Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Householders and Traders

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Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Tej Ram Sharma

Concept Publishing Company Delhi, 1978

The full text of this chapter has been converted into Wiki format by Laxman Burdak

Names of Householders and Traders



Names ending in Bhadra

1. Acyutabhadra (अच्युतभद्र) (No. 43, L. 11) :

Bhadra is the name of Lord Shiva. Acyuta means 'firm' or 'solid'. Thus Acyutabhadra has the same meaning as that of Sthanu Siva.1 The name is based on the quality of firmness of Lord Siva.

2. Ratibhadra (रतिभद्र) (No. 43, L. II) :

Rati is often personified as one of the two wives of Kamadeva, together with Priti.2 Bhadra is the frame of Lord Siva. The name depicts the quality of kindness of Lord Shiva who had put cupid, the husband of Rati, to ashes for disturbing his penance but who at the prayer of Rati madehirii alive to reside in all men but without a body. Ratibhadra can also literally mean a man skilful in rati3 i.e. sexual enjoymerit.

Names ending in Bhava

1. Kumarabhava (कुमारभव) (No. 43, L.5) : Kumara is another name of Skanda or Karttikeya 4 and Bhava is the name of Lord Shiva. So it is also a name formed by combining the names of two deities. We find several names with Kumara as the first word. Cf. Kumarasvamin, Kumaraharita, Kumarabhatta5

2. Rudrabhava (रुद्रभव) (No. 43, L. 6) : It will mean born by (the grace of) Siva.

Names ending in Dasa

1. Kuladasa (कुलदास) (No. 43, L. 10):


72 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


Kula means 'race, family, community'.6 Dasa means servant. So the whole will literally mean 'a servant of the community or family'. Dharmasastras prescribe 'dasa' to be used by sudras at the end of their names but we do not find any strict adherence to this rule by the society. Dasa-ending names show devotion. We have such names as 'Kulabhusana' based on the word 'fate'.

2. Matrdasa (मातृदास) (No. 7, L. 4) : Matr means 'mother' or the divine mothers (considered to be 7, 9 or 16 in number).7 So it will literally mean 'a servant of the divine mothers'.

3. Narayanadasa8 (नारायनदास) (No.43, L. 10) :

It is to be taken as 'Narayanadasa' literally meaning f a servant of the god'.

4. Sarvvadasa (शर्व्वदास) (No. 43, L.;I2) :

Sarvva is another name of Lord Siva9 . So te whole will literally means a servant of Lord Siva'.

Names ending in Datta

1. Bhavadatta (भवदत्त) (No, 43, L. 8) :

Bhava is the name of Lord Siva and datta means 'given'. The whole literally means 'given by Lord Siva'. Such names show devotion towards a particular deity.

2. Jayadatta (जयदत्त) (No. 43, L. 11) :

Java is the name of an attendant of Visnu,10 and datta means 'given'. The whole will literally mean 'given by Jaya'. It is a name based on the deity Visnu.11 Jayadatta was the name of a king in the Kathasaritsagara, of a minister in the Rajatarangigini, of the author of the Asvavaidyaka, of a Bodhisattva and of a son of Indra.12 We find many personal names with the first part 'Jaya' in the Rajatarangini.13

3. Krsnadatta (कृष्णदत्त) (No. 43, L. 8) :

The first part Krsna refers to Lord Krsna and the second part datta means given, thus the whole means 'given by Lord Krishna'.

4. Simhadatta (सिंहदत्त) (No. 43, L. 10) :

It should be taken as Simhadatta. Simhadatta meaning 'lion- given' 15 was the name of an Asura; it has also been the name of a poet.16

It is a name based on the Zodiacal sign Leo or its lagna.


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 73


A child born in such lagna may be named as Simhadatta.17

Names ending in Deva

1. Bhadradeva (भद्रदेव) (No. 30, L. 5) :

Bhadra means 'auspicious, gracious, kind' and deva means 'god'. So the whole will literally mean 'a gracious god'.

2. Dhanyadeva (धन्यदेव) (No. 30, L. 5) :

Dhanya also means 'fortunate, auspicious'.18 Thus the complete name will literally mean 'an auspicious god'.

