Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII

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Kings of Kashmira

Being A Translation of the Sanskrit Work

Rajatarangini of Kalhana Pandita: Vol 1

By Jogesh Chunder Dutt


London: Trubner & Co.

Lord Shiva
Book VII
[Invocation to Mahadeva.]

Sanggramaraja alias Kshamapati

[p.169]:King Kshamapati was very brave and powerful. After the death of the queen, another attempt was made to destroy Tungga. But it failed, and his enemies lived to see his increasing glory. At this time Chandrākara died ; he was a great warrior, and worthy of being a minister. He was known to the king. At this time also died the heroic sons of Punyākara in the village of Bhimatikā; and as there were none worthy of the post of minister, the king reluctantly favored the party of Tungga. The late queen, at the time of her death, had bestowed wealth on Tungga and his people, so that they might not quarrel with the king. The king was incapable of work even for the transaction of his duties and entrusted the administration to Tungga, and led a life of pleasure. What more shall I say of the king's meanness ! He compromised his glory by making alliance with an unworthy family. For he gave his daughter Lothikā to Prema the headman of the Didda temple, because Prema was a powerful man and might help him in his danger. So instead of marrying his daughter to a prince, he married her to a beggar Brāhmana.

Rebellion at Parihasapura against Tungga:

At Parihasapura the Brahmana ministers caused magic to be performed for the fall of Tungga. The revolution which was thus caused by a combination among the

[p.170]: Brahmana ministers, was like the union of violent wind and fire. This the king came to know and felt greatly insulted thereby. They then attempted to destroy the king. Sajja and others were requested by the Brahmanas to join the conspiracy for the overthrow of the king, and they agreed to it. But when the magical operation was near its completion. The king gained them over by a large bounty, and the conspiracy was divulged. The Brahmanas lied in fear to the house of Rajakalasha who had instigated the act. Rajakalasha, whose wiles were now discovered, fought with obstinacy. But the Brahmanas fled by a secret way, and Rajakalasha was overcome. The seven ministers, sons of Shridhara then maintained the struggle but fell also. After their death, Rajakalasha was defeated by Sugandhisiha Tungga's brother and was brought bound by order of Tungga. On his way along the Skanda road, his guards made him dance, wounded and disarmed as he was. Another minister named Bhutikalasha. (partisan of Raja-kalasha) was also defeated and he fled with his son to Suramatha. He was not captured out of pity and went away broken hearted and accompanied by his son to some other country. Thus the rebellion at Parihasapura benefited Tungga. When Gunadeva had appeased the anger of the king, Bhutikalasha returned to the country after performing his bath in the Ganges. He obtained a post in the palace and was afterward, secretly employed by the king to assassinate

[p.171]: Tungga. But the secret oozed out, and Tungga came to know of it, and Bhutikalasha with his son was again sent to exile by the king. At this time died Mayyāmattaka son of Chandrākara, who was just rising to prosperity. And Prema who was the king's son-in-law, and had done some good to the country died then ; as also Gangga and other favorites of the king. Only Tungga and his brothers survived. Thus perished all of whom Tungga had been afraid. He was like a tree on the side of a liver, from whose base the earth is washed away by the waves and which therefore threatens to fall; but the waves bring back the soil and make its base firm again.

Tungga had administered the kingdom justly, and to the benefit of the people, but now his sense began to fail him. He took as his assistant a low-born Kayastha named Bhadreshvara.

He entrusted the management of the king's household to his wicked assistant in exclusion of the virtuous and the high minded. He deprived the Brahmanas and the helpless and the king's dependants of their livelihood. Even the hardhearted men those who carry the dead &c, feed their own kith and kin, but this man killed his own relations. It was in the month of Chaitra that Tungga took this man into his favor, and in A'shara Sugandhisiha, Tungga's brother died. He was a great help to his brother and by his death Tungga thought himself deprived of the debt member of his body.

Shahi Trilochanapala asked for help

[p.172]: Trilochanapala the Shahi having asked for help against his enemy, the king of Kashmira sent Tungga to his country in the month of Mārgashirsha. He was accompanied by a large and powerful army with feudatory chiefs and ministers and Rajpoots. The Shahi welcomed them to his country, and advanced to meet them ; and they spent five or six days in pleasure and congratulation. Shahi saw their want of discipline and told them that since they did not mean to fight with the Turushkas, they might remain at ease at the flank of a hill. But Tungga did not accept this good advice and he as well as his army was anxious for the battle. The Kashmirians crossed the river Tonshi, and destroyed the detachment of soldiers sent Hammira to reconnoiter. But though the Kashmiriaus were eager for the fight, the wise Shahi repeatedly advised them to take shelter behind the rock, but Tungga disregarded the advice, for all advice is vain, when one is doomed to destruction. The General of the Turks was well versed in the tactics of war and brought out his army early in the morning. On this the army of Tungga immediately dispersed, but the troops of the Shahi fought for a while. When these latter fled, three persons were still seen in the field, gallantly fighting against the cavalry of the enemy. They were Jayāsinha , Shrivardhana and Vibhramārka the Damara. And there too was the valiant Trilochanapala, whose valor passes description and who, though Overwhelmed by unequal numbers remained unconquered.

[p.173]: His body bled, and he looked, like Mahadeva wrapt in the flames of the last fire with which the world is to be destroyed. After facing his numerous foes clad in mail, he at last retreated, and the enemy overran a large tract of the country. Hammira though victorious in the field felt himself ill at ease on witnessing the super-human heroism of Trilochanapala. The Shahi took shelter in Hāstika and made great efforts to retrieve his fortune.

Fall and extinction of the line of Shahi: Thus have I briefly narrated the fall and extinction of the line of Shahi, and now the very existence of his kingdom of which I have spoken in the history of Shangkaravarmma, had become an object of doubt. Fate accomplishes what appears improbable even in dream, and what cannot even be conceived.

Tungga returned to his country, but the king of Kashmira as forbearing as he was devoid ambition, was not angry with him for his cowardly flight in the battle. Still Tungga was very much grieved. His son Kandarpasinha was proud of his wealth and his heroism and lived in a kingly style which gave his father much annoyance.

Vigraharaja the king's brother privately wrote to the king advising him to kill Tungga. But the king remembered the last injunction of the late queen, and for a long time remained unsettled. Urged, however, by repeated letters he at last said to the carriers of the epistles that he seldom saw Tungga alone with his son, and if he was found alone the deed might be attempted. "For if you make an attempt on his life when he is not

[p.174]: alone, he will be able to destroy us. So wait till there be an opportunity." The messengers remembered the advice of the king, and tried to find Tungga alone. Within six months from this time the king sent for Tungga, and though he had dreamt an evil dream, still he went out of his house alone with his son. Tungga entered the king's court, and there remained in his presence for a short time, after which he went into the council chamber with five or six servants. He was fallowed by Pava, Sharka and others, who without saying anything to the king began to strike Tungga with their weapons. Sinharatha, born of the line of Mahāratha was the minister of king Shangkaravarmma, and was the most dutiful of Tungga's attendants. Though without arms, still he tried to save Tungga by throwing himself over him. But Tungga was killed at the first blow, and the king was rejoiced. The wicked Kangka and Partha the son of the court Brahrnana Dharmma an enemy of Tungga, were present on the spot. They placed their fingers on their lips, in fear, (perhaps to signify thereby that they would not interfere in the least) and threw down their arms to save themselves. Changga and the other ministers who were also present, though friendly to Tungga and armed, stood still in fear like women. The king cut off the heads of Tungga and his son and threw them outside the palace in order to encourage his own men and dishearten the followers of Tungga so that they might not in ignorance of their master's fate still

[p.175]: -hold out, or set fire to the palace. The servants saw their master's head and fled, very few showed any zeal for their master. One only named Bhujangga son of a Brahmana feudatory chief entered the chamber and pursued the king from room to room. He broke open the doors and killed twenty warriors in the king's court. There died the treasurer Trailokyaraja and the hero Abhinava son of the nurse of Kapyamatta. In the court-yard lay the dead bodies of thirty Ekanggas, followers of Tungga, Padmaraja who remained unhurt in the fray, went to some shrine to assuage his grief for the death of his master. Others though they did not venture to fight, were killed by the king's partisans, Chandrakhya who considered himself a warrior, Arjjuna and Delāchakra the Damara, though they threw down their arms, were killed by the king's party.

Tungga died on the twelfth day after the new moon in the month of Ashara. His house and property were plundered by the king. After the death of Tungga and his son, who were not rebels, the wily people gained ascendancy in the palace. Naga the brother of Tungga who had abused the ears of the king with evil council, and was in fact the cause of the destruction of his brother and brother's son, and was ill spoken of by men, was now made lord of Kampana by the king. Kshemā wife of Kandarpa-sinha, Tungga's son, lived in criminal intimacy with Naga. After four days and when the tumult had ceased, Thintha a chaste wife of Kandarpasinha, and daughter

[p.176]: of Shahi burnt herself in the fire. Mangkhana wife of, Tungga fled with the celebrated Vichitrasinha, and Bra-trisinha, sons of Kandarpasinha and with their mother Mamma; and passed her days at Rajapuri.

Bhadreshvara who was promoted to the post of Tungga, plundered the riches belonging to the gods Bhuteahvara and Ahideva. What more shall I say of the want of judgment of the king than that he gave good posts to Partha and others. The very wicked Partha who was known to live in criminal intimacy with the wife of his brother, was by the king made the superintendent of the city. Partha polluted the shrine of Pravaresha by murders. Matangga son of Sindhu a very miserly man and an oppressor of the people began to augment the treasure of the avaricious king.

