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Location of Navadvipa to west of Krishnana

Navanagara (नवनगर) or Navadvipa (नवद्वीप) was the ancient capital of West Bengal or Vanga mentioned by Panini (VI.2.89). It has been identified with Nabadwip city in Nadia district in West Bengal (India), on the western bank of the Bhagirathi river.


  • Kuliya कुलिय (जिला नदिया, बंगाल) (AS, p.210)
  • Navadvipa (नवद्वीप)

Mention by Panini

Navanagara (नवनगर) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]


V. S. Agrawala[2] writes that Panini refers to Nagara (IV.2.142), e.g. Mahanagara and Navanagara as names of towns 'not in the north' but in the east. Mahanagara is to be identified with Mahasthana, the capital of north Bengal or Pundra and Navanagara with the Navadvipa, the capital of west Bengal or Vanga. In between Mahanagara and Navanagara lay Gauḍapura (VI.2.100), modern Gauḍa, an important town in route from Champa to Mahasthana and an important centre of guḍa manufacturing in the Pundra Country.


V. K. Mathur[3] writes that Panini (VI.2.89) has probably mentioned Navanagara in place of Navadvipa. Navadvipa is the birth place of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533).

Navadvipa or Nabadwip is a city in Nadia district in West Bengal (India), on the western bank of the Bhagirathi river. The Bhagirathi river originally used to flow west of Nabadwip, forming a boundary between the districts of Bardhaman and Nadia. It has now shifted its course, cutting the city off from the rest of the Nadia. district.

Nabadwip was the capital of Bengal Empire under the reign of Ballal Sen and Lakshman Sen, the famous rulers of the Sena Empire. They ruled Bengal from here in the period from 1159 to 1206.[4] In 1202, Nabadwip was attacked and invaded by Bakhtiyar Khilji who plundered Nabadwip. The Lakshman Sen, the old King, being afraid left the Capital. This victory paved the way for Muslim rule in Bengal.[5] Nabadwip and Nadia were great centres of learning and intellectual prowess. For five centuries, it was referred to as "Oxford of East".[6]

The Navadvipa of today was known as village Kuliya during the time of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486–1533). This is now known as Vamanpukur. It is said that in ancient times Navadvipa was spread over 16 Kosa. It included the "nine island" which were Antardwipa, Simantadwipa, Rudradwipa, Madhyadwipa, Godrumadwipa, Ritudwipa, Jahnudwipa, Modadrumadwipa, and Koladwipa. Navadvipa is now known as Nadiya.[7]

External links


  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.63, 71
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.63-64
  3. V. K. Mathur:Aitihasik Sthanavali,p.482
  4. Official district website
  5. Tourist Department
  6. Cotton, H.E.A., Calcutta Old and New, 1909/1980, p1, General Printers and Publishers Pvt. Ltd.
  7. V. K. Mathur:Aitihasik Sthanavali,p.482

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