in which the prasasti was set up may be assumed to have been built in the reign of Indraditya's father Durlabharaja Chauhan mentioned above.

Nothing is known about Indraraja's successors.


  1. Dobbie, Aline (2002). India: The Peacock's Call. p. 43. ISBN 9781843940104.
  2. Kalia, Asha (1982). Art of Osian Temples: Socio-economic and Religious Life in India, 8th-12th Centuries A.D. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 9780391025585. Retrieved 7 February 2015.p.1
  3. Epigraphic India Vol.IX, p. 198-200, Br D.B.Bhandarkar, M.A.,Poona.
  4. रतन लाल मिश्र:शेखावाटी का नवीन इतिहास, मंडावा, १९९८, पृ.३३
  6. Gurjar Samaj Site
  7. verse13, IA., XLII,pp 66f