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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Pataliputra (Pāṭaliputra, पटलिपुत्र), adjacent to modern-day Patna, called as Palibothra by Greeks was an ancient historical place.

Variants of name


Balaka (बालक) was a Kuru king descendant of the Bharata race, of the lunar dynasty and the ancestor of the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Also mentioned as Bahlika, devoted his life to conquer the old Aryan territories near Balkh. A citizen of Pataliputra was called Pataliputraka.

According to James Todd[1] Kuru had two sons, Sudhanush and Parikhshita. The descendants of the former terminated with Jarasandha, whose capital was Rajagriha on the Ganges, in the province of Bihar. From Parikhshita descended the monarchs Santanu and Balaka : the first producing the rivals of the Great War, Yudhishthira and Duryodhana ; the other the Balakaputras.

The sons of Balaka founded two kingdoms : Palibothra, on the lower Ganges ; and Aror, on the eastern bank of the Indus, founded by Sahl.


The etymology of Pataliputra is unclear. "Putra" means son, and "pāţali" is a species of rice or the plant Bignonia suaveolens.[2] One traditional etymology[3] holds that the city was named after the plant.[4] Another tradition says that Pāṭaliputra means the son of Pāṭali, who was the daughter of Raja Sudarshan.[5] As it was known as Pāṭali-grama ("Pāṭali village") originally, some scholars believe that Pāṭaliputra is a transformation of Pāṭalipura, "Pāṭali town".[6]

Mention by Panini

Apara-Pataliputra (अपर-पाटलिपुत्र) is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [7]

Pataliputraka (पाटलिपुत्रक) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [8]

Purva-Pataliputra (पूर्वपाटलिपुत्र) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [9]


V. S. Agrawala[10] writes that the Kashika gives the following examples of towns Paṭaliputra (पाटलिपुत्र) and Ekachakra (एकचक्र) (VII.3.14, IV.2.123) in the east.

Pataliputra (Pāṭaliputra), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Ajatasatru in 490 BCE as a small fort (Pāṭaligrama) near the Ganges river.[11]

Extensive archaeological excavations have been made in the vicinity of modern Patna.Excavations early in the 20th century around Patna revealed clear evidence of large fortification walls, including reinforcing wooden trusses.[12]

There is no mention of Pataliputra in written sources prior to the early Buddhist texts (the Pali Canon and Agamas), where it appears as the village of Pataligrama and is omitted from a list of major cities in the region.[13] Early Buddhist sources report a city being built in the vicinity of the village towards the end of the Buddha's life; this generally agrees with archaeological evidence showing urban development occurring in the area no earlier than the 3rd or 4th Century BCE.[14]

Its central location in north central India led rulers of successive dynasties to base their administrative capital here, from the Nandas, Mauryans, Sungas and the Guptas down to the Palas.[15]

Situated at the confluence of the Ganges, Gandhaka and Son rivers, Pataliputra formed a "water fort, or jaldurga".[16] Its position helped it dominate the riverine trade of the Indo-Gangetic plains during Magadha's early imperial period. It was a great centre of trade and commerce and attracted merchants and intellectuals, such as the famed Chanakya, from all over India.

Two important early Buddhist councils are recorded in early Buddhist texts as being held here, the First Buddhist council immediately following the death of the Buddha and the Second Buddhist council in the reign of Ashoka. Jain and Brahmanical sources identify Udayabhadra, son of Ajatasatru, as the king who first established Pataliputra as the capital of Magadha.[17]

During the reign of Emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, it was one of the world's largest cities, with a population of 150,000–300,000. Pataliputra reached the pinnacle of prosperity when it was the capital of the great Mauryan Emperors, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka the Great. The city prospered under the Mauryas and a Greek ambassador, Megasthenes, resided there and left a detailed account of its splendour, referring to it as "Palibothra".