3. Harideva (हरिदेव) (No. 30, L. 5) :

Hari is generally applied to Visnu-Krsna (in this sense thought by some to be derived from Hari 'to take away or remove evil or sin).19 Hence the whole expression will literally mean 'god Visnu or Krsna'.

4. Nagadeva नागदेव (No. 33, L. 10) :

It will literally mean the serpent-god. In Sanskrit literature we find several authors with this name.20

5. Naradeva (नरदेव) (No. 43, L. II) :

It would literally mean 'the god of men' i.e. a king'. It has also been the name of an author. 21

6. Samghadeva (संघदेव) (No. 30, L. 5) :

It would literally mean 'god of the Order (Buddhist )'. "To whom the Order (Buddhist) is supreme".

7. Srideva (श्रीदेव) (No. 30, L. 5) : Literally it means 'god of fortune or wealth, i.e. Visnu'.

Names ending in Kunda

The word 'kunda' (कुण्ड) here yields no meaning when combined with the first part. It has only been used as a surname.

1. Kamanakunda (कामनकुण्ड)(No. 43, L. 11) :

It should be taken as Kamanakunda. The word kamana means 'desire'. The second part 'kunda' seems to be a family surname. Literally it means a bowl, pitcher, a vessel for coals, or around hole in the ground (for receiving and preserving water or fire. Cf. Agnikunda).22 It is a Dravidian word.23 We have the names of mohallas ending in 'kunda', such as Durgakunda, Agastyakunda, Laksmikunda in Varanasi.

As a surname, we find its use for the Nagara brahmanas. We find many brahmana surnames popular among the 'kayas-


74 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


thas of Bengal.25 'Kunda' though originally a brahmana surname is now a non-brahmana surname in Bengal. Some of the people possessing the kunda surname are found to be oil-men by profession. Its corrupt form kundu is also found.

Both Kund and Kundu are Jat Gotras.

2. Pichchakunda (पिच्चकुण्ड) (No. 43, L. 12) :

Pichcha means 'the heaven or next birth'.'26' It can also be the corrupt form of t pitr which means the fathers, forefathers, ancestors, especially the Pitris or deceased ancestors.27

3. Pravarakunda (प्रवरकुण्ड) (No. 43, L. 12) : Pravara means most excellent, chief, eminent, distinguished. We find several instances of the names of kings and places with the first part 'Pravara' .

4. Sivakunda (शिवकुण्ड) (No. 43, L. 6) :

The name is based on the deity Siva.

Names ending in Mitra

1. Krishnamitra (कृष्णमित्र)(No. 43, L. 6) : Literally it may mean 'one who loves Krsna or is a friend of Krsna. It may signify devotion of Sakhyabhava. It was also the name of the son of Ramasevaka (grandson of Devidatta, author of the Manjusa Kusichika). 29.

2. Prabhamitra (प्रभमित्र) (No. 43, L. 6) :

Prabha is a Prakritised form of Prabhu meaning God. So the whole will mean 'God's friend'. Such names show devotion to the respective deities.

Names ending in Naga

1. Rajyanaga (रज्यनाग) (No. 43, L. 10) :

Rajya means 'kingly, princely or royal'; it also means 'kingdom, country or realm'.31 Naga means serpent. So the whole literally means 'a royal naga'. Naga is prefixed as well as suffixed to names. It shows a trend towards serpent worship. The use of Rajya as the first part of the name is also not without parallels.32

2. Viranaga (वीरनाग) (No. 43, L. 10) :

Vira means brave, eminent or chief. We can find many names with the first word 'Vira'. The whole literally means 'a brave or eminent serpent'.


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 75


Names ending in Natha

1. Bhavanatha (भवनाथ) (No. 43, L.10) :

The first part, 'Bhava' here means 'the world'. 33 The second part Natha means 'a protector, owner, lord' 34 and is used both as the first part as well as the second part of the name for example in the names Natha-malla, Natha-simha, Nathananda- muni, Nath'oka etc.35 Bhavanatha would literally mean here 'the lord of the world', i.e. the god Bhavanatha, was the name of an author.36 The word Bhava is also the synonym of Lord Siva so it is to be counted as a Saivite name.