Now in former times there lived one Devamukha of Divira caste who had a son named Chandramukha by a prostitute, a woman who used to sell cakes, &c. By Tungga's favor he had been made one of the king's dependants, and had amassed great wealth. Though rich he was avaricious, and when presented with cakes he used to be angry with his servants. In his poverty he had been healthy, but in his days of prosperity he lost his good digestion and health. And so the people used to jeer him. He did one virtuous act at the time of his death. He gave one-third of one koti (of the current coin) for the repair of the shrine of Raneshvara. His sons Nandimukha and others were on bad

[p.177]: -terms with one another, hut they were made captains of regiments by the king. It was ridiculous to bestow on them the post of Tungga. They were sent against the Turks, like Tungga, but they fled to their country. The king was weak, and the ministers worthy of him, and consequently the Diviras and Damaras of Darad rebelled.

Buildings erected in this reign:

Of the buildings erected in this reign, the following may be enumerated. Lothika the king's daughter built a temple called after her name, and another after the name of her mother Tilottama. Even the vicious aspire to virtuous acts, for even Bhadreshvara built a monastery. The king did not build any edifice with his own money.

The queen Shrilekha daughter of Shriyashomanggala, became unchaste as her husband became weak. Jayākara son of Sugandhisiha by Jayalakshmi was her favorite, and on him she bestowed much wealth. She was mistress of the treasury in the village of Maya, and by favor of the king she became rich. In her habits she was parsimonious.

On the first of Ashara in the year four of the Kashmirian era the king died bequeathing his kingdom to his son Hariraja.


Harirāja was surrounded by good men, and was the delight of all. He cleared the country of thieves, so that market roads were safe during night. The king's orders which lasted for a short time only, were honored even

[p.178]: as the fleeting new moon. After a reign of twenty two days this good king died on the eighth day after the new moon. Lives are like stars of the summer night, which set soon after they are seen. It is said that his unchaste mother removed him by a secret charm because he resented her bad behaviour.


Anantadeva: The queen mother Shrilekha was ambitious of reigning and went to the coronation-bath, every thing being ready for the ceremony. But in the meantime the Ekanggas joined by Sāgara son of the king's nurse, coronated the boy Anantadeva brother of the late king. The queen only reaped the sin of murdering her child for the kingdom, while another enjoyed it. Even as the serpent who is robbed of its jewel by one, reaps only sin, by stinging to death another with whom the stone is lodged. Her disappointment was so great that she forgot her affection for her son. Fie to the craving for enjoyment !

Vigraharaja, the aged uncle (father's brother) of the new king approached the kingdom to usurp it. He brought a powerful army from Lohara, and within two and half days entered the capital after having burnt the gate when it was carelessly guarded. But when within the temple of Lothika, he and his followers were killed by the army sent by Shrilekha. She then built two temples for the benefit of her husband's and son's souls, and again rose in rebellion.

In the meantime the king grew up and, — a king from his very infancy, — he indulged in costly habits, &c.

[p.179]: Rudrapala, and other sons, of Shahi became his favorites, and obtained large salaries from the revenue of the kingdom. Still Rudrapala remained a, beggar as he was, though paid one and half lacs daily while Diddapala was happy with eighty thousand a day. Ananggapala the Vetala was also fed by the king ; he thought of uprooting the statue of Sarasvati. Rudrapala was the protector of the thieves and Chandalas who plundered and killed men. The Kayasthas, under the protection of Rudrapala, began to oppress the subjects. Utpala and others built a house for the blind. Rudrapala married A'samati the beautiful and oldest daughter of Induchandra king of Jalandhara (Jallender). She built a temple at Tripureshvara. Her younger sister Suryyamati somewhat less beautiful than she, was married by Rudrapala to the king. This man gave bad advices to his sovereign though his advices were pleasing to the ear.

At this time Tribhuvana the powerful lord of Kampana came with the Damaras to usurp the kingdom. Though a large part of the royal army joined the rebel, the cavalry and the Ekanggas remained faithful to the king. In the battle which ensued the gallant king evaded his enemy's blow and struck Tribhuvana. Though protected with a strong iron mail which saved his life, Tribhuvana vomited blood, and fled.

The king, as he moved over the battle field, his body covered with mangled flesh and blood and using his sword as a stick, was a terror to his foes.

[p.180]: He saw on the battle field the wounded Ekanggas who were named to him one after another, he was touched with pity, and relieved their anxiety as regards the gratuity due to them for their wounds. The grateful king bestowed ninety-six kotis of Dinnaras on them. And so great was the king's magnanimity that he gave some money even to Tribhuvana. The king held his sword so firmly during the battle, that he could not let go his hold when the battle was over, but after long milk-fomentation.

The king made his friend Brahmaraja treasurer, but he excited the jealousy of Rudrapala and consequently had to retire. He then joined the seven Mlechchha kings and the Damaras, and placing the king of Darad at their head entered Kashmira. When they arrived at the village Kshiraprishta, the gallant Rudrapala went out to fight with them. It was settled that the battle was to commence the next day, and the lord of Darad went into the house of Kridapindaraka the Naga. There contrary to the advice of those around him, he threw his bayonet (Kunta) on a fish that was floating in the water, whereupon there arose from the place a serpent, having the body of a jackal, and the lord-- of Darad chased it. His army saw him run, and thought that the engagement of fighting on the succeeding day had been violated, and appreheuding an attack from tho enemy, rushed to battle. In the battle which raged, the lord of Darad lost his head, and the fame of Rudrapala increased. The

[p.181]: Mlechchha kings were killed or imprisoned, and the king of Kashmira obtained gold and jewels. Rudrapala brought to his master the head of the king of Darad with crown adorned with pearls, Udayanavatsa brother of the deceased, caused magic to be performed by the Brahmanas and Rudrapala died of Luta. The other sons of Shahi were also soon removed.

When the Palas the favorites of the king were dead, Sūyyamatī became, his most beloved. This queen other-wise called Sabhata set up a Shiva on the banks of the Vitasta, and a temple called Subhatamatha, and at the time of sanctifying the god and temple she removed the poverty of many Brahmanas by bestowing on them cows, horses, gold and jewels. By its side she built a village for Brahmanas, with a temple, and named the village after that of A'shachandra alias Kallana, her younger brother whom she loved. By it she erected two other temples to Vijayesha and Amaresha and called them after the names of Sillana her another brother, and of her husband. In Vijayeshvara she gave one hundred and eight villages inhabited by Brahmanas to holy and learned Brahmanas. In Amareshvara she bestowed (on Brahmanas) villages inhabited by the same caste people, and called after her husband ; and she erected Trisula, Vanalingga and other images of Shiva. When their son Rajaraja died, both the king and the queen left the palace and lived near the, temple of Sadashiva. From this time the

[p.182]: ancient palace of kings was deserted and all the succeeding kings dwelt near this temple.

The grooms of the king's stable became rich, partly by royal gifts, for the king loved horses, and partly by . plunder.

There was one Dallaka, the Daishika who was a great jester and favorite of the king. This was the man through whom Bhoja king of Malava built a golden tank, and it was through him that he fulfilled his resolution to wash his face always with the waters from the shrine of Papasudana. He too robbed the people.

He used to prepare betels with perfumes, and the king gave him almost all his riches. The king, for the further payment of this man's dues, mortgaged to him, rich as he was now, the throne and crown marked with the design of peacock's tail. Every month these things were brought from the betel man's house on the day of worship. At last the king stopped these excesses by giving charge of his treasury to bis queen Suyyamati. The fear caused by the grooms and Dallaka subsided at once, and the kingdom once more enjoyed peace.

Queen Suyyamati

From this time the queen took up the administration of the country ; and the king carried out the queen's orders. The husband submitted to the wife, but everything was amicably managed owing to the sinless character of both. The king was exceedingly pious. During his long reign, he constantly changed his favorites, Bālabhanngja gave up half of his own wealth, and filled the royal treasury

[p.183]: at Kshema. His court was adorned by his minister named Keshava, a Brahmana and an inhabitant of Trigarta. People had previously seen this man poor and alone walking in the streets ! Fortune is as fleeting as lightning in the clouds !

In Gourishatridashalaya there lived a Vaishya named Prasidapala, and he had three sons named Haladhara, Vajra and Varaha, Of them Haladhara was favored by the queen, and at last became the prime minister. Both the king and the queen took his advice on every occasion. Haladhara completed and enlarged the building begun by Kshema. The custom of registering the color and value of gold by private individuals in a public office, thereby publishing an account of the wealth of individuals, was discontinued by this minister, so that future kings might not oppress the rich. He stopped oppression over the people by killing some of the king's grooms who plundered them of their wealth and women. At the junction of the Vitasta and the Indus, he built a golden temple. There he also built another temple and founded villages which were inhabited by Brahmanas. His brothers and sons were rich and liberal. Vimba his nephew, son of Varaha, a great warrior and a rich man, went out to a distant country on some business. He killed many Damaras, and at last perished in a battle with the people of Khasha in which he refused to fly though his followers were few. The king deposed Sala king of Champa, and set up another in his place.

[p.184]: The king fell into difficulties several times by suddenly entering foreign kingdoms without previous advice or plan. Once at Vallapura where his army was reduced in an attack on Kalasha son of Tukka, he was rescued from danger by the device of Haladhara. On another occasion, when he entered Urasha his passage was cut off by the enemies, and he was rescued by the lord of Kampana who cleared the passage, and gave the king an outlet. The king showed great courage when in danger.

The Damaras who inhabited Krama killed Rajeshvara lord of Dvara and son of Bhadreshvara, as well as many others. He who serves royalty must always have a fall, Because the queeu favored Haladhara, evil rumour began to spread regarding them ; and Ashachandra the queen's youngest brother, arrested him and confiscated his property. But the king liberated him, and he prospered again. On account of the queen's favor he experienced prosperity and misery alternately, even like sun and shade on a rainy day.