Ashoka's Palace in Pataliputra and the monument columns everywhere in India were built perfectly to imitate from the Achaemenid palaces and Persepolis columns. The architecture of Pataliputra's enclosures and the monument columns of Ashoka had been affected by Persian Achaemenid architecture.[18]

The city also became a flourishing Buddhist centre boasting a number of important monasteries. It remained the capital of the Gupta dynasty (3rd–6th centuries) and the Pala Dynasty (8th-12th centuries). The city was largely in ruins when visited by Xuanzang, and suffered further damage at the hands of Muslim raiders in the 12th century.[19]

Afterwards, Sher Shah Suri made Pataliputra his capital and changed the name to modern Patna.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[20] ने लेख किया है ...

1. Kusumapura (कुसुमपुर) (AS, p.218) = पुष्पपुर = पाटलिपुत्र (देखें: पुष्पपुर, पाटलिपुत्र, कुमरार)

2. Kusumapura (कुसुमपुर) (AS, p.218) = कान्यकुब्ज. युवान च्वाङ्ग ने कन्यकुब्ज का नाम कुसुमपुर भी लिखा है.

3. Kusumapura (कुसुमपुर) (AS, p.218) = ब्रह्मदेश (वर्मा) का प्राचीन भारतीय नगर जिसका नाम संभवत: मगध के प्रसिद्ध नगर कुसुमपुर या पाटलिपुत्र के नाम पर ही रखा गया था. ब्रह्मदेश में भारतियों ने अतिप्राचीन काल ही में अनेक औपनिवेशिक बस्तियां बसाई थीं.


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[21] ने लेख किया है ... कुसुमध्वज "गार्गी संहिता" के अंतर्गत 'युगपुराण' में कुसुमध्वज पर यवनों (ग्रीकों) के आक्रमण का उल्लेख है- 'तत: साकेतमाक्राम्य पांचालान् मथुरांस्तथा, यवना दुष्ठविक्रान्ता: प्राप्स्यन्ति कुसुमध्वज्। तत: पुष्पपुरे प्राप्ते कर्दमे प्रथिते हिते, आकुला विषया: सर्वे भविष्यन्ति न संशय:' (कर्न–बृहत्संहिता, पृ. 37.) कुसुमध्वज या 'पुष्पपुर' का अभिज्ञान पाटलिपुत्र से किया गया है। उपर्युक्त उद्धरण में संभवत: भारत पर दूसरी शती ई. पू. में होने वाले मिनेंडर के आक्रमण का उल्लेख है। गार्गी संहिता से भी ऐतिहासिक घटनाओं की जानकारी मिलती हैं, जिसमें भारत पर होने वाले यवन आक्रमणों के उल्लेख प्राप्त होते हैं। इस ग्रन्थ यवनों के साकेत, पंचाल, मथुरा तथा कुसुमध्वज पर आक्रमण का उल्लेख प्राप्त होता है।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[22] ने लेख किया है ... कुमरार (AS, p.202) पटना (बिहार) के निकट एक ग्राम जो स्टेशन से 8 मील पश्चिम में है. अब यह पटना का ही एक भाग बन गया है. डॉ स्पूनर के मत में चंद्रगुप्त मौर्य (320 ई.) का प्रसिद्ध राजप्रसाद जिसके भव्य सौंदर्य का वर्णन मेगस्थनीज ने किया है-- वर्तमान कुमरार के स्थान पर ही था. इस स्थान से उत्खनन द्वारा इस राजप्रसाद के कुछ अवशेष प्रकाश में लाए गए हैं. देखें पाटलिपुत्र. कुमरार प्राचीन कुसुमपुर का अपभ्रंश जान पड़ता है.