2. Srinatha (श्रीनाथ) (No. 43, L. 7) :

Sri is the goddess of wealth, wife of Visnu. Srinatha would literally mean 'the Lord of Sri', i.e. the deity Visnu.

Names ending in Palita and Raksita

1 . Sarppapalita (सर्प्पपालित) (No. 43, L. 9) :

The first part Sarppa means a serpent and the second part palita means 'protected '. Thus the whole literally means 'protected by serpents'. The name shows a tendency of the family towards serpent-worship.

2. Bhavaraksita (भवरक्षित) (No. 43, L. 12) :

Bhava is the name of Lord Shiva37 and raksita means 'protected'. Thus the whole would literally mean 'protected by Lord Siva'. The name shows a fondness of the family for the deity Siva.

Names ending in Sarmman

Sarmman a brahmana surname is the common ending for the following names. It means a shelter, protection comfort, bliss, etc.38

1. Ahisarmman (अहिशर्म्मन) (No. 43, L. 8) :

The whole will literally mean 'a shelter for the serpents'.

2. Guptasarmman (गुप्तशर्म्मन) (No. 43, L. 7) :

It would literally mean 'a hidden resort'. We can find many names with the first part 'Gupta' e.g., Guptanatha, Gupteshvara, etc.

3. Harisarmman (हरिशर्म्मन) (No. 43, L. 7) :

Hari means lord Visnu or Krsna. We have also such names as Visnusarman and Sivasarman where the first part is


76 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


based on the name of a certain deity. The second part Sarman gives no meaning here to the first part.

4. Himasarmman (हिमशर्म्मन) (No. 43, L. 9) :

Hima 39 means snow or winter. G. Buhler 40 takes the meaning of hima as 'the moon'. So we can say that the name is based on the deity moon. The word Sarman signifies only a surname. It has got no meaning as the part of the name. Or we may say that the name is based on the winter season,41

5. Kaivarttasarman (कैवर्त्तशर्म्मन)(No 43, L. 9) :

The word Kaivartta means 'a fisherman (born of a prostitute by a kshatriya; or of an Ayogava female by a Nisada father).42 We also come across a name 'Kaivartti-Sresthin' in No.46, L. II. The name Kaivarttasarmman may signify the profession of the person who was by birth a brahmana. The word Sarman here yields no meaning when combined with the first part; it is only significant of a brahmana surname.

6. Kramasarmman (क्रमशर्म्मन)(No. 43, L. 8) :

Krama means uninterrupted or regular progress, hereditary descent.43 It may literally mean 'one who protects the family by causing increase in descent (by his birth)'.

7. Laksmanasarmman (लक्ष्मणशर्म्मन) (No. 43, L. 8) :

The name is based on Laksmana, the younger brother of deity Rama. The word Sarman here has the significance of a surname only.

8. Maghasarmman (मघशर्म्मन) (No. 43, L. 6) :

Magha means wealth or power. Literally it would mean 'one who protects the wealth'.

9. Rupasarmman (रूपशर्म्मन)(No. 43, LL. 7-8) :

Rupa means 'form, figure, beauty'. Here it may mean beautiful. We have similar names, e.g., Rupalal, Sunderlal, Rupachand, etc., in modern times. The first part of the name is based on a virtue, i.e. 'beauty'. It would mean 'one who is beautiful'.

10. Rustasarmman (रुष्टशर्म्मन) (No. 33, L. 8) :

Rusta means angry. The name might have been given due to furious nature of the man. Rusta was the name of a Muni.44

The word 'Sarman' is only significant of the brahmana surname and yields no sensible meaning when combined with the


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 77.


first part.

11. Sukkrasarmman (शुक्क्रशर्म्मन)(No. 43, LL. 8-9) :

Sukra means 'bright, resplendent; light-coloured, white'.45 . The name may be based on colour, day (Friday), or the sage Sukra. Literally it would mean 'one who is white-coloured'.

12. Susarmman (सुशर्म्मन)(No. 43, L. 7):

'Su' is generally prefixed before names. It means 'good or excellent'. The whole will literally signify 'one who is good'.

