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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Pippalavana (Pippalivana) was one of the Buddhist places visited by Xuan Zang in 636 AD. Alexander Cunningham[1] has identified it with Sahankat, near Rudrapur.



Pippalivana is located between Rummindei in the Nepali Tarai and Kasia in the Kushinagar district of Uttar Pradesh.


The great emperor of India Chandragupta Maurya belonged to Moriyas, a Kshatriya (warrior) clan of a little ancient republic of Pippalivana located betweenRummindei in the Nepali Tarai and Kasia in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh.

Visit by Xuanzang in 636 AD

Alexander Cunningham[2] writes that From the Anoma river both of the Chinese pilgrims proceeded to visit the stupa that was erected at Pippalawano over the charcoal ashes of the funeral pile of Buddha. The Moriyas of this city, having applied too late for a share of the relics of the body, were obliged to be content with the ashes. Fa-Hian places the stupa at 4 yojanas, or 28 miles, to the east of the Anoma; but Hwen Thsang makes the distance 180 to 190 li, or from 30 to 32 miles, and the bearing south-east. Fa-Hian does not mention the name of the town, but in the Burmese[3] and Ceylonese chronicles[4] it is called Pippali-wano, or the "Pippal-forest;" and in the Tibetan Dulva[5] it is called the town of the Nyagrodha, or Banian-trees. Hwen Thsang also speaks of the " forest of Nyagrodha-trees, " as the site of the " charcoal stupa," and as he actually visited the place, we must accept his testimony in preference to that of the distant chroniclers of Ceylon. No place of this name is now known ; but in the south-east direction indicated by Hwen Thsang, there is a large forest which completely surrounds the ruins of an ancient city called Sahankat. This place is described at length by Buchanan,[6] who found several statues of Buddha amongst the ruins. It was therefore certainly

[p.430]: in existence during the flourishing period of Buddhism. It is 20 miles distant from the Chandaoli Ghat, on the Aumi, measured in a direct line on the map ; but by the road it is not less than 25 miles, owing to the numerous streams that intersect the route. The position therefore corresponds as nearly as possible with that assigned to the Charcoal Tower by Hwen Thsang, but I have no confirmatory evidence to offer, unless the name of the village of Srinagar Kolua may be connected with Koil or charcoal, which is not very probable. I may add, however, that the bearing of Kasia from Sahankat corresponds with the north-east direction of Kusinagara from the Charcoal Stupa which is recorded by Hwen Thsang.

पिप्पलिवन = पिप्पलिवाहन

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[7] ने लेख किया है ... पिप्पलिवन (AS, p.560) बुद्ध के समकालीन मौर्य वंशीय क्षत्रियों की राजधानी था। सम्भवत: युवानच्वांग द्वारा उल्लिखित न्यग्रोधवन यही है (देखें वाटर्स 2, पृष्ठ 23-24). फ़ाह्यान ने यहाँ के स्तूप की स्थिति कुशीनगर से 12 योजन पश्चिम की ओर बताई है। पिप्पलिवन भारतीय इतिहास में मौर्य वंश के राजाओं के लिए प्रसिद्ध रहा है। पिप्पलिवन को पहले पिप्पलिवाहन भी कहा जाता था।

इतिहास में पिप्पलिवन (पीपल वनों) के निवासी आदिम क्षत्रिय मौर्य जाति में चंद्रगुप्त और अशोक जैसे महान् सम्राट हुए। मौर्य, शाक्य-कोलियों के सहोदर वंशज माने गये हैं। कुछ विद्वानों का मत है कि ज़िला बस्ती, उत्तर प्रदेश में स्थित 'पिपरिया' या 'पिपरावा' नामक स्थान ही पिप्पलिवन है। यहीं के प्राचीन ढूह में से एक मृदभांड प्राप्त हुआ था, जिसके ब्राह्मी अभिलेख से ज्ञात होता है कि उसमें बुद्ध के भस्मावशेष निहित थे।

बौद्ध साहित्य की कथाओं से सूचित होता है कि बुद्ध के परिनिर्वाण के पश्चात् उनकी अस्थि-भस्म को आठ भागों में बाँट दिया गया था। प्रत्येक भाग को लेकर उसको एक महास्तूप में सुरक्षित किया गया था। इस प्रकार के आठ स्तूप बनवाए गये थे। इनमें से अंगार स्तूप पिप्पलिवन में था।


विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[8] ने लेख किया है ... न्यग्रोधवन (AS, p.511):युवानच्वांग द्वारा उल्लिखित न्यग्रोधवन संभवत: बौद्ध-साहित्य का पिप्पलीवाहन है. (वाटर्स , जिल्द 2, पृ. 23-25) (दे. पिप्पलीवाहन)


  1. The Ancient Geography of India/Kapila, p.430-433
  2. The Ancient Geography of India/Kapila, p.430-433
  3. Bigandet, ' Legend of the Burmese Buddha,' p. 212.
  4. Tumour, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vii. 1013.
  5. ' Asiatic Eesearches,' Bengal, xx.
  6. ' Eastern India,' ii. 370. See Map No. XI. for its position
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.560
  8. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.511