In the Gupta inscriptions

Tej Ram Sharma[23] writes .... (8) Pataliputra (पाटलिपुत्र) is mentioned in following inscriptions

  • No. 6, L. 4 : Udayagiri Cave Inscription of Chandragupta II (=A.D.375-414)

It is the same as modern Patna situated to the south of the river Ganga. Inscription No. 7 refers to Pataliputra. Inscription No. 6 mentions Virasena, the child of Kutsa, the minister for peace and war under Chandragupta II, who knew the meanings of the words, and logic, and (the ways of) mankind, who was a poet and who belonged to (the city of) Pataliputra. 290 Inscription No. 1 mentions a city named Puspa where Samudragupta enjoyed playfully while he was young. 291 Apparently, the city was the Gupta capital. We also find the word Pataliputa (Pataliputra) used by Asoka, in his rock edicts. 292 The city was also known as Kusumapura due to the abundance of flowers. 293 Its name Puspapura is also met with in the Raghuvamsa. 294 It is mentioned in the Mudraraksasa as well. 295 The Kathasaritsagaraof Somadeva 296 (llth century) describes it as a place of both wealth and education though generally there is a fight between Sri (Laksmi) and Sarasvati. 297

The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (A.D. 900) mentions a tradition that there were assemblies of scholars called brahma- sabhas, organised by kings, which examined poets like Kalidasa, Bharṭrmaṇṭha, Amara, Rupa, Aryasura, Bhāravi and Candragupta in Viśālā (Ujjaini) and where such great masters of grammar as Upavarsa, Panini, Pingala, Vyaḍi, Vararūci and Patanjali were examined in Pataliputra and attained fame. 298

The Manjusrimulakalpa 299 (A.D. 800) mentions Pataliputra as Nandanagara. This work refers to king Nanda, his learned Council of brahmana philosophers and to his intimacy with Panini. "After him (Surasena) there will be king Nanda

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 231

at Puspa city. In the capital of the Magadha residents there will be brahmana controversialists and the king will be surroun- ded by them. The king will give them riches. His minister was a Buddhist brahmana, Vararuci, who was of high soul, kind and good. His great friend was a brahmana, Panini by name". 300

The Kasika 301 records two divisions of Pataliputra :

1. Purva-Pataliputra (eastern on the Ganga)

2. Apara-Pataliputra (western on the Sona)

Patanjali 302 mentions the western Pataliputra. A citizen of Pataliputra was called Pataliputraka.303

The city is named as Palibothra by Megasthenes, the Ambassador of Seleucus Nicatorat the court of King Chandragupta Maurya. 304 The Pala inscriptions refer to it by the name Srinagara. 305

The termination 'Putra' in Pataliputra is difficult to explain. We find it being used with 'Brahman' to denote the river 'Brahmaputra'. As regards places-names we find the mention of Satiya puta (Satiya-putra) and Kerala-puta (Kerala putra) in Asokan Rock-edicts. 306

The name Pataliputra is taken to mean "the son (putra) of Pāṭali, i. e. the trumpet flower. The words Puspapura and Kusumapura also mean 'a city of flowers'. The word 'Srinagara' means 'a beautiful city'. 307 Because of the abundance of flowers the city may have looked beautiful. It was known by other names also, viz., Puspapura, Puspapuri and Kusumapura. 308 According to Yuan-Chwang, it had been called Kusumapura (K' u-su-mo-pu-lo) on account of the numerous flowers (kusuma) in the royal enclosure. 309 Later its glory was replaced by that of Kanyakubja which came to be known as Kusumapura. 310

The meaning of 'Pataliputra' is explained in the legendary origin of the city. According to the legend : there was a brahmana of high talent and singular learning. Many flocked to him to receive instruction. One day all his students went out on a tour of observation. One of them looked very sad. When asked, he told that his life was waning without any company. In a joke his friends made the Patali tree, under which they were standing, his father-in-law : in other words he was to marry the daughter of the tree, or a Patali flower

232 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

(Bignonia Suaveolens). 311 As the Sun was about to set, all - the students proposed to return home but the young student fascinated by love stayed there fearlessly. Accidentally, next day he was married with the young daughter of an old couple. After a year his wife gave birth to a son. He declined to stay there fearing the exposure to wind and weather. But the old man (the father of the wife) constructed a house for him and made him stay there. When the old capital of Kusumapura was changed, this town was chosen, and "as the genie built the mansion for the youth the country was named as Pataliputrapura (the city of the son of the Patali tree)." 312

It is not unlikely that originally the name of the city was Pataliputrapura and that later suffix Pura was dropped.