Kalasha or Ranaditya

Gradually the simple king became henpecked, a circumstance which became the cause of his misfortunes. By the advice of the queen who was blind in her affection for her son, the king made preparations to abdicate his kingdom to his son Kalasha, though in this he was opposed by wise Haladhara and other wise men. " You will repent of this " said his ministers to him. In spite of this advice however, he coronated his Son Ranaditya

[p.185]: (otherwise called Kalasha), in the Kashmirian era thirty-nine on the sixth of Sravana, bright moon.

This new king had a high notion of his sovereign dignity, and heartlessly told his father that he should address him by the title of Deva. The father stared at him in anger, but the son said smiling " when even the king of Kanouje and other places address me in that way, what else should you do who have deposed yourself. Every day you shall feel such humiliation for even the Rishis cannot forego their pride." The late king remembered the words of his ministers, and could not give any reply. On another day, Haladhara seeing the boy served by other kings, and the father with few followers, pretended to be angry with the latter, and so managed to give the kingdom back to him. Haladhara reproached him and enquired if he was not ashamed to remain at ease, burdening the little boy with the weight of the kingdom. "Take upon yourself" he continued "the management, of the kingdom, and let the youth enjoy the pleasures of his age." He said so, and by this artifice managed to give back the kingdom to the old man and to deprive the boy of it. The latter now became king only in name and had to depend on his parents even for his food. In accustomed worship of weapons the boy was merely an assistant to his father. They who are glad or grieved without cause are like beasts unsettled in their actions. The queen by whose exertions her child had got the kingdom, repented when he had it. She

[p.186]: became jealous of her son's wives, when they adorned themselves as befitted queens ; and made them the objects of ridicule till they ceased to adorn their houses.

One day Kshitiraja son of Vigraharaja the old king's father's brother came to king Ananta and with lamentation told him that his son Bhuvanaraja was aspiring to his (Kshitiraja's) throne and that his grandson Nila had already usurped the kingdom and had made preparation to oppose the intended attack of his father Bhubanaraja.

That Nila had vested dogs with the holy threads of Brahmanas and called these after names of holy men revered by his father. Kshitiraja afterwards left all worldly concerns, for even his wives were against him ; and nominating Utkarsha son of Kalasha by queen Ramalekha, an infant yet in its mother's breast, as heir, travelled in holy places in the company of learned men, and after enjoying peace for many years, died at Chakradhara, a devout Vishnuvite. He and his contemporary king Bhoja were both renowned for charity and learning and for being alike friends to the poets. King Ananta made Tanvanggaraja (his father's brother's son) the guardian of his grandson. This Tanvangga enlarged the kingdom of his ward, and when he grew up, returned to Kashmira and died at Chakradhara.

The king took the advice of his kinsmen and a revolution was caused by them. One Jinduraja son of Madannraja son of Siddharaja son of Buddharaja son of Induraja who was proud of his heroism,

[p.187]: was sent against the kings of Darad, but he was called by the queen in her house and made to accept the post of minister. The Kashmirians lost the battle. The Damaras too, to the grief of tho queen, rose in rebellion. Jinduraja attacked and killed the rebel Damara chief named Shobha a blind man and an inhabitant of Degrama. The king created Jinduraja lord of Kampana, and made Rajapuri and other places tributaries to Kashmira.

At this time the minister Haladhara died. He was as a staff in the slippery path of king Ananta's reign. When on his death-bad at Chakradhara he was visited by the king and the queen for advice, he told the king not to attack another kingdom hastily, and when in danger to try to save his life first. "Jinduraja" he continued " you must regard him who has suddenly risen to power, with suspicion ; and Jayānanda will breed quarrel between you and your son." According to this advice of the dying minister the king caused the powerful Jinduraja when he was unarmed, to be captured by Vijja.

Prince Kalasha's evil ways

Now in the course of time, prince Kalasha the nominal king was led by his servants to evil ways. There were the princes of the family of Shahi named Vijja, Yittha, Rajapaja and another who used to excite the prince to evil acts, and became his favorites. Jayananda too the son of the, treasurer Naga, who was always by the person of this prince king, taught him dishonest things. The

[p.188]: king's religious instructor Amarakantha being dead, he became the disciple of Amara's son Pramadakantha. Thus the king naturally of bad character, had for his guru, a man who advised evil things, and who was indiscriminate in his intercourse with women. This man boldly lived in criminal intercourse with his own daughter. There were some who were proud of their prowess, and used to go about in the streets at night. One night they fell down through fright and had their knees broken. But their wounds were cured by a cat merchant by simply passing his hands over their heads. This man had a cat for his ensign, for which he was so named, his former name being forgotten. He was really a great dance, but was proud of his greatness and medical knowledge, and became the guru of shoemakers and washermen. He cured the men, above mentioned, by rubbing his hands besmeared with cats' ordure on their heads.

Thus men of no real merit hoodwinked the king and held him completely in their power. The king's companions kept up nights, ate much but could not digest, the king too spent nights with them in music, drinking wine, and forcing women to their company. The servants once bound the unruly Kanaka son of Haladhara to a pillar when he was angry and tore off his nose Chamaka ( Kanaka ?) some of whose limbs were mutilated became the favorite of the sovereign, because he used to procure women. The king preferred him to his ministers, and gave him the title of Thakkura, and he

[p.189]: gained muck reputation. He discarded his low origin and thanked his broken nose. Thus the excited and shameless king did what should not be told, still I shall describe it because it comes in the way of my narrative. The king who loved to enjoy other peoples' wives did not spare his sister Kallanā and his daughter Naga. The old king (the present king's father) who lived in retirement with his wife, was much grieved to hear of this, though he said nothing.

There lived a beggar Brahmana named Loshtaka, an inhabitant of Ovanā of which village he was the soothsayer. One night when he was coming from the house of Sanggrāmakshetrapala, he happened to say correctly what was within the closed fist of another, and so he gained much reputation, and this man of lust was made the guru, the soothsayer and the procurer of the king.

By those and other flatterers, the king was blinded and he came to consider guilty actions as meritorious. Words said in jest were good words with him, his valor consisted in oppression over his people and he showed his shamelessness and gallantry by intercourse with women who should not be touched. His simplicity was apparent by his putting up with the abuse of the wicked ; and nothing of what his flatterers did, was left undone by him, because it was bad. Always knocking about from house to house to steal the embraces of other men's wives, he felt no pleasure in the embraces of his own wives at night. His pleasures were planned by others, and his

[p.190]: love of other people's wives began to increase.

King Kalasha's unkingly things: One night accompanied by five or six procurers, he stole into the house of Jinduraja, whose daughter-in-law (son's wife) who was as bad as a prostitute, invited the king by signs. When he entered the house the dog barked, and the Chandalas thinking it was a thief, ran with clubs. The king through fear, fell on the ground, and they were going to beat him, when his followers sheltered him, with their bodies. But when they were thrashed they cried out, and said that it was king Kalasha ; and so the Chandalas were stopped. Surely this mishap came to pass because the king went to his engagement placing his nose-less courtier in the front. He went out in disappointment captivated with the glance of the girl, but did not escape the eyes of the passers by in the streets. Even the king was insulted by the low people, because he did unkingly things owing to the baseness of his heart. Even gods are insulted for unruly passions, how then can mortals escape with undefiled honor. When the heart turns towards what is evil every thing gets confused.

First of all, the man gets evil name, and then his evil desires are known. Virtue perishes first and then honor. Men doubt the fact of his being born in a good family, and then his life becomes endangered. That very night when the wicked king returned to his capital, his parents heard of the affair. And after weeping for a long time for shame, grief and filial affection, they determined to capture him, they spent that

[p.191]: night in resolving to coronate the learned Harsha the eldest of their grandsons and son of Vappika (Kalasha). On the morning they sent for the king; but Vijja and Jayananda warned the latter against seeing his parents. Led by the band by Jayananda and followed by Vijja the king went to his parents. But no sooner had he gone there than his father gave a slap on his face and told him to leave aside his weapon, Vijja supported the frightened king with his hand and touching his weapon proudly said to the old man. " Being tho most honorable of men, king I why do you forget that honorable men can never forsake their honor? I receive pay, and am a Rajpoot, and armed, how then can I leave him in danger as long as I am alive? You are the father, he tho son, when we are away do what you think fit."

Having stopped the tongue of the old king with words both harsh and mild, Vijja brought away the king from his father; and men admired Vijja for his speech before the ex-king. Fortunately for the king, his mother who was a very angry woman, said nothing ; for had her anger been roused Kalasha would either have been brought under discipline or imprisoned.

Vijja then hastily took the king to the house of Dilna the favorite queen. She was informed of all that had happened, and pretending that the king was suffering from headache, besmeared the head of the frightened sovereign, with oil, and by this means she prevented the entrance of any other person, placed Vijja at the door and sheltered her husband.