Names ending in Siva

1. Aparasiva (अपरशिव) (No. 43, L. 6) : Apara means 'having no rival or superior; having nothing beyond or after'.46 The second part is Siva. The literal meaning of the name is 'the unrivalled or the great Siva. We have such names as 'Apararka'; 47 Purnacandra or Purnasimha.

2. Vasusiva (वासुशिव) (No. 43, L. 6) :

Vasu mean 'good or beneficient' 48 and Siva refers to Lord Siva. So the whole will mean 'beneficient Siva'.

Names ending in Svamin

1. Alatasvamin (अलातस्वमिन) (No. 43, L. 7) :

The first part 'Alata' (अलात) means fire.49 We have in the Mahabharata a name 'Alataksha 'having fiery eyes', one of the mothers in Skanda's retinue.50 The second part svamin means 'a master, lord or owner'. It is also used for a spiritual preceptor, learned brahmana or pandita (used as a title at the end of names, especially of the natives of the Karnataka).51 Literally the whole means 'the lord of fire'.

2. Battasvamin (बट्ट स्वामिन)(No. 43, L .7) :

The word Bhatta (बट्ट) literally means 'lord' (from bhartr). It is a title of respect but is also affixed to the names of learned brahmanas. Here it has been used as the first part of the name while in other examples we find it used as a second part of the name. Bhattasvamin is also the name of the author of a commentary on the Arthasastra. The whole name literally means 'the lord of lords'.

3. Brahmasvamin (ब्रह्मस्वामिन)(No. 43, L. 7) : Brahman means prayer, the sacred word, the text of mantra used as spell. 52 We find several personal names based on this


78 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


word in literature. 53 Literally the name would mean 'whose lord is Brahman'.

4. Jayasvamin (जयस्वामिन)(No. 43, L.9) :

Jaya is the name of an attendant of Visnu. So it is a Vaisnavite name, meaning 'the lord of Jaya', i.e. Visnu.

5. Ramasavamin (रामस्वामिन)(No. 43, L. 11) :

The name is based on the deity Rama, meaning 'whose lord is Rama', i.e. 'Ramasya svami'.

Names ending in Visnu

1. Guhavisnu (No. 43, L. 10; L. 11) :

Visnu seems to have been the family deity of people listed here with Visnu as the second part of their names. Guha is the name of Skanda or Karttikeya. Visnu signifies Lord Visnu. So it is a name with the combination of two deities Guha and Visnu.

2. Jayavisnu (No, 43, L.9) :

The word Jaya means victorious. We find many names with the first part Jaya, for example, Jayadeva, Jayarama and Jayadatta. Jayavisnu means 'the victorious Visnu'.

3. Kirttivisnu (No. 43, L.8) :

Kirtti means fame or glory. The whole will literally mean 'the glorious Visnu'.

4. Kumaravisnu (No. 43, L. 5) :

Kumara is another name of Skanda. Thus this name is also formed by the combination of the names of two deities.

5. Sarvvavisnu (No. 43, L. 10) :

Sarva is the name of god Siva.54 It is another case of a name formed by combining the names of two deities.

6. Somavisnu (No. 43, L.8) :

Soma is also a deity, personified as one of the most important Vedic gods, but in post-Vedic mythology and even in a few (late) hymns of the Rgveda and sometimes also in later- Vedic period Soma is identified with the Moon (as the receptacle of the other beverage of gods, called Amrta, or as the lord of the plants) and with the god of the Moon as well as with Visnu, Siva, Yama and Kubera. 55 This name has also been formed by the combination of the names of two deities.

7. Yasovisnu (No. 43, L. 5) :


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 79


Yasas means fame or glory. The whole would literally mean "The god (Visnu) of glory". 56

One-word names

In such names the second part is generally dropped for the sake of brevity. The names of the gods given directly to persons in some cases are against prescribed rules; but we may suggest that the second part has been dropped.

