Ora

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Ora (ओरा)[1] Aura (औरा) Aure (औरे)[2] Ore (ओरे) Oda (ओड़ा)[3] is a gotra of Jats found in Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan. This clan has been mentioned by Megasthenes. Ora clan is found in Afghanistan.[4] In Alexander's campaign of through the desert of Gedrosia, he encountered with the Oritians, who are same as Ora. The largest village of the tribe Oritians was called Rambakia.

Origin

  • They have probably descended from Varatya (वरात्य) of Mahabharata (VIII.51.16). Varteya (वार्तेय) was an ancient republic of Ayudhjivi Sangha known to Panini.
  • They are considered descendants of rishi Dirghattama (दीर्घत्तमा). [5]

History

V. S. Agrawala[6] mentions Ayudhjivi Sanghas in the Ganapatha under Yaudheyadi group, repeated twice in the Panini's Ashtadhyayi (IV.1.178) and (V.3.117) which includes - Vārteya – which may be identified with the Indian tribe Oreitai[7], settled to the west of the river Porali which now falls in to the Sonmiani Bay, west of Karachi. (cf. Saunamāneya in Subhrādi gana IV.1.123;IV.1.86). According to Curtius the tribe had long maintained its independence in those parts and it negotiated peace with Alexander through their leaders, which reflects its Sangha character.

On the east of river Arabis (old name of Porali) was another independent tribe which the Greeks called Arabitai, corresponding to Sanskrit Ārabhaṭa (the home of the Ārabhaṭi vritti), a word unknown in Paninian geography, but both of them as the Greeks noted, lay within the geographical limits of India.


Rajatarangini[8] tells .... King Durlabhavardhana's son Durlabhaka by queen Ananga then reigned. He assumed the name of Pratapaditya after the title of the dynasty of his maternal grandfather by whom he was adopted as his son. He had a rich minister named Oda, who built a village named Hanumata for the habitation of the Brahmanas. (IV,P.61)

Campaign of Alexander against the Oritians.

Gedrosia on Map showing the route of Alexander the Great

Arrian[9] writes that ... THE season of the year was then unfit for voyaging; for the periodical winds prevailed, which at that season do not blow there from the north, as with us, but from the Great Sea, in the direction of the south wind. Moreover it was reported that there the sea was fit for navigation after the beginning of winter, that is, from the setting of the Pleiades’ until the winter solstice; for at that season mild breezes usually blow from the land, drenched as it has been with great rains; and these winds were convenient on a coasting voyage both for oars and sails. Nearchus, who had been placed in command of the fleet, waited for the coasting season; but Alexander, starting from Patala, advanced with all his army as far as the river Arabius. He then took half of the shield-bearing guards and archers, the infantry regiments called foot Companions, the guard of the Companion cavalry, a squadron of each of the other cavalry regiments, and all the horse-bowmen, and turned away thence on the left towards the sea to dig wells, so that there might be abundance of them for the fleet sailing along on the coasting voyage; and at the same time to make an unexpected attack upon the Oritians a tribe of the Indians in this region, which had long been independent. This he meditated doing because they had performed no friendly act either to himself or his army. He placed Hephaestion in command of the forces left behind. The Arabitians, another independent tribe dwelling near the river Arabius, thinking that they could not cope with Alexander in battle, and yet being unwilling to submit to him, fled into the desert when they heard that he was approaching. But crossing the river Arabius, which was both narrow and shallow, and travelling by night through the greater part of the desert, he came near the inhabited country at daybreak. Then ordering the infantry to follow him in regular line, he took the cavalry with him, dividing it into squadrons, that it might occupy.a very large part of the plain, and thus marched into the land of the Oritians. All those who turned to defend themselves were cut to pieces by the cavalry, and many of the others were taken prisoners. He then encamped near a small piece of water; but when Hephaestion formed a junction with him, he advanced farther. Arriving at the largest village of the tribe of the Oritians, which was called Rhambacia, he commended the place and thought that if he colonized a city there it would become great and prosperous. He therefore left Hephaestion behind to carry out this project.


Arrian[10] writes ... Alexander then advanced towards the capital of the Gadrosians, which was named Pura ; and he arrived there in sixty days after starting from Ora.

Distribution in Uttar Pradesh

Jats of this gotra are found in Distt Moradabad in Uttar Pradesh.


Ora Villages in Rajsamand district

Distribution in Pakistan

According to 1911 census, the Aura were one of the principal Muslim Jat clan in :[11]

History

This clan has been mentioned by Megasthenes.

See also

References

  1. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n.ओ-5
  2. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n.23
  3. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ओ-2
  4. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan, H. W. Bellew, p.68
  5. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, p.225
  6. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.450
  7. James Todd Annals/Index Vol III, Oreitai tribe, iii. p.1656
  8. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book IV,P.61
  9. Arrian Anabasis Book/6b, Ch.xxi
  10. Arrian Anabasis Book/6b, Ch.24
  11. Census Of India 1911 Volume Xiv Punjab Part 2 by Pandit Narikishan Kaul

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