Old king prepared to go to Vijayakshetra:

[p.192]: On the other hand when the other persons had gone away, the mother of the king rebuked her husband, and on the pretence of looking to the welfare of her son went to him. When she came there to reconcile the father and the son, the king was alone and Vijja at the door. But the queen mother was denied admittance, whereupon the old king became angry and prepared himself to go to Vijayakshetra. When he with his wife had gone near to Padmapura, Vishchavata and other Brahmana inhabitants of the place thus addressed him., " Why do you repent after having yourself abdicated your kingdom ! whatever you may have done, whether good or bad, you should not now repent. You should have rebuked your bad son considering that you have not resigned your subjects to his evil will. The king is powerless as a doll set on a machine ; that he is either good or bad is owing to the virtue or sin of his subjects, even as clouds discharge rain or thunderbolt according to the virtue or sin of trees. You are wishing to enjoy pleasure away from your wicked son, but how can that be fulfilled since you are leaving behind your treasures. For who cares to touch a man however worthy and well-born and pure if he be without wealth like a Sword sharp and bright, but without the scabbard." When the old king heard thus, he thought of returning, and his son came to the spot with his wife, and tried to assuage his anger. The old man entered the capital still angry, and took away all the treasure. He set out again, and waited for his queen

[p.193]: on the other side of the river with horses, arms, mail skirts, &c. The ladies of the house loaded the boat with several articles, and did not leave even a peg in the house. The people at first knew nothing of the affair and remained silent, but when they were aware that the old king was going away from the place they began to weep and with tears showered flowers on the departing king. Nothing else was heard in the streets but lamentations, and cries of "O! Mother," "O! father" "where are you, going hence ;" and when the voice of lamentations had gradually ceased in the streets, the sounds of sighs were heard like the sound of fountain on the hills. And the car of the old king and his queen became so accustomed to the cries that they fancied they heard such sounds in the air even when they had departed. They were so shocked with the evil conduct of their son that they blamed even the birds for feeding their young sons. They then reached the shrine of Vijayeshvara and their hearts were soothed of the troubles on account of their son. There they passed their days in devotion and lived with their servants. The persons who followed him to the shrine were Tanvanggnraja, Tungga &c., the princes his kinsmen, and Suryyavarma, Chandra, &c , and the Damaras. The Damaras and king Kshira were stationed by him in their own towns ; but they also served as his guard. The old king kept his treasure secure and passed his days in happiness. All the Rajpoot cavalry and the armed Damaras were also

[p.194]: stationed near him. The year of his retirement to Vijayakshetra, according to the Kashmirian era, was 55.

Kalasha plans fight with the old king

When his father was gone, Kalasha found his treasuries empty. Though without money, he still wished to improve his kingdom, and consulted Vijja and others, and made those whom be know well, his ministers. Jayananda was made prime minister and Varihadeva born in a place on the Vitasta was made the lord of Dvara. He also made Vijayamitra, lord of Kampana. He was formerly Amvaradhikari (lit. lord of the Wardrobe) of Jindhuraja lord of Kampana. And having placed men on several posts as he thought fit, he bestowed his attention on accumulating riches in order to fight against his father . Jayananda borrowed money from rich men of bad character in order to collect an army of infantry and with Vijja and other Rajpoots marched with the army to Avantipura to attack the old king. The king liberated Jinduraja from prison and honored him. Jinduraja too marched along the Shamika road to fight with the old king. Hearing of these preparations the Damaras and the cavalry of the old king became active and hastily set out to meet the enemy. The gardens of Vijayeshvara were crowded with horses.

The battle averted by the queen:

The queen mother out of great affection for her son asked her enraged husband to grant an arroistiee for 2 days. At night he sent her trusty servants Mayya and other Brahmanas to her son with the following private message. "How is it that your

[p.195]: senses are so upset that you wish to fight against your heroic father? For in the battle you are sure to die. Who destroyed the king of Darat and others? And why do you approach him for your sure destruction? When your father will ride, your army will be destroyed even as grass is destroyed by the fire. What army and what wealth are you master of, that you are engaging yourself in a battle with him? He has abdicated his kingdom and you enjoy it alone. What harm has been done to you, now that ho has retired into a holy place? Those who advise you to war, are hurling you into danger, and in few days you will be reduced to poverty. Take away your army ; so long I live, apprehend no harm from your father. Assuage him by entreaties." When Kalasha heard from the messengers, this message sent by his mother, he withdrew his army that very night. The queen mother heard of this, and filled with affection for her son, went to her husband in the morning, and rebuked him. The battle was thus averted by the queen. But through the advice of bad men the minds of both father and the son sometime remained clouded. It was natural under such circumstance that the peace established between them should be frequently disturbed. When not in the company of his queen, the old king became very often incensed at the acts of his son ; but when she was near, she used to assuage his anger. Thus every day he was grieved and was again relieved of his grief and

[p.196]: assembled the lake in autumn, alternately disturbed and tranquil. The son destroyed the house of his father's partisans, but the father was under the influence by his queen, and did nothing to the partisans of his son. Tormented by the queen who doted on her son and by harsh words of his followers, the old king always remained grieved. He intended to snatch the kingdom from his son whose army and partisans he believed to be weak, except only Jinduraja whom he considered to be somewhat powerful. With this purpose he invited the sons of Tanvangga who had enmity with Kalasha to reign over the country. The queen saw this danger to her dynasty and sent messengers that very night to invite Harsha with a view to make him king. Invited by the messengers of his grand-mother, Harsha felt some encouragement. He freed himself from the mounted guards who were placed round him. He rode fast, and passed five yojanas in half a kshana, so that the horses of the guards, which were inferior to that of the prince, were tired in the attempt to overtake him. Both his grand father and grandmother received him with, joy as he fell to their feet.

When the young prince, Kalasha's son, went to the old king, Kalasha trembled for fear. He wished for peace and desisted from his ill-advised attempts against his parents. He sent messengers to them, stopped all disturbances in the country ; and for a short time reluctantly submitted to the instructions of his mother. The lord of Kampana

[p.197]: was under the orders of Kalasha proceeding to the country of Khasha; according to the advice of the queen mother he owned subjection to the old king, and was allowed passage by him. In order to prevent further disturbances in the country, the Brahmanas commenced certain secret rites to destroy both the father and the son. When peace was concluded between them, the father at the request of his son lived with the queen mother in the capital for two months and a half.

Kalasha sets on fire Anantadeva's place

Suspecting however that his son, at the instigation of Jayananda, intended to imprison him, the old man went out of the capital with a sorrowful heart and lived at Jayeshvara. At night Kalasha burnt the forage of his father's horses and killed his foot soldiers with fire and poisoned arms and by artifice. The enmity between them kindled again, and the queen blinded by her affection for her son, prevented her husband from retaliating. There lived a prostitute, Kaivarta by caste, named Ladva, and she had a submissive and very wily paramour named Thakka Damara. Now, king Kalasha was pleased to hear men call his parents by the names of the above pair. But his parents bestowed a pair of human images of gold equal to their own weight, in charity and so beguiled their grief. When their son found that they had remained unruffled by his satirical allusions and had riches enough to carry out their works he set fire to their place. The fire burnt the house of god Vijayeshvara

[p.198]: and the sacred things it contained. The queen was grieved to see every thing destroyed and attempted to commit suicide, but was forced out of the burning house by the sons of Tanvangga. On the preceding night the soldiers had taken off their clothes when going to bed; and when they rose the next morning they had nothing to cover themselves with, every thing being burnt. Kalasha stood on the terrace of his palace, and saw the flames rising to the sky, and danced with joy. The old king seeing every thing destroyed, crossed the river, but was drowned with his wife in the sea of grief. The queen found in the morning a linga, unburnt which was made of jewels and which she sold for seventy lacs to the Tākās. With this money she bought food and clothes for the servants, and repaired the burnt house. The king found so vast a quantity of gold, &c, from the embers, that its narration astonishes one even to this day. When tho place was reduced to wilderness, the king lived there by building huts of the barks of Nada. Though he had wealth and was willing to re-build the town, yet he could not, get his son's permission for so doing. It was thus that the son who had obtained the kingdom by mere chance, and who was protected by his mother's affection, harassed his father. Wishing to send his patents away, he repeatedly sent messengers to hit father and told him to go and live at Parnotsa. His queen also urged him to do the same, whereupon he became angry and rebuked her in the presence of Tanvangga

[p.199]: and Thakkana, — using the following harsh language, — such as he had never used before :—

"Have I not lost glory, fame, heroism, kingdom, spirit, sense and wealth by being subjected to the influence of a wife? They say that woman id useless appendage to man ; but in his last days man becomes a plaything for woman. Who has excited the jealousy of a woman but has fallen a victim to it? Some women have robbed their husbands of beauty, some of their strength, some their intellect, and some their life. As rivers in the rainy season bring rocks from the hills, oven so women, in the pride of youth, fill the earth with sons not begotten by their husbands. And when they see their husbands old, they disregard them, and love their children. I have known my wife's faults, but in order to avoid quarrel, did not I mind them much. And now having marred my worldly happiness, she attempts to rob the joys of my future, life. I am old and near my death ; where should I go, leaving Vijayakshetra ? Why should I disturb with anxious thoughts, my devotion to Mahadeva who can cancel sins ? A son is the savior of his father both in this, and in the future world ; but who has a son like this of mine? He would drive me from this shrine, and wish me die in an unholy place. I now fully believe the rumour that Kalasha is not born of me. When the son is different from his father in form and character, and quarrels with kinsmen, and loves not his father, know him to be illegitimate."

[p.200]: Thus the long suffering king relieved his mind, and by expressing his thoughts inflicted a serious wound on the feelings of his wife. For there is the tradition that when the queen had lost her child she had brought the child of one named Prashasta. The queen became very much ashamed when the secret about her son's illegitimacy was revealed before her relatives, and like a vulgar woman, thus abused her husband. For when a woman who has subdued her husband, is rudely spoken to by him, she feels as if she had been kicked on the head.

" This poor wretched man does not know to suit his words to the place where he speaks them. At one time he had no cloth to wear after his bath, so tho people can well conceive what he has lost through me. You have abused me as an unchaste woman of your family, why do you not then make atonement now ? Useless and old, driven by your son, as you are, from your kingdom, I fear lest people would say that your wife too has forsaken you."

Death of old king Ananta

The king was very much hurt when thus abused, but sat mute and calm ; but the blood was seen issuing out below his seat. When the queen was anxiously hurrying about to know whence the blood issued, Thakkana saw that the king in anger had impaled himself with his own sword. The king felt ashamed, and told him to report that he had dysentery (Raktatisara). Kings who are guided by women, or are spoilt of wealth by their sons, or trust servants once proved faithless, or allow an insignificant

[p.201]: enemy to gain power, soon die. They spread the report that the king had one day, when riding, been oppressed by the autumn sun, and when thirsty, had drunk from a paddy field and had thus got the malady. So that the outsiders knew not the real cause of his death which occurred in the Kashmirian era 57, in the month Karttika on the day of full moon, before the god Vijayesha.