1. Achyuta (अच्युत) (No. 43, L. 11) :

Achyuta literally meaning 'not fallen', i.e. permanent, solid, firm, imperishable is the name of Lord Visnu or Krsna.57

2. Bhaskara (भास्कर) (No 44, L. 3; L. 9; L.14; L. 16) :

Literally meaning 'one who produces the rays of light'. Bhaskara is the name of God Sun.58

3. Bhava (भव) (No. 43, L. 11) :

Literally meaning 'coming into existence', Bhava is the name of Lord Siva. It also means 'the world'. 59 .

4. Bhoyila (भोयिल) (No. 44, L. 3; L. 8; L. 14; L. 15) :

It is a name with the suffix ila.60 The name of Bhavadatta seems to have been changed to Bhoyila as in the case of Agila (Agnidatta), Satila (Svatidatia), Nagila (Nagadatta) and Yakhila (Yaksadatta).61

5. Bonda (बोंद) (No. 43, L. 10) :

It is a local name in Prakritised form which literally means South'.62 We have such names as Mukharama Sarma. The word seems to have some relationship with Bundelkhand in Madhya Pradesh where the inhabitants are called Bundelas.

6. Gopala (गोपाल) (No. 43, L. 12) : Gopala literally meaning 'the protector or foster of the cows' is the name of Lord Visnu or Krsna

7. Guha (गुह) (No. 43, L. 10) :

Guha is the name of Skanda or Karttikeya, Lord Siva, Lord Visnu.63 According to Monier Williams, it is a name belonging to persons of the writer caste. 64 We cannot say with affirmity whether Guha was a writers' caste in the Gupta period.

8. Hari (हरि) (No. 43, L.7) :

Hari is the name of Lord Visnu or Krsna. It is to be derived from √hr, 'to take away or remove evil or sin'.65

9. Kalaka (कालक) (No. 43, L. 11):


80 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


It means dark-blue or black.66 It is a name based on colour.67 We have several cases of names with the word Kalaka, for example, 'Kalakaksha' black-eyed, the name of an Asura; 'Kalakacarya' a Jain teacher and astronomer; 'Kalakendra' name of a prince of the Dhanavas. 68 It is a name with the suffix 'ka'

10. Kankuti (कंकुटि) (No. 43, L. 9) :

The Sanskrit form will be kankatin meaning 'furnished with armour'; when the form is Kankatini it means 'a chamberlain'. 69 Kanku is a mistake for kanka. 70 Kanku was the name of a son of Ugrasena.71 Kanka, 72 according to lexicographers means 'a false or pretended brahmana'; it was the name assumed by Yudhisthira before Icing Virata, when in the disguise of a brahmana.

11. Lidhaka (लीढक) (No. 43, L. 11):

This name has also been formed by the addition of the suffix 'ka' The word is formed by the root '√lih' to lick, to eat or to taste.73 Lidhaka thus means 'one who licks'. The name may have been given due to his habits of licking which exhibit greediness.

12. Mahi (मही) (No. 43, L. 10):

Mahi means 'earth' personified as deity. We have many names, formed with Mahi or its synonym, for example, Mahidasa, Mahidatta, Prthivlkumara, etc.

13. Nabhaka (नाभक) (No. 33, L. 4, L. 8) :

The name is formed with the addition of suffix 'ka' to nabha' or nabhi meaning navel.74' Literally it means 'navel born'. Generally incarnations are said to have been born from nabhi just as Brahma is said to have first appeared on the lotus sprung from the navel of Visnu.

14. Puramdara (पुरंदर) (No. 43, L.9) :

Literally meaning 'destroyer of strongholds', [Puramdara]] is the name of Indra, the lord of the gods.75

15. Samkara (शंकर) ((No. 43, L. 9) :

Literally meaning 'causing prosperity', Samkara is the name of Lord Siva. 76

16. Undana (उन्दान) (No. 5, L.5) :

The root apparent in the form is √ud-√und meaning to wet, bathe 77 from which the name -can be derived. The name


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 81


Unddna may, therefore, mean 'kind or humane'. 78

17. Vailinaka (वैलिनक) (No. 43, L. 5) :

The name is formed by adding suffix 'ka' to Vellana which means 'going, moving about, shaking, rolling (of a horse)'.80 Vellana is also a sort of rolling pin with which cakes, chappatis, etc., are prepared.81 The name denotes the habit of rolling or moving about of the child. In modern times also names like Bellana (Vellana) are given. It may refer to the baby being fat. It can refer to a person's changing temperament.