The Buddhist literature informs us that Pataliputra was originally a village known as Pataligama. Ajatasatru is said to have fortified it in order to check the attacks of the Licchavis who often harassed its inhabitants. The Buddha on his way from Rajagrha to Vaisali, passed through this village on his last journey and is said to have predicted that the village was destined to become a great city. 313

The Vayu-Purana attributes the real foundation of Pataliputra to Raja Ajata-Satru's grandson, Udaya or Udayasva.

It was he who first removed the capital from Rajagrha to Pataliputra (during the last part of the 6th century B. c.) 314

Pataliputra had closely been associated with multifarious political and cultural activities right from the fifth century B.C. to the later part of the sixth century A.D. 315 It had the honour to be the capital of the Saisunagas, the Nandas, the Mauryas and the great Imperial Guptas uptil the Huna invasion in the 6th century A.D. when it was ruined. Harsavardhana (7th century A. D.) made no attempt to restore it. 316 Sasanka Narendragupta destroyed many Buddhist temples and monasteries at Pataliputra. 317 Dharmapala, the most powerful of the Pala kings of Bengal and Bihar, tried to restore its glory. 318

Coming to medieval times, we find that it remained deserted for a number of centuries. It was Sher Shah, who, in about A. D. 1541 occupied it again as a royal city and built a fort there. It then came into importance under its modern name Patna (from Skt. Pattana) i. e. the town or city. It is even now the capital of Bihar. 319

290. कौत्सश्शाब इति ख्यातो वीरसेन: कुलाख्यया । शब्दार्थ-न्याय-लोकज्ञ कवि पाटलिपुत्रक ॥

291. दण्डैर्ग्राह्यतैव कोत-कुलजं पुष्पाह्वये क्रीडता-

292. Girnar, Rock Edict No. 5, L. 7 (Hultzsch) p. 9 : .....पाटलिपुते च बाहिरेसु च ।

293. विविधतिर्थकल्प पृ.६८ ... तच्च पाटला (पाडलि) नाम्ना पाटलिपुत्रं पत्तनमासीत् । असमकुसुमबहुलतया च कुसुमपुरमित्यपि रूढम् ।।

294. 6.2.4 : प्रासादवातायनसंश्रितानां नेत्रोत्सवं पुष्पपुराङ्गनानाम् ।

295. 2.3 ; and 4.16.

296. 3.78 : तदिदं दिव्यं नगरं मायारचितं सपौरमतएव । नाम्ना पाटलिपुत्रं क्षेत्रं लक्ष्मीसरस्वत्यो: ।।

297. All. S.I. of Samudragupta (No. 1) L. 6 : सत्काव्य-श्री-विरोधान्... Cf. परस्पर विरोधस्य तस्य राज्ये कथैव का । संगतं श्री सरस्वत्योरपि येन प्रवर्त्तित्तम् ।। Epigraphia Indica. I., p. 209.

298. काव्यमीमांस, दशमोअध्याय: पृ. १४३, श्रूयते च पाटलिपुत्रे शास्त्रकारपरीक्षा । अत्रोपवर्षंवर्षाविह पाणिनि पिन्गलाविह व्याडि:। वररुचिपतन्जलि इह परीक्षीता: ख्यातिमुपजग्मु: ॥

For the grammarians, see : India as Known to Panini by V. S. Agrawala . p. 12.

299. Verse 782. Cf. 'Nandapura'. The Historical Geography and Topography of Bihar by M. S. Pandey. p. 135.

300. V.S. Agrawala, India as Known to Panini. pp. 11-12.

301. VII. 3.14.

302. Mahabhasya, I. 1.2. 'Anusonam Pataliputram'.

303. Kasika, IV. 2.123. 'Ropadhetoh Pracam' : India as Known to Panini by V. S. Agrawala. p. 75.

304. Indian Historical Quarterly, Calcutta. Modi, Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay . Vol. XXVI. "Ancient Pataliputra" p. 461.