Relieved of the tyranny of his wife and son, the good king stretched his legs to sleep his long sleep. In death he was happy. He was never angry with any one, nor was any one angry with him. The descendant of Sangramaraja was laid on the ground, covered with a sheet, and he was not loved by any. Unmoved by tears of his wife, nor angry at her words he slept his long sleep, he died as if to atone for the harsh words he had used to his wife. His grateful queen now honored his remains as if to atone for her unkindness towards her husband now dead.

She gave daily salaried to all from the Rajpoots to the Chandalas, so that her husband might be debtless. The servants being now paid, she guarded the rest of the treasurer hoarded in the temple of Vijayeshvara for the benefit of her grandson. Her grandson laid his head on her feet and wept, she smelt her head and advised him not to trust his father, Suffering from excess of grief, the queen arose and performed the last ceremonies, and guarded the corpse herself. Having ordered one hundred horses to protect her grandson, she sent

[p.202]: the corpse of her husband in a shivikā, and after bowing to the god Vijayeshvara, herself set out on a chariot drawn by a pair, after passing a day and night, and a portion of the succeeding day in the service of her husband's body. She accompanied her dead lord, listening to the funeral music mingled with the cries of the people which seemed to fill all sides. The carriage on which the corpse was borne was adorned with banners, and was so bright that it reflected the figures of men who stood round and the hair of the (subject) kings which waved in the air like Chamaras. When the soldiers had done due honor to the dead, and it was evening the queen arrived at the burning ground. Whether through affection for her son, or for some other reason she felt a desire to see her son at that moment. She fancied that the dust which was raided by the air was caused by the approach of her son with his soldiers, and she waited anxiously. At this moment some men approached by the road that led to the capital, and she asked them if Kalasha was come. Her son too was coming to her when some mistrustful persons told him that there might be danger in the step, and so dissuaded him. Thus disappointed, she ordered some water from the Vitasta, and addressed the river thus : —

"Those who are dead, would surely have received salvation, if they had drunk thy water."

When the water was brought to her, she touched it and cursed those mistrustful persons who had prevented the meeting

[p.203]: between herself and her son.

"Those who have caused mortal enmity between us and our son, will shortly perish with all their race."

Jayananda, Jinduraja, &c, soon died of this curse.

In order to repel the imputations brought against her for her confidence in Haladhara, she swore by her hopes in the future world that she was innocent. And thus having established her fame she suddenly jumped from her little carriage into the burning fire. And the flames rose and reddened the sky and appeared to the people as if it were painted in a picture. Among the servants who followed the old King to death were Gangadhara, Takkabuddha (?), Dandaka (?), the charioteer Tāvuddana (?), and Nihavala (?). Sonata and Khhemata of the line of Vappata and Dhhota (?) were also favorites of the king, they lived at Vijayeshvara indifferent to the pleasure of life. ...... (not clear). The late king was over sixty one years when he died. On the fourth day after their death, the sons of Tanvanggaraja collected the ashes of the late king and queen and took them to Ganges.

Harsha quarrels with his father Kalasha

On the other hand, Harsha having got the wealth of his grandmother at Vijayeshvara, and being joined by some of her retainers, quarreled with his father. Both the father and the son were then at Vijayeshvara, but on the breaking out of the quarrel, the father went to his

[p.204]: capital while the son remained there. The penniless father feared his rich son and sent messenger to him ; he treated fur peace, and invited him. The proud son was at last persuaded by the solicitations of the messengers repeatedly sent to him, to reluctantly make peace with his father. The father was to protect the person and property of the son, and the son to pay a certain amount to the father every day. When Kalasha entered Vijayeshvara to receive Harsha, his eyes ached to see the houses he had burnt before, and his ears were filled with the reproaches of the populace. Accompanied by his son who came with his treasure the king entered the capital ; and the treasures were sealed with the seal of his son. From this time the king turned virtuous, and learnt frugality which dispels poverty.

A relative of the king named Nayana who lived at Selyapura, had a son named Japyaka. He turned a Damara, became rich by selling the produce of the place in other countries; and was avaricious. Every day he caused the ground to be dug to the extent of a krosha and a half, deported his Dinnaras, and then sowed the ground with grain. He feared lest his men who deposited the coin should betray the secret, and privately murdered many of them. One day when he intended to take some of the money out of the store, his men suddenly fled. his horse got entangled in tho vine creepers, and he was killed by a foot soldier. The king obtained this wealth from under the ground, and

[p.205]: became rich to the end of his days. The coin was besmeared with mud, and was day and night washed in the stream of the Vitasta, so that its waters remained muddy for several months. It is strange that the avaricious and rich men can not give away in charity, nor enjoy their wealth, but leave them for others. The fortunate king got wealth by various means; even as the streams flow by various channels, but meet at last in the sea. Birds from various quarters meet at night in one tree, even so wealth flows of itself from various quarters and meets the fortunate one. Rains descend from sky and collect in a tank passages over surrounding land, even so is the fortunate man filled with riches by diverse ways.

The king now became as mindful as his father was to protect his men. Though economical as a merchant, yet he was liberal in good works. He personally inspected the past expenditure and calculated the future; and would nor be away from his bhurjā (leaf) and khanka (chuk). He used to buy jewels himself at proper prices, so that no dealer could deceive him. He could not be seen after noon. He knew every thing relating to his people by means of his pies, except perhaps their dreams. His kingdom he considered as his home,, and there was no pauper in the country. He removed all causes of disturbance from the kingdom. He did not punish the thieves too severely. He lost no wealth which was saved by his ministers' advice, but what

[p.206]: was lost by the ministers, he made up by other weans. His kingdom was always gladdened by marriages, feasts, operas and great festivals, and by absence of poverty. The king devised rules so that those who succeeded him might govern the kingdom without superintendents even in the time of festivities. In the meantime, Thakkana and two others, sons of Tanvaugga with their servants Malla and others, sons of Gunggu, returned from foreign country (the banks of the Ganges whither they had gone with the bones of the late king) and the king satisfied them with money. Malla lost his brother in the expedition.

Though the king had attained his maturity, still he suffered himself to be advised by evil men, and did evil things. One named Vulliya, the Takka, brought him girls of different tribes and nationalities from Turushka. The king thus increased the number of his women in his house to seventy-two. Though excessively addicted to women, he kept up his vigour by taking fish- soup, &c. On days of religious festivities he used to eat the offerings paid to gods. Possessed of qualities, both good and bad, he did not renew the stone temple of Mahadeva at Vijayakshetra after it had been burnt, but raised a high golden umbrella to the god. At Tripureshvara he fixed a permanent income for the Shiva there, and made a house for him of pure gold. He set up a god named Kalasheshvara, and built a temple for him of stone, and bestowed innumerable golden utensils

[p.207]: to it. The king waited to set a golden umbrella over the god ; and a mechanic came to him from Turushka and told him that many thousand pieces of gold would be required for the umbrella. This man knew the art of plating copper with gold. While engaged in preparing the umbrella he lived in the court, favored by the king. The minister Nonaka was wiser than the mechanic, and learnt the art of covering copper with gold, and so the umbrella was finished with little gold. The enormously rich king set up a linga named Anantesha and other images of gods.

At this time Sahajapala king of Rajapuri died and was succeeded by his son Sanggramapala. The king's uncle (father' a brother) the powerful Madanapala attempted to snatch the kingdom from the hands of the boy. Afraid of Madanapala the young king's sister and Jassaraja the Thakkura came for help to the king of Kashmira. The king was pleased with them and sent them back, accompanied by Jayananda, Vijja and others. Jayananda drove the enemy from the country, and became as powerful as the ministers of Sanggramapala. The ministers therefore wished for his departure and tried to frighten him in various ways, but in vain. Jayanauda suspected that, it was Vijja who advised the people of Rajapuri to act thus towards him and became angry with him. The people gave him riches and prayed for his departure. On the pretence of keeping the kingdom safe from enemies,.

[p.208]: he left his army there, and returned to Kashmira. The king of Kashmira was very much pleased with him as he had managed to keep Rajapuri under control. Vijja and others conducted themselves in a kingly style.

Curse of Suyyamata

At this time Jayananda was suddenly carried off by a mortal disease. During his illness the king came to his house to enquire about his health. In the course of a conversation he told the king that he had something very private to say to the king. When the other people had gone out, he still remained silent, when Vijja, who was still there, came out on pretence of throwing off the remnant of tho betel he was chewing. The king trusted Vijja and asked him as to what he had to do outside, still the sensible Vijja loitered there. Jayananda then told the king what Vijja had done at Rajapuri, and warned him that Vijja's prosperity would be the ruin of his kingdom. He also showed the king how Vijja, had, through his pay, and by his other gains, became very rich. The king became suspicious towards Vijja, and when he returned to his palace, Vijja perceived his intentions, and asked leave to depart. The king out of politeness at first denied the permission, but on his urgent solicitation, gladly allowed him to go. Having reached his house he sent his brothers with all his furniture out of Kashmira, and again went to the king to bid him adieu. The king and Vijja whose minds were naturally estranged from each other for political reasons, both behaved in a strange manner. The king

[p.209]: did not prevent his servant's departure, nor did the servant reproach his king in auger. The king accompanied Vijja a few steps, and smiled and talked on ordinary topics, and then went away. As Haladhara at the time of his death had accused Jinduraja, even so Jayananda ousted Vijja from his post. The king did not listen to the advice of his ministers to soothe Vijja's auger by money. The people followed Vijja believing that the king would surely recall him. The king feared an attack from this powerful man and did not sleep for five nights and started even at the waving of a grass. When Vijja had reached Shurapura, the people who followed him returned, and the king's fear was allayed; and he told his ministers of the apprehension he had felt. Hearing this, they advised him to stare on Vijja's wealth, but the king did not follow the advice ; and they knew that the king was politic. Vijja did not create any disturbance on his way, and was everywhere honored. Though he had attained power yet he was ever true to his king and revered him as a god. Thus causing Vijja and others to be exiled Jayananda gained much wealth, but soon, died through the curse of Suyyamata* By the same curse and at the same time died Jinduraja who had quarrelled with the king. Vijja too and his brothers who had attained so much wealth died through the effect of that curse at

* See page-203

[p.210]: Gauda. Vijja died of a sudden disease, and his younger brothers suffered long imprisonment. When they at last fled from the prison, Pājaka was killed by a tiger and his younger brothers died after undergoing much suffering. Madana, &c., two or three other persons who had caused disagreement between the father and, the sou did not die, but became troublesome soon after.

