Parmal

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Statue of warrior Udal at Mahoba

Parmal (परमाल) was the last Chandel King of Mahoba in 12th-13th century AD.

Variants of name

Alha - Udal

Udal was a general in the army of Chandel King Maharaj Parimard Dev Burman (also known as Parmal or Parimal) of Mahoba in 12th-13th century AD. He was younger brother of Alha. Parmal raised Udal as his own son, since he was born after the death of his father Dassraj, who - a general himself - was killed in the service of Parmal.[1]

Udal was generally seen on a horse whereas Alha, on an elephant. Both are among the greatest warriors of Mahoba of all times. Out of total 52 battles fought by these, Udal alone had won 22 battles. Alha and Udal chowk is now situated in Mahoba city. A grand statue of Udal has also been established there.

It is believed that both these brothers had built so many structures and temples in Mahoba district.

Fall of Raja Parmal

The last prominent Chandel ruler was Parmardi-deva or Parmal whose name is still popular due to the heroic deeds of his two Generals Alha and Udala who own many battles. The court poet Jagnik Rao has made their names immortal through his popular ballad (Veer-Kavya) 'Alha-Khand'. It is recited throughout the Hindi speaking masses in the country. In 1860 AD an English Officer of the East India Company, Mr. William Waterfield was so impressed with the ballad that he translated it into English under the title name of 'Lay of Alha' which was published by the Oxford University Press of England. Another prominent scripture which has an account of Mahoba's grandeur is the Jain text 'Prabhandh-kosh' which refers to its magnificence which could only be realized and not described.

The reign of Parmardi-deva or Parmal, the Fifteen ruler of the dynasty, witnessed the fall of Mahoba. In 1182 A.D.differences arose between Parmala and Delhi king Prithviraj who gave an ultimatum lying certain conditions to be fulfilled by Parmala or to surrender. He made seize of Mahoba and his General Chaumund Rai even made a surprise attack on the Kajli procession of queen Malhna who hadgone to Keerat Sagar tank to offer Kajli Pooja on the Raksha-Bandhan day. A grim fight ensued in which Mahoba warriors:Udala, Brahma, Ranjeet, and Abhai (son of Mahila) repulsed the attack and Chaumund-Rai had to flee to his base camp at Pachpahara. The Kajli-Pooja was consequently celebrated the next day and that tradition continues to be followed even to this date. The third day is observed as a Victory Day and a thanks-giving Pooja is performed to Lord Shiva, Gajantak Shiva idol on Gokhar hill.

Later, the Chauhan King Prithvi Raj captured Mahoba despite the brave fight put up by the brothers, Alha and Udal. Other warriors of Mahoba, viz. Udal, Brahma, Malkhan, Sulkhan, Dheba and Tala Saiyyad, etc., laid down their lives in the battle. Parmala had to retreat to Kalinjar leaving Mahoba in the hands of the conqueror. Prithvi Raj appointed his Thanapati Pajjun Rai as his administrator. A few years later, he was driven out by Samarjeet, son of Parmala. This, however, could not stop the beginning of the end of Chandella rule. Two decades later, Qutubuddin Aibek vanquised Mahoba and Kalinjar in 1203 A.D. Aibk took away immense booty with thousands of artisans as prisoners. He deported most of them to Ghazni as slaves, who constructed beautiful buildings there. Later, Trailokya Verman, another son of Parmala, recovered Mahoba and Kalinjar but the Chandellas lost their eminence. Mahoba lost its independence and became part of the Delhi Sultanate.

Parmadi in Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[2] tells us that the King Harsha of Kashmir liked the customs of the south, and introduced coins like those current in Karnata. His court was filled with men adorned with palm leaves and broad marks of sandal and good long swords. Women clothed themselves like men, and wore garlands of gold in imitation of the leaves of Kotaka, and adorned themselves with marks of sandal and lines of collyrium drawn from the eyes to the ears, and with the holy thread made of gold. The ends of their garments kissed the ground, and their breast and arms down to the elbows were covered by bodice. Their smiles were white as camphor.

Those who came to beg from the king could, by the king's bounty, feed others who depended on them ; as the clouds, by their connection with the sea, can nourish the earth with rain. By the king's liberality those who came to sing became almost as rich as himself. He bestowed immense gold on the learned, and allowed them to ride on cars drawn by pair and to use umbrella.

In the reign of Kalasha, one Rihlana, a learned man, went out of Kashmira and lived in the court of Karnata. There the king named Parmadi gave him the title of Vidyapati; and he used to ride on elephant before the army, and he alone used the umbrella in presence of


[p.239]: the king. But now he heard that the liberal Harsha was a friend of the learned, and repented having gone out of Kashmira.


Rajatarangini[3] tells that Now Sujji with the view of preserving the [reigning] dynasty, in reign of Simhadeva (1127), and after deliberating what should be done, thought of crowning Parmaḍi, son of queen Shrigunalekha, who was then a little under five


[p.139]: years old. He consulted with Garga's son, the maternal uncle of the boy.