305.Epigraphia Indica. XVII, p. 321.

306. Rock Edict 2, L.2.

307. B.C. Law, Historical Geography of Ancient India. Satiyaputra, pp, 186-87: Keralaputra, pp-163-64. Dr.Pandey in the Historical Geography and Topography of Bihar, pp. 136-37 writes "No other city of ancient India known to us had a name ending in putra".

'The illustrious city, i.e. the city par excellence', Majumdar, The History of Bengal Vol.1. p. 273.

308. U.K. Roy, Studies in Ancient Indian History and Culture. p. 93.

309. Watters, On Yuan-Chwang" s Travels in India by T. Walters. 11-87.

310. U.N. Roy, op. cit., p. 93.

311. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay . XXVI, p. 462, f.n.4.

312. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay . XXVI, p, 463 : There is some difference in the description : see Vividhatirthakalpa, pp. 67-71 ; U. by Samuel Beal (1884), Vol. II, pp. 82-85 ; 'Legendary Origin of Patna', Indian Antiquary, Bombay. Vol. Ill, pp. 149-50; U.N. Roy, op. cit., p. 93.

313. The Historical Geography and Topography of Bihar by M. S. Pandey. pp. 135-36 ; B.C. Law, Historical Geography of Ancient India. pp. 249-50.

314. Vayu Parana, ch. 99.319 : Gargi Samhita, lines 9-12; Journal of Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Patna. (1928 ) p. 401; UN. Roy, Selections From Sanskrit Inscriptions by D. B. Diskalkar. p. 92.

315. U.N. Roy, Selections From Sanskrit Inscriptions by D. B. Diskalkar. p. 92.

316. Ibid., pp. 95-106.

317. S.C. Vidyabh.ushan, History of Indian Logic by S. C. Vidyabhusana. p. 349.

318. V.A. Smith, Early History of India. pp. 310-11. Also see for further details Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay. XXVI, pp. 464-68.

319. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay. Vol. XXVI, p. 468.

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 11 tells...Devanampiya Tissa (307-267 BC) became king of Lanka after his father's death. Even at the time of his consecration many wonders came to pass. In the whole isle of Lanka treasures and jewels that had been buried deep rose up to the surface of the earth. ....King Devanampiya Tissa thought to send pearls to his friend King Dhammasoka. The king sent four persons appointed as his envoys: his nephew Maharittha, who was the chief of his ministers, then his chaplain, a minister and his treasurer, attended by a body of retainers, and he bade them take with them those priceless jewels, the three kinds of precious stones, and the three stems (like) waggon-poles, and a spiral shell winding to the right, and the eight kinds of pearls. When they had embarked at Jambukola and in seven days had reached the haven in safety, and from thence in seven days more had come to Pataliputta, they gave those gifts into the hands of king Dhammasoka. ....When the ministers had stayed five months, highly honoured they set forth with the envoys, on the first day of the bright half of the month Vesakha. Having embarked at Tamalitti and landed at Jambukola they sought out the king, when they arrived here on the twelfth day. The envoys handed the gifts (in return from Dhammasoka) to the ruler of Lanka; the ruler of Lanka made them welcome with great hospitality.

Visit by Fahian

James Legge[24] writes that Having crossed the river, and descended south for a yojana, (the travellers) came to the town of Pataliputtra,1 in the kingdom of Magadha, the city where king Asoka2 ruled. The royal palace and halls in the midst of the city, which exist now as of old, were all made by spirits which he employed, and which piled up the stones, reared the walls and gates, and executed the elegant carving and inlaid sculpture-work — in a way which no human hands of this world could accomplish.