Vamana who was a protigec of Jayananda now took care of his children and was made prime minister by the king. The works of this wise man are still spoken of in society by wise and old men. The avaricious king took back the -villages which belonged to god Avantisvami, and built a treasury named Kalashagangja. He was anxious to keep his people safe and feared Nonaka's cruelty, and therefore did not give him even a fourth portion of the gain caused by him, (by electroplating?). Prashastakalasha and other sons of Rajakalasha then became his favorite ministers, and by their advice the king brought back disobedient and wayward sons and thieves to honest work and occupation. Madanapala again attacked Rajapuri, and the king of Kashmira sent his general Vapyata for the help of the city. Madanapala was defeated, captured and brought to Kashmira.

Kandarpa, Varahadeva's brother, was now made lord of Dvara. This person had learnt politics and war from Jinduraja. He destroyed many Damaras conquered Rajapuri and other places and was obeyed by many

[p.211]: inferior chiefs. He was quick tempered and frequently resigned his post, but was soothed and induced by the king to accept it again. Madana was made the lord of Kampana. He destroyed Vopa and many other powerful Damaras. The king was pleased with the services of Vijayasinha who had destroyed many thieves, and kept hawks, made him the Police Superintendent of the capital. At the time when Kandarpa, Udayasinha and others went to Lohara, the king kept Bhuvanaraja aloof. He married Bhuwanamati, daughter of Kirttiraja, king of Nilapura, and made peace with him. He induced Malla, son of Gungga to accept the post of lord of Dvara, taking back the place from Vijaysinha and his party. Malla made his power felt by kings and showed his valor at Urasa country. With fifty horsemen he defeated the numerous cavalry of king Abhaya, and conquered bis kingdom.

In the year 63 of the Kashmirian era, eight kings came to the king of Kashmira and entered the capital, namely,

  1. Kirtti, king of Nyarvvapura, (Nilapura ?)
  2. Asata, king of Champa,
  3. Kalasha son of Tukka, king of Vallapura,
  4. Sangramapala, king of Rajapuri,
  5. Utkarsha,king of Lohara,
  6. Munggaja, king of Urvasha,
  7. Gāmbhirasiha, king of Kānda, and
  8. Uttamaraja king of Kāshthavāta.

The streets of the capital were crowded so that they could hardly be seen. They were comfortably lodged there when the waters of the Vitasta were frozen. Whatever these king thought within themselves, was known to

[p.212]:minister Vamana. This minister, was very wise, and did whatever was required, without haste, as if it were an ordinary every-day work.

When these kings returned to their kingdoms, Malla refused to hold his post any longer, and the king asked Kandarpa to accept it again. This proud minister attacked and got possession, by stratagem, of the strong fortress of Svāpika. When he appeared in the capital he refused, although requested by the king, to accept the post, being grieved for some reason or other. Prashasta-kalasha, who was employed as messenger from the king to induce him to accept the post of lord of Dvara, was offended at Kandarpa's haughty words, and collected some armed men and placed his brother Ratnakalasha in the post. But the new man had become popular by means of his gold and was not equal to Kandarpa. Can a painted lion equal a real liou ? The king, however, gave Kandarpa the post of the Police Superintendent of the capital. But he felt pity at the abject condition to which he reduced the thieves, and therefore threw up his appointment and retired in sorrow to the banks of the Ganges. At the time of his departure the king caught hold of his garment (wishing to prevent his going) but he forcibly threw away the king's hand and went away in anger. He was brought back to the king, who, though much grieved, wished only to destroy his pride, not his life. The wise king who knew the hearts of his servants thus suffered the rise and fall of his principal men.

[p.213]: This king was excessively fond of songs and patronized dancing girls, many of whom he brought from other countries. Near Jayavana he built a town after his name with large houses all contiguous to each other. He also built there rows of temples, villages of Brahmanas, palaces and large houses and gardens with tanks in them.

Harsha (Kashmir) (r.1089-1101 AD)

At this time the king's son Harsha rose to reputation on account of his uncommon talents. He knew the tongues of different countries, and was a poet in all language. He knew, all sciences and his fame had spread to foreign countries. This prince paid salaries to the learned and to powerful men who came from various foreign countries, and whom his frugal father refused to entertain. The pay which he received from his father was insufficient to meet his charity and espouses, and so he took his food every other day. He used to sing to his father like other singers, and with the reward he received he used to feed those worthy of his charity. One day, when he was singing to the king, and the court was pleaded with his song, the king went out to the bathroom. Angry and grieved at this interruption and insult, Harsha bent his head towards the ground.

If a master be unforgiving, or friends prove faithless; if a wife speaks harshly, or a son becomes proud or servants reply insolently, the pain and insult, though great, may with difficulty be borne ; but not so the indifference of a listener of song. A jester of the king named

[p.214]: Vishvavatva told Harsha as in jest that he might destroy his father and reign in his place. The prince in anger rebuked him, but Dhammata who sat there said smiling that the fellow had said nothing wrong. The ambitious courtiers showed their affection to the prince, as the amorous prostitutes show their affection to their paramours. When the king re-entered the court, he gave reward to his son, and pleased him with kind words. On another day, when the prince, had retired to his chamber after dining with his father, Vishvavatva told him the same thing privately. The prince replied that what his father did was right, and forbade him to continue the topic longer, but when the man still urged the same point, the prince in anger gave him a push. But finding that the blow had by chance hurt his nose which was bleeding, the nobly-descended prince took pity on the man and caused the blood to be washed by his servants. He told the jester that if he again spoke on that subject, he would have the same punishment, and smiled and gave him a cloth. The man, on account of this gift, thought that the innocent prince favored his proposal as a wicked man thinks that a woman will favor him if she but smiles. After much endeavour and the lapse of a long period, the prince was induced to do the deed. Entertaining this sinful idea he once invited his father, and engaged Tikshnas to murder him. But when the king came, the murderers felt affection for him and did not strike him,

[p.215]: nor did the son betray his purpose. And to prevent the secret from being divulged the Tikahnas were taken into confidence. But Vishvavatva himself disclosed to the king the intention of the prince. Harsha came to know of this, and though repeatedly asked by the king's servants, he did not go to the king to dine with him that day. His ansence confirmed the suspicion of his guilt, and in grief the king and his family did not dine on that day. When in the morning Thakkana and his brother came, the king expressed hit grief and wept long, placing his head on the lap of Thakkana. He also spoke about Dhammata and hinted that Dhammata should be bound and brought to him. They expressed their inability to do so and pleaded for their brother. "By your favor" they said, " we relieve those who are in trouble, we keep our doors open at night for those in distress. Whether our younger brother be guilty or not ; how can we desert him when he comes for help for his life. If we protect him, we will be accused of rebellion, so we have no other resource left than to leave the country." Thus saying they bowed to the king, and the king reluctantly granted them leave to go. Fearing an attack on the way they went out of the country with their servants and force and troops. „

When the sons of Tanvangga were gone, the king called his son to him when no one else was in the room, and soothed, him and spoke thus : —

"Since the creation, the son is everywhere know by the fame of the father, but

[p.216]: I am known to all owing to your far-famed merits. Meritorious, and of pure reputation as you are, why do you take to wicked ways ? You should not be angry with me without hearing the reason why I am not giving you your grandfather's riches and your own. The king without wealth is slighted both byhis own men and strangers, and hence I keep your wealth. After the construction of the city is completed, I shall resign the kingdom to you and shall retire either to Varanasi (Benaras) or to Nandikshetra. You will very soon be master of the kingdom and the wealth. Why then without understanding my purpose do yon act like the wicked? I do not believe what wicked men hare said of you, so speak the truth and acquit yourself of the alleged guilt."

The king out of his affection wished that the prince might deny his guilt and prove himself innocent, and therefore made the enqniry. He was willing to pardon his son and wished to prove the innocence of his son to the people even by a falsehood. Harsha praised the Speech of his father and went out saying that he would speak the truth through some faithful person. To the person sent by his father, the prince said that through the advice of wicked men he had really intended to rebel, and fled in fear to his own house. When the messenger returned to the king, the king saw the miserable countenance of the man and struck his head with his hand and exclaimed,

" O my son ! "

[p.217]: The king then caused Harsha to be attacked, but the soldiers, hearing that he would strike off his own head if his son wan killed, only surrounded the palace of Harsha. The Tikshnas (prince's followers) closed the gate and surrounded the prince, and, feeling their death unavoidable, thus spoke rudely to their master, " O ! wicked, carolers and hateful man, where can you hope to live after destroying us by intrigue? You know that your father will save your life, and he knows that you will save hit life, but we only shall be killed. Fight, being in our middle, or we will kill you, — in either ease you die."

The king heard of this and became very apprehensive for his son's safety. Now Dandaka, a very respectable man who was with the king, came to Harsha. The Tikshnns admitted him taking him for a partisan of the prince. Dandaka came to the prince and addressed him, after bewitching those around,

" O ! prince, though you live a long life, still the elements which, compose you will perish according to unavoidable, laws. And since death is sure and nigh, perform that for which you have taken up arms. You who are young and a warrior, and whose fame for learning is widely known, should not delay the fight. These will help you and I shall lead, and whatever may betide, be it victory or defeat, you will he decked with glory. Rise and shave, and speedily dress as befits a warrior."