18. Vampiyoka ( वंपियोक) (No. 52, L. 20) : It should be read as Vappiyaka. It is the name of a king in the Rajatarangini.82 Vappa is the Prakrtised form for vapra meaning 'a rampart, any shore or bank, mound, hillock' 83 or the field. 84 Vappia also means 'field. 85 to which the suffix 'ka' has been added. We have similar names such as 'Kedaranatha' meaning 'owner of the field'.

19. Visva (विश्व) (No. 43, L. 9) :

Formed from the √vish to pervade, it means all-pervading or all containing, omnipresent. It is applied to Visnu or Krsna. 86 We have many similar names, e.g.,Visvakarman,Vivanatha and Visvadatta.

Miscellaneous

1. Adityabandhu (आदित्यबंधु) (No. 52, L. 20) :

The first part is Aditya meaning 'the deity Sun,; bandhu means 'a relation or friend'. So the whole means 'a friend of god Sun We have many examples of names with bandhu as the second part, e.g. Dinabandhu, Visvabandhu, Vedabandhu, etc. We have also names with Aditya as their first part such as Adityanatha and Adityanarayana.

2. Damarudra (दामरुद्र) (No. 43, L. 6) :

Daman means 'garland' 87 and Rudra stands for Siva. The whole literally means 'Rudra having a garland'. The names with the first word 'daman' were popular in ancient times. 88 We also find daman-ending names in ancient literature.

3. Isvaracandra (ईश्वरचंद्र) (No. 43, L. 6) :

Isvara literally meaning 'powerful (capable of doing)' is often used as a synonym for Lord Siva. 89 Candra means 'the Moon'. The whole will literally mean 'the Moon of Lord Siva,


82 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


situated on the forehead of Lord Siva. Names with Candra as their second part are quite common even now, e.g., Sivacandra, Ramacandra and Krsnacandra.

4. Kumarabhuti (कुमारभूति) (No. 43, L. 5) :

Kumara means Skanda or Karttikeya and bhuti means power or wealth.90 So the whole will mean 'power or wealth of Kumara'. We have also similar names like 'Bhavabhuti' meaning power or wealth of Lord Siva.

5. Kumarayasas (कुमारयशस) (No. 43, L. 5) :

The whole will rrean 'fame or glory of Kumara'. A desire for the attainment of the glory of god Karttikeya is reflected here.

6. Mahasena (महासेन) (No. 43, L. 7) :

Mahasena seems to have been used for Karttikeya. Literally meaning 'having a great army or the commander of a large force or a great general', Mahasena is the name of Karttikeya or Skanda.91 Sena 'armed force' is also personified as the wife of Karttikeya. 92

7. Nandadama (नन्ददाम) (No. 43, L.8) :

Nanda is the name of the foster father of Krsna '93 Daman means 'garland'. 94' The whole literally means 'a garland of Nanda' i.e. one who is dearer to Nanda. It may refer to Lord Krsna. We have many examples of names with Nanda as their first part, e.g., Nandalal, Nandakishore and Nandakumara.

8. Prabhakirtti95 प्रभकीर्त्ति (No. 43, L 11) : Prabha is the Prakritised form of Prabhu meaning 'God'. Kirti may be translated as glory. The whole thus means 'glory of God'.

Names of Vanikas (Traders)

1. Achalavarman (अचलवर्मन) (No. 16, L. 6) :

Achala means 'firm' or 'stable'. Varman is a surname used for kshatriyas. Acalavarman is specifically mentioned as a kshatriya. 96 This is significant. It means that kshatriyas followed the profession of vaisyas.

2. Bandhumitra (बन्धुमित्र) (No. 34, L.5; No. 35, L. 4) :

The name literally means "a friend of his relatives".

3. Bhr(bhru)kunthasimha भ्रूकुंठसिंह) (No. 16, L. 6) :

The first part of the name means "one with contracted brows (out of anger)". The second part is simha or lion which is often


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 83


the surname of kshatriyas?