King Asoka had a younger brother who had attained to be an Arhat, and resided on Gridhra-kuta3 hill, finding his delight in solitude and quiet. The king, who sincerely reverenced him, wished and begged him (to come and live) in his family, where he could supply all his wants. The other, however, through his delight in the stillness of the mountain, was unwilling to accept the invitation, on which the king said to him, “Only accept my invitation, and I will make a hill for you inside the city.” Accordingly, he provided the materials of a feast, called to him the spirits, and announced to them, “To-morrow you will all receive my invitation; but as there are no mats for you to sit on, let each one bring (his own seat).” Next day the spirits came, each one bringing with him a great rock, (like) a wall, four or five paces square, (for a seat). When their sitting was over, the king made them form a hill with the large stones piled on one another, and also at the foot of the hill, with five large square stones, to make an apartment, which might be more than thirty cubits long, twenty cubits wide, and more than ten cubits high.

In this city there had resided a great Brahman,4 named Radha-sami,5 a professor of the mahayana, of clear discernment and much wisdom, who understood everything, living by himself in spotless purity. The king of the country honoured and reverenced him, and served him as his teacher. If he went to inquire for and greet him, the king did not presume to sit down alongside of him; and if, in his love and reverence, he took hold of his hand, as soon as he let it go, the Brahman made haste to pour water on it and wash it. He might be more than fifty years old, and all the kingdom looked up to him. By means of this one man, the Law of Buddha was widely made known, and the followers of other doctrines did not find it in their power to persecute the body of monks in any way.

By the side of the tope of Asoka, there has been made a mahayana monastery, very grand and beautiful; there is also a hinayana one; the two together containing six or seven hundred monks. The rules of demeanour and the scholastic arrangements6 in them are worthy of observation.

Shamans of the highest virtue from all quarters, and students, inquirers wishing to find out truth and the grounds of it, all resort to these monasteries. There also resides in this monastery a Brahman teacher, whose name also is Manjusri,7 whom the Shamans of greatest virtue in the kingdom, and the mahayana Bhikshus honour and look up to.

The cities and towns of this country are the greatest of all in the Middle Kingdom. The inhabitants are rich and prosperous, and vie with one another in the practice of benevolence and righteousness. Every year on the eighth day of the second month they celebrate a procession of images. They make a four-wheeled car, and on it erect a structure of four storeys by means of bamboos tied together. This is supported by a king-post, with poles and lances slanting from it, and is rather more than twenty cubits high, having the shape of a tope. White and silk-like cloth of hair8 is wrapped all round it, which is then painted in various colours. They make figures of devas, with gold, silver, and lapis lazuli grandly blended and having silken streamers and canopies hung out over them. On the four sides are niches, with a Buddha seated in each, and a Bodhisattva standing in attendance on him. There may be twenty cars, all grand and imposing, but each one different from the others. On the day mentioned, the monks and laity within the borders all come together; they have singers and skilful musicians; they pay their devotion with flowers and incense. The Brahmans come and invite the Buddhas to enter the city. These do so in order, and remain two nights in it. All through the night they keep lamps burning, have skilful music, and present offerings. This is the practice in all the other kingdoms as well. The Heads of the Vaisya families in them establish in the cities houses for dispensing charity and medicines. All the poor and destitute in the country, orphans, widowers, and childless men, maimed people and cripples, and all who are diseased, go to those houses, and are provided with every kind of help, and doctors examine their diseases. They get the food and medicines which their cases require, and are made to feel at ease; and when they are better, they go away of themselves.

When king Asoka destroyed the seven topes, (intending) to make eighty-four thousand,9 the first which he made was the great tope, more than three le to the south of this city. In front of this there is a footprint of Buddha, where a vihara has been built. The door of it faces the north, and on the south of it there is a stone pillar, fourteen or fifteen cubits in circumference, and more than thirty cubits high, on which there is an inscription, saying, “Asoka gave the jambudvipa to the general body of all the monks, and then redeemed it from them with money. This he did three times.”10 North from the tope 300 or 400 paces, king Asoka built the city of Ne-le.11 In it there is a stone pillar, which also is more than thirty feet high, with a lion on the top of it. On the pillar there is an inscription recording the things which led to the building of Ne-le, with the number of the year, the day, and the month.