Rajatarangini [4] tells that ...The two girls whom the Damara had wished to give to Bhoja of Kashmira, were given by him to Parmmadi and Gulhana, sons of the king, now that Bhoja was worsted. (p.270)

वत्स: ठाकुर देशराज

ठाकुर देशराज[5] ने लिखा है....वत्स - [पृ.105]: हम कौशांबी के वत्सों की बात नहीं कर रहे हैं। हम तो उन वत्सों का थोड़ा सा हाल देना चाहते हैं जो कौशांबी को छोड़कर पंजाब में आ गए थे और अब जाटों में बच्छ कहलाते हैं। प्रद्योत के समय में बातिभय, जिसे कि आजकल बठिंडा कहते हैं, उस पर राजा उदयान राज करता था। इस उदयान की उज्जैन के राजा प्रद्योत से लड़ाई हुई थी। इसका मंत्री योधनारायण बड़ा योग्य पुरुष था वासवदत्ता संस्कृत काव्य इसी राजा की रानी के नाम पर बना है। इसी वत्स खानदान में कई पीढ़ियों बाद बच्छराज के घर में मलखान का जन्म हुआ था। बच्छ उस समय विपत्ति के दिन काट रहा था। मलखान की परवरिश चंदेल राजा परिमाल के यहां जस्सराज के लड़कों के साथ हुई थी। जस्सराज और वत्सराज (बच्छराज) दोनों


[पृ.106]: मित्र थे। बड़े होने पर मलखान ने अपने बाप दादाओं की भूमि भटिंडा के पास सरसा में अपना राज्य कायम किया। पूरनसिंह जाट, जो कि मलखान की सेना का एक प्रसिद्ध सेनापति था, मलखान का रिश्ते में चचेरा भाई होता था। इन बच्छ अथवा बछड़े जाटों की यूपी में भी आबादी है। बौद्ध ग्रंथों में वत्सों को गणतंत्री बच्छ के नाम से ही लिखा गया है।

गढ़कुण्डार

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[6] ने लेख किया है ... गढ़कुण्डार (AS, p.273) मध्य प्रदेश के निवाड़ी ज़िले में गढ़कुण्डार के दुर्ग एवं नगर के भग्नावशेष बीहड़ पहाड़ों एवं वनों में बिखरे पड़े हैं। कभी गढ़कुण्डार चंदेल, खंगार एवं बुन्देल राजाओं की राजधानी रहा था। प्राचीन काल में कुण्डार प्रदेश पर गौंडो का राज्य था, जो पाटलिपुत्र के मौर्य सम्राटों को मंडलेश्वर मानते थे। परवर्ती काल में परिहार राजाओं ने कुण्डार पर आधिपत्य जमा लिया। आठवीं सदी के अंत में यहाँ चन्देलों का शासन था। पृथ्वीराज चौहान तृतीय का समकालीन चन्देल नरेश परमाल के समय यहाँ का दुर्गपाल शिवा नामक क्षत्रीय कीलेदार था जो परमाल के अधीन था. 1182 ई. में चौहान शासक एवं परमाल के बीच संघर्ष में शिवा मारा गया और चौहान के सैनिक खूबसिंह या खेतसिंह खंगार का कुंडार पर अधिकार हो गया। इसने खंगार राज्य क़ी नींव डाली, जो काफ़ी समय तक झाँसी के परिवर्ती इलाक़े में पर्याप्त समय तक राज्य करता रहा।

खंगारों से बुंदेला-वंशीय क्षत्रियों को ईर्ष्या थी और वे खंगारों को अपने से छोटा समझते थे. दिल्ली के गुलाम वंश के प्रसिद्ध सुल्तान बलबन के [p.274]: शासनकाल में बुंदेलों ने गढ़कुण्डार पर, जहाँ खंगारों की राजधानी थी, अधिकार कर लिया (1257 ई.) और युद्ध में खंगार शक्ति का पूर्ण रूप से विनास कर दिया. खंगार इस शक्ति के मद में चूर रहकर अत्यधिक मदिरापान करने लगे थे. इस युद्ध में खंगारों के सभी सरदार और सामंत मारे गए. बुंदेलों का नायक इस समय सोहनपाल था जिसकी संदरी कन्या रूपकुमारी और खंगार-नरेश हुरमत की दुखांत प्रणय-कथा बुंदेलखंड के चारणों के गीतों का प्रिय विषय है. बुंदेलों की राजधानी कुण्डार में 1507 ई. तक रही. इस वर्ष या संभवत: 1531 ई. में बुन्देला नरेश रुद्रप्रताप ने ओरछा बसाकर वहीं नई राजधानी बनायी। खंगारों और बुंदेलों में जो युद्ध हुआ उसका घटनास्थल कुंडार का दुर्ग ही था. इसके बाद यह नगर धीरे-धीरे खण्डहर में तब्दील हो गया। दुर्ग के खंडहर झाँसी नगर से 30 मील दूर हैं.

External links

References

  1. Mishra, Pt. Lalita Prasad (2007). Alhakhand (in Hindi) (15 ed.). Post Box 85 Lucknow (India): Tejkumar Book Depot (Pvt) Ltd. pp. 1–11 (History of Mahoba).
  2. Book VII , p.238-239
  3. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i) ,p.138-139
  4. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (ii), p.270
  5. Jat Itihas (Utpatti Aur Gaurav Khand)/Pancham Parichhed,p.105-106
  6. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.273274