Revered by the Tikshnas, he induced the prince and the barber to go into the inner chamber, leaving his arms behind and jumping

[p.218]: with delight, and shut the door. Then he proclaimed aloud to the king's soldiers that he had placed the prince in safety, and bade them now do their duty. Diseases are removed by medicines, the body is protected from swords by mail, and the fears of kings are averted by wise men. The king's soldiers, intending to enter the prince's palace with cries, tried to scale the wall. The Tikshnas left the prince in the room, the doors of which were strong, and rushed out. Two or three fell there, and the rest of the proud band issued out without attempting to oppose tho assailants. They then went to the temple of Sadashiva, passing that of Suryyamatigonrisha and killing those who opposed them. Though the king ordered his men not to kill his kinsmen, still Sahaja, his relative, perished in the affray, and Tivya, a learned Brahmana and warrior, was killed by the enemy. So also , died Ramadeva and Keshi, the latter being a native of Karnata. Some who deserted their arms and attempted to kill their own partisans were captured and killed as cowards deserve.

On the sixth bright lunar day in the month of Pousha in the year sixty-four of the Kashmirian era, this fight between the father and the son caused by the courtiers took place.

Thus, for His companionship with wicked men, the prince was humbled and imprisoned. The queen, Bhuvanamati, was at first requested to make peace between the father and the son ; but when the latter was imprisoned, the proud queen committed suicide by cutting her throat.

[p.219]: The king placed faithful ministers as guards over his son, and, moved by paternal kindness, used to send him good food. He allowed Prtiyaga, the prince's servant, to remain by the side of his master, thinking him to be capable of intriguing. The minister, Nonaka, advised thy king either to kill the prince or to pluck out his eyes. The king, whose character became as bad as that beast, felt a passion for some of the ladies beloved by his son. One of them, Sugalā, the grand-daughter of king Takka, became the favorite of her father-in-law and wished for the murder of her husband. And having consulted Nonaka they sent poison by two cooks at the time when the prince used to take his meal, but the Prayaga heard of this from another cook, and did not give this dish to his master to eat ; and in order to test the truth, the food was given to two dogs. When Harsha heard that the dogs are dead he de-picted of his life ; and believing; this to be the secret machination, of his father, he did not, take the food which was daily sent to him, but lived on whatever food Prayagya could get for him. When the king heard that the prince did not take the food sent through the cooks he sent for Prayaga and asked about the reason. Prayaga then sent for the two cooks, and informed the king about the affair of the poison, and told him that the prince had come to know f the stratagem. The king employed other cooks, yet the prince, apprehending danger, did not take any food, but lived on what Prayaga brought him. The prince

[p.220]: saw that every one was against him, and considered each day that he lived as so much gained, nor trusted that he would be alive much longer.

Death of King Kalasha

The king began to commit unheard of crimes, such as foretold his sudden death. First he uprooted the copper image of the Sun, and then took it away from the temple. Wishing to obtain the proportion of those who died without leaving any children, the cruel king descended to mean actions. The curses of the people and his excessive fondness for women brought on gonorrhea. The king now thought of performing certain ceremonies (Kumbhapratishtha) in the temple of Hara. Then the king's nose began to bleed, — all attempts to cure it failed or rather increased the disease. Much bleeding reduced him and he was obliged to take to bed. He had indigestion, and lost his strength and flesh. He was anxious to give his kingdom to Harsha, but seeing his ministers averse to it, he brought Utkarsha from the hills of Lohara. On his death-bed he distributed riches to all, high and low, but not to the females of his household. He then asked his ministers to bring Harsha that ho might give him riches and send him out of the kingdom. The ministers sent away the royal guards who kept watch on Harsha and placed the Thakkuras of Lohara in their place, and then informed Utkarsha of all that had happened. They then took Harsha out to the dancing house, and tied him, bereft of all his friends, to the four-pillared room. On the

[p.221]: other hand the king,on the point of his death, told his men to take him to a shrine. Remembering that his disease was the result of his uprooting Tamrasvami he wished to take refuge at Martanda. Urged by fear the king went to that shrine leaving that of Vijayakshetra. At the time of death the wise and the foolish alike act like children. This action of the king showed his weakness, and the good instructions he had received became objects of laughter. On the third bright lunar day in the month of Agruhayana at night fall the king set out in a carriage drawn by a pair towards the temple of the Sun. The sounds of the drum, &c, drowned that of the lamentations of the people. He then went by river in a boat with his ministers and ladies. Next day, at about evening, he reached the temple of the Sun, and there, in the hope of life, he caused a golden image to he made. His pain was further aggravated by his anxiety to see his eldest son Harsha, but still his servants disobeyed him, and would not bring Harsha before the dying king. The king sighed, and opening the doors of his room heard the songs which the singers sang outside, and which were composed by Harsha. When a king's order at the time of his death is not attended to, it gives greater pain than death itself. He instructed Utkarsha to divide (the kingdom) with his brother Harsha, and his tongue lost the power of speech. He only muttered repeatedly the name of Harsha, and to understand his

[p.222]:intentions the minister, Nonaka, brought a looking glass. The king smiled and shook his head refusing the mirror, and bit his lips and muttered something ; and after a day and a half, he entirely lost his power of speech. At the moment of his death he signed to his ministers to approach him, and caused himself to be taken, by those who were not overwhelmed with grief, before the image of the Sun. At the age of forty-nine on the sixth bright lunar day in the month of Agrahayana in the year sixty-five of the Kashmirian era he died. Mammanika and six others of his queens died in his funeral, as also a concubine named Joyamati. Kayyā, another of his mistresses whom he had enriched with his favor, was the disgrace of her sex. She forgot that she was the principal of the late king's mistresses, and had been born of low caste, and the position of her lover. It grieves in that she went to Vijayakshetra and took into her favor the officers of the place. Fie to the woman who was once beloved of the king, but brought herself down to be an object of enjoyment of the villagers. All the ministers were anxious to coronate Utkarsha, only the grateful minister Vamana performed the funeral rites of the late king. On one side arose the music and songs of coronation, and on the other the lamentation for the dead and funeral music.

Coronation of Utkarsha

A difference now arose between the new king and Vijayamalla, son of the late king by queen Padmashri. The king promised to pay him every day the same amount

[p.223]: which his father had bequeathed to Harsha. Some officers and ministers stood as securities and became mediators. The king also allowed a salary to Jayaraja son of Kayya. Women, even when they are weeping for their deceased husbands, think of their means of livelihood ; sons, even when attending tho last ceremonies of their fathers, speak of their future prosperity ; and other retives, servants, &c., also entertain selfish thoughts in a similar manner. And yet stupid men hound riches by wicked menus for their wives and children. The king then entered the capital, but the people of that city wished Harsha for their king ; and even as a sick man does not feel the delights of a festal day, they felt no delight in that day of coronation. On the other hand, when Harsha's father had gone out of the capital to die, he was hound to the four pillars and took no food that day. Like a travelling merchant, when all his merchandize is lost, he remained sunk in grief. On the next day, the Thakkuras with some difficulty made him eat something. They then promised him bestow on him the possession of their country (Lohara) ; for, they said, his brother could not he king of both the countries. When he had thus been soothed, he heard of the death of his father and he fasted. On the next day he heard of the arrival of Utkarsha into the capital. When he was weeping and sighing for the death of his father, his younger brother the king sent a man to bathe him. Just when he had finished his bath, sounds of

[p.224]: music arose as the king was now ready for the bath of coronation. By this good omen Harsha felt sure of getting the kingdom, as sure as thunder follows lightning. From that time he met with many good omens, and his attainment of the kingdom was near at hand. When his brother sent him a man to attend to his meal, he sent the man back asking to be released, and to be sent out of the kingdom. Or if he was detained there, he asked that his dues might bee paid. If neither of these were done he threatened he would commit suicide by refraining from food. The king induced him to take his food by falsely promising him his due. Harsha asked for his due every day and every day the king deferred payment till the next day. Thus the king gained time, but his conduct aroused suspicion in the mind of the imprisoned prince. Harsha one day beat his servant Prayaga to avert all suspicion regarding the step he was going to take, and then privately sent him to Vijayamalla, informing him how he had been imposed upon by the king. Prayaga complained to Vijayamalla, the younger brother of Harsha, that his elder pined in confinement while he was in the kingdom. Vijayamalla's heart was touched with grief, and after thinking for a long time he expressed his doubt as to whether the king would hear him, but added that he would try his best to have him released. In the mean time he urged on Harsha to take care to preserve his

[p.225]: own life. Thus saying he sent Prayaga to Harshadeva and began to devise means fur his release.

Utkarsha, now master of the kingdom, was puffed up with vanity, and did nothing for its good administration. Though his ministers, Kandarpa and others, had helped him to the throne, he refused to listen to their advice regarding the management of the country, nor did he do any thing himself. His only work during the day was to see how the wealth in his treasury increased. Wiseman saw that he did nothing which might increase his expense, and knew how to be avaricious. The wanton widow of his father who were fed only on rice and Mundga (moong dal) spread the story of his miserliness far and wide. His habits being parsimonious, he could not become a favorite with the subjects who had prodigal kings before.