1 The modern Patna, lat. 25d 28s N., lon. 85d 15s E. The Sanskrit name means “The city of flowers.” It is the Indian Florence.

2 See chap. x, note 3. Asoka transferred his court from Rajagriha to Pataliputtra, and there, in the eighteenth year of his reign, he convoked the third Great Synod — according, at least, to southern Buddhism. It must have been held a few years before B.C. 250; Eitel says in 246.

3 “The Vulture-hill;” so called because Mara, according to Buddhist tradition, once assumed the form of a vulture on it to interrupt the meditation of Ananda; or, more probably, because it was a resort of vultures. It was near Rajagriha, the earlier capital of Asoka, so that Fa-hien connects a legend of it with his account of Patna. It abounded in caverns, and was famous as a resort of ascetics.

4 A Brahman by cast, but a Buddhist in faith.

5 So, by the help of Julien’s “Methode,” I transliterate the Chinese characters {.} {.} {.} {.}. Beal gives Radhasvami, his Chinese text having a {.} between {.} and {.}. I suppose the name was Radhasvami or Radhasami.

6 {.} {.}, the names of two kinds of schools, often occurring in the Li Ki and Mencius. Why should there not have been schools in those monasteries in India as there were in China? Fa-hien himself grew up with other boys in a monastery, and no doubt had to “go to school.” And the next sentence shows us there might be schools for more advanced students as well as for the Sramaneras.

7 See chap. xvi, note 22. It is perhaps with reference to the famous Bodhisattva that the Brahman here is said to be “also” named Manjusri.

8? Cashmere cloth.

9 See chap. xxiii, note 3.

10 We wish that we had more particulars of this great transaction, and that we knew what value in money Asoka set on the whole world. It is to be observed that he gave it to the monks, and did not receive it from them. Their right was from him, and he bought it back. He was the only “Power” that was.

11 We know nothing more of Ne-le. It could only have been a small place; an outpost for the defence of Pataliputtra.


  1. James Todd Annals/Chapter 4 Foundations of States and Cities by the different tribes, p.51
  2. Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Pāṭali, [1] (a junior synonym of Stereospermum colais [2])
  3. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, p.677
  4. Folklore, Vol. 19, No. 3 (September 30, 1908), pp. 349–350
  5. The Calcutta Review Vol LXXVI (1883), p.218
  6. Language, Vol. 4, No. 2 (June , 1928), pp. 101–105
  7. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.73
  8. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.73
  9. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.73
  10. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.72-73
  11. Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (2004), A History of India, 4th edition. Routledge, Pp. xii, 448, ISBN 0-415-32920-5.
  12. Valerie Hansen Voyages in World History, Volume 1 to 1600, 2e, Volume 1 pp. 69 Cengage Learning, 2012
  13. Sujato, Bhikkhu; Bhikkhu, Brahmali, "1.1.5", The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts, Oxford Center for Buddhist Studies.
  14. Sujato, Bhikkhu; Bhikkhu, Brahmali, "1.1.5", The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts, Oxford Center for Buddhist Studies.
  15. Thapar, Romilak (1990), A History of India, Volume 1, New Delhi and London: Penguin Books. Pp. 384, ISBN 0-14-013835-8.
  16. The Pearson Indian History Manual, Pearson Education India, A94.
  17. Sujato, Bhikkhu; Bhikkhu, Brahmali, "1.1.5", The Authenticity of the Early Buddhist Texts, Oxford Center for Buddhist Studies.
  18. The Analysis of Indian Muria Empire affected from Achaemenid’s architecture art. In: Journal of Subcontinent Researches. Article 8, Volume 6, Issue 19, Summer 2014, Page 149-174.
  19. Scott, David (May 1995). "Buddhism and Islam: Past to Present Encounters and Interfaith Lessons". Numen 42 (2).
  20. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.218
  21. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.
  22. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.202
  23. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Place-Names and their Suffixes, pp.231-233
  24. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms/Chapter 27