4. Kapila (कपिल) (No. 33, L. 8) :

He is described as a merchant but he also acted as a scribe. The name is based on colour and is probably to be connected with kapi 'monkey-coloured' brown, tawny, reddish.97

5 Sribhadra (श्रीभद्र) (No. 33, L. 8) :

It is the name of a merchant who also acts as a scribe. It is a name based on Sri 'the goddess of wealth', the whole meaning 'auspicious for wealth'.

6. Sthanudatta (स्थाणुदत्त) (No. 37. L. 5) :

The name is based 'on the name of Lord Siva who is also called, 'Sthanu' meaning firm or immovable. 98 'Datta' is a surname which means 'given'. The whole expression means begotten on by the grace of Lord 'Siva'.

7. Sthaya(na)pala स्थाय(न)पाल (No. 33, L. 8) :

A merchant who also acts as a scribe. D.C. Sircar takes the reading 'Sthayapala'. 99 He also suggests the possibility of a second reading 'sthanapala' which means 'watchman or policeman'.100 This reading seems to be correct; Sthayapala yields no sensible meaning.

8. Vasumitra (वसुमित्र) (No. 36, L. 4) :

The first part of the name is vasu (wealth) and the second is mitra the whole literally meaning 'a friend of wealth'. Another possibility is that name vasu stands for a group of deities and mitra means the sun and Vasumitra Thereby yielding the sense "a sun among deities"

References

1. Fz. p. 9, col. 2.

2. Ibid., p. 867, -col. 3.

3. Ibid., p. 745, col. 3.

4. Ibid., p. 29&.ol. 1-2.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.. p.294, col 2.

7. Ibid., p. 807, ccd. 1.

8. The reading is checked-by me.

9. Fz. p. 1057, col.:l. .

10. Ibid.,p..4l2 i col. 3.

11. H. p. 88.

Cf. जयनाथ-जयकान्त, जयपति, जयरत्न, अभिधान-चिंतामणि, पृ.45

Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 83


श्लोक 175 :तनयस्तु जयंत: स्याज्जयदत्तो जयश्च स:।।

12. Fz. p. 413, col. 1; Bz. pp. 61-64.

13. Passim.

14. JJ. XIX, p. 21, f. n. 8. The reading has been checked by me.

15. Fz. p. 1213, col. 1.

16. Ibid. ;

17. H. p. 440. .

18. Fz. p. 509, col. 1.

19. Ibid., p. 1289, col. 3.

20. Ibid., p. 533, col. 1.

21. Ibid., p. 529, col. 1.

22. Ibid., p. 289, col. 3.

23. T. Burrow, (Mg)1 'Non-Aryan Influence on Sanskrit', p. 381.

Tamila : Kuntu 'hollow; pool, pit';
Malyalam : Kuntu 'hole, pit';
Kannada : Kunte, Kunda, gundi, 'hole, pit', etc;
Cf. Mayrhofer, A. p/226.

24. Barua, Zz. p. 95.

25. Bhandarkar, HJ. March 1932, p. 52, Sircar, JJ. XIX, pp. 17-18.

26. Xy. p. 517.

27. Fz. p. 626, col. 2.

28. Ibid., p. 690, col. 3.

29. Ibid., p. 307, col. 2.

30. The reading has been checked by me.

31. Fz. p. 875, col. 1.

32. Ibid., col. 1-2.

33. Ibid., p. 749, col. 1.

34. Ibid., p. 534, col. 3.

35. Ibid., For the use as the Secoild part we have here Bhavanatha, other examples are Sivanatha, Ramanatha, etc.

36. Ibid., p. 749, col. 1.

37. Ibid.

38. Ibid., p. 1058, col. 2-3.

39. Ibid. , p. 1298, col. 3.

40. GJ. vol. II, p. 95.

41. Just like we have such names as Vasantarama or Vasantaraja based on the spring season.

42. Fz. p. 311, col. 3. The Kaivarttas or Kevattas (Keots) were spread all over the country in Bengal. Hg. Vol. I, p. 67. As an occupational caste 'it has divided itself into Jaliya Kaivarttas who practised the Calling of fisherman, and Haliya (or chasi) Kaivarttas (also spelled as Kaibarttas) who lived by agriculture. Latter on Haliya Kaivarttas thinking themselves superior banned all intermarriage with Jaliya Kaivarttas and succeeded in getting recognition as a separate caste under the name of Mahisya(tiutton, W. p. 46). According to the Brahmavaivartta Purana, Kaivarra is born of a kshatriya father and


Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions 85


vaisya mother which is Known as Mahisya (Gautam, IV, 20). It seems to imply that Kaivarta was degraded in Kaliyuga by his association with the Tivara and was known as, or adopted the vocation of a dhivara or fisherman (Majumdar, Cg. Vol. I, p. 591.)

43. Fz. p. 319, col. 3.

44. Ibid., p. 885.

45. Ibid., p. 1080, col. 1.

46. Ibid., p. 50, col. 2. >

47. Ibid., col. 3.

48. Ibid., p. 930, col. 3.

49. Ibid., p. 94, col. 3 : अभिधान-चिंतामणि पृ.252 श्लोक 1103 :सफुलिंगोअग्नि-कणोअलात ज्वालोल्काअलात मुल्मुकम् ।

50. Fz. p. 94, col. 3.

51. Ibid., p. 1284, col. 1.

52. Ibid., p. 737, col. 1.

53. Ibid., pp. 737 if.

54. Ibid., p. 1057, col. 1.

55. Ibid., p. 1249, col. 3.

56. Cf. Klrtti-Vinu, No, 3.

57. Fz. p. 9, col. 2.

58. Ibid., p. 756, col. 1.

59. Ibid., pp. 748-49, col. 3-1

60. Panini, V. 3.79.

61. Jy. p. 191, No. 18.

62. Xy. p. 638.

63. Fz. p. 360, col. 2.

64. Ibid.

65. Ibid., p. 1289, col. 3.

66. Ibid., p. 277, col. 3.

67. अन्गविज्जा, पृ.153 , भूमिका पृ.47

68. Fw. p. 277, col. 3.

69. Ibid., p. 242, col. 2. Xy. p. 638.

70. Ibid., see : Kanku.

71. Ibid.

72. Fz. p. 242, col. 1.

73. Ibid., p. 903, col. 1. अन्गविज्जा, पृ.153 , भूमिका पृ.47 74. Fz. p. 535, col. 3. See nSbha and nabhi.

75. Ibid., p. 635, col. 3.

76. Ibid., p. 1054, col. 3.

77. Ibid., p. 183, col. 1, See Vud2.

78. Ibid., col. 3. See unna.

79. The reading has been checked by me.

80. Fz. p. 746, col. 1.

81. Ibid., p. 746, col. 1.


86 Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions


82. Ibid., p. 920, cpl. 2, See vappiya or vappiyaka. Bz. p. 108.

83. Fz. p. 920, col. 1.

84. Xy. p. 745.

85. Ibid., p. 746: वप्पिअ, पृ.(दे) i.e. a desi word.

86. Fz. p. 992, col. 2.

87. Ibid., p. 475, col. 1.

88. Ibid., p. 474, col. 3 : Damakantha, Damagranthi, Damacandra, Damodara, etc.

89. Ibid., p. 171, col. 1.

90. Ibid., p. 762, col. 3.

91. Ibid., p. 801, col. 3.

92. Ibid., p. 1246, col. 2.

93. Ibid., p. 526, col. 3.

94. Cf. Pz. pp. 106-07.

95. The reading has been checked by me.

96. No. 16, L. 6 : इन्द्रापुरक-वणिग्भयां क्षत्रियाचलवर्म-भृ(भ्रु) कुंठसिङ्ह हाम्यामाधिष्टा (ठा) नस्य ....

97. Fz. p. 250, col. 3 : Cf. V.S. Agrawala, Jy. pp. 1SO-91.

98. Fz. p. 1262, col. 3.

99. D.C. Sircar, Hz. p. 333, L.8.

100. Ibid., f.n. 7.


End of Chapter Names of Householders and Traders


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