Release of Harsha from prison and rise to throne

Vijayamalla did not receive his pay regularly, and prepared himself for retiring into his native place; and in order to keep himself safe from violence he requested the king that those who had acted as mediator between them before might accompany him. His prayer was granted and he set out from the capital and encamped one night at Lavanotsa. The neutral army came over to his aide. They reminded him that Harsha was in prison, and that if he, too, went away from the kingdom it was all that, the king could wish for. They therefore asked him to release Harsha from prison before he went away. Thus add reused by armed soldiers,

[p.226]: Vijayamalla marched back towards the capital early next morning. Some of the Damaras heard of his return and knew his purpose and joined him. Vijayamalla then made Madhurāvatta, who was one of the mediators, the head of his cavalry. Naga, who belonged to the party of Vijayamalla, but who had not left that of the king, hastened to the king with a few horsemen by way of Padmapura, but was delayed by some accident on the road. Vijayamalla, on the other hand, hastened to- wards the capital and, encouraged by a signal of a light on the top of a Shāla tree, surrounded the capital and burnt the houses. Jayaraja, too, whom the king had disappointed, after making a promise, espoused the cause of Vijayamalla. These two princes now began to consider as to what they should do of the king. Vijayamalla sent message to the king to intimate that he would retire when Harshadeva was released, and at the same time burnt the stables for elephants, buffaloes, &c.

"Coronate the liberal Harsha, set aside this king who is as parsimonious as the merchant of the Khasha tribe." Thus spake the good people of the city, and went to Harsha and showered flowers on him through the holes of his prison. When the king's army was defeated, and the prison was deserted by the guards, Harsha sent the Thakkuras to the army of Vijayamalla and afraid of having made the king's enemies his friends, he advised them to deliver the following massage : "The wicked man is now in trouble, so release me soon or the king will slay me." When he had thus instructed the Thakkuras,

[p.227]: and they were deliberating as to what to do, he heard the sound as if some body kicking against the door from outside. " Have they deceived me," said Harsha. " Open the door, ! Thukkuras." But the Thakkuras were panic-struck, and so he controlled his fears and opened the door himself. Sixteen armed men of Lohara entered the room to murder him. Nonaka had repeatedly told the king that the tumult would cease in a moment if Harsha was beheaded ; and the king had acted on his advice and had sent those murderers. Immediately after the king, changed his mind and thought that if Harsha's life was spared now, he might be of some service hereafter. He therefore cancelled his former order and directed his men to keep Harsha safe from the Thakkuras. He instructed them, however, that they were to kill Harsha if he sent them a particular ring, but that on the contrary they were to release him if he sent them a certain other ring. Then he showed them the two rings which were on his fingers, and told them to await his future command. The murderers accordingly entered the room, but did not kill Harsha on the spot. Harsha called every one of them by name, gave them betels and made them sit down before him. Thus received, the men took the betels offered and left their arms aside and gave up all intention to murder him. The man who possesses an honest mind, and walks in the paths of virtue, attains wealth and fame and destroys his sin, and even

[p.228]: hist foes turn to friends. The prince then thus addressed them and said, :" Why are you ashamed ? Servants who obey the orders of their master are not to blame. Wait here for a little while and you will see very strange things, and will observe how the condition of man changes every moment. As clouds which assume the shapes of elephants and tigers and serpents, afterwards descend on earth in drops, even so the disposition of man constantly varies, and becomes cruel or kind on different occasions. We perceive regular changes in Nature with the progress of time; in the same way, do you watch the changes in man. Heat increases just before the rain, and darkness thickens just, before dawn. In the same way, kings doomed to death may yet get kingdoms, for, as in Nature, excessive suffering may lead to good fortune."

Feeling sure of future greatness, by the good omen of his life being spared, Harsha narrated instances of good men who had attained happiness after undergoing sufferings like him. To while away the time he related to them the rare and lucid story of Harishchandra. They did not know that all the time that Harsha was so entertaining them, he was eugaged in getting information as to how matters stood outside. Utkarsha thought of many plans regarding Harsha, but at last thought it expedient to kill him, and repeatedly sent messengers to that effect. But he forgot to send the ring, so that the murderers did not obey the messages. Finding his

[p.229]:orders repeatedly disregarded, the king recollected all about the rings and sent Shura, a Rajpoot of noble qualities, giving him, however, the wrong onethrough mistake. Thus king Utkarsha, through one act of forgetfulness and one mistake, had to lose his life, The murderers, too, had been gained over to Harsha's favor by his politeness ; and when Shura came they believed that he had brought the fatal ring. They wanted to kill Shura for this; — but when the doors were opened and they saw the ring brought, they danced with joy as they approached the prince, taking Shura with them. The Rajpoot did not believe that the ring conveyed an order for the release and was leaving the room, when they fell to his feet; and he remained thoughtfull.

On the other hand Vijayamalla thought that Harsha was dead, and was very angry and vigorously maintained his opposition. He intended to burn the capital, and was with difficulty deterred from so doing by the king's men, who attired him that Haraha was living. And to make him believe their statement, they sent to him Sugalā, Harsha's wife, clad as a lady should when her husband is alive. Vijayamalla saw her, and gave up his intention to burn the city. The king now thought that the tumult would cease if Harsha was released. Nonaka, Prashastakalasha and others went and released Harsha, and reluctantly relinquished their intention of destroying him. The citizens showered flowers on

[p.230]: Harsha as he rode on horse with the ministers to the king in the place of battle. When he arrived there the king congratulated him, and told him to go and tell his brother to stop hostilities, and after his return thence he would settle Harsha's claims at his leisure. Harsha consented to do so and went out. The king with his ministers entered the treasury, leaving the field of battle.

When Vijayamalla saw Harsha, now safely delivered from the dangers he was in, he was for a time motionless with joy. And after salutations and, embraces they began a long conversation. Those who stood by expressed their wish that Harsha would kill Utkarsha and be king. Vijayamalla did not approve of this proposal, on which Harsha was surprised. He saved himself by riding to and fro, his person being the object of contention between the two brothers, Utkarsha and Vijayamalla. As the tree which is saved from forest fire by rain fears the thunder-bolt, as one after escaping the alligator runs the risk of death by drowning, oven so man is saved from one danger and thrown into another by fate, so that the happiness that succeeds may be all the more relished. Some of Harsha's foot-soldiers discovered that their master was saving himself on pretence of riding and joined him.

Harsha consulted Vijayamalla for a time, and then went to the king to say that the hostilities had ceased. But when he was entering the palace where the king was he was forbidden to do so by Vijayamalla. After

[p.231]:escaping death," he enquired, " why are yon again entering there to die, O ! You of little sense! Relinquish, your four, and go and take your seat on the throne." The servants brought the throne from tho treasury, and Harsha hastily sat on it, Sugalā, his wife, who had formerly exerted so much against him, now took her seat by hit side ; and the ministers came to his coronation. Hearing of this, the wily Vijayasinha drew out Utkarsha from his chamber and placed him in another room. The late king was now taken, with but few attendants, to the new king. Prosperity lasts not for ever with any one ! Vijayasinha then placed Utkarsha under guard and informed Harsha of it. Harsha then employed the Thakkuras, with whom he had been acquainted in his prison, as his own guards, and felt himself safe from Vijayamalla. On the other hand, Vijayamalla heard that Harsha, his elder brother, had become king, and went to him and was well received by Harsha's men and taken to his (Vijayamalla's) house.

When the king's army came near, he caused Vijayamalla to be brought to him and styled him his deliverer, saying that, — "you have given me my life and kingdom;" and clashed his hands before him. Thus favored by the gods and by his own judicious management, Harsha , became king. He sat on tho throne with the very clothes that he had when in prison. And when weary with tho toil, he retired to his bed at night leaving all cares aside. He could not sleep, though he lay with his

[p.232]: eyes shut, for he fancied he heard the sound of slaughter.

Utkarsha, now a prisoner, asked of his ministers for advice. Nonaka rebuked him and spoke to him harshly as follows : —

" You did not' listen to the advice I gave you in the morning : now attend to my words, and I shall tell you what will befall you for your injudicious acts. You insulted Harsha when he was imprisoned, tomorrow he will deliver you to the hands of the oxecutioners. There is no respite but in death ; but even death is hard to attain, now that the war is over. It is not proper to robuke a person in time of distress. You always thought of present happiness, and not of possible adversity, and therefore in a moment you have lost all. As a small hole in a worn out cloth becomes larger the more you attempt to sew it up, even so a bad action, when strengthened and supported by bad means, becomes a hundred times worse."

Utkarsha commits suicide:

When Utkarsha heard this, he retired from the presence of the ministers into another inner chamber with one of his mistresses, named Sahajā. He pretended to be going to repeat the Sandhya prayers ; but there he hid himself in the dark, and in the excess of his grief he cut the arteries of his throat with a cloth-cutting knife. Sahaja heard the sound made by the knife, and saw -with terror the stream of blood flowing out of the screen. She then saw his head hanging, and thick blood issuing out of the wound. Her subsequent conduct is edifying to wives who love

[p.233]: their husbands. Night goes away leaving the moon behind her, but when the sun sets, evening follows him. The conduct of women, too, in the same way, is sometimes blameable and some times praiseworthy. Though Kayyā and Sahaja were both beloved of their husband, yet every one praised the latter and spoke ill of the former. Sahaja was a dancing girl in a temple : the late king saw her once in a dancing hall and made her his mistress. She purified her love by perishing in fire. When she was a prostitute, she was also beloved of Harsha, and though Harsha now asked her to live with him, she did not turn away from death. Utkarsha died when ho was a little younger than twenty-four years of age, and after reigning for twenty-two days. His corpse lay for one night and was burnt on the morning. Some of his mistresses who were then among the hills of Lohara also perished by fire.

Harsha's party now disarmed the late king's ministers, but Nonaka resolved to die and did not give up his arms. Prashastakalasha, however, induced him to lay down his arms, telling him that the king must release them in time, as otherwise there is no one to be his ministers. Consequently it was not wise to sacrifice his life. The king then had Nonaka alias Nona, Sihlarabhatta, Prashastakalasha, &c, bound, and sent them to prison. Thus in one day Harsha created a revolution as if it bad been achieved by the gods,

King Harsha's character

[p.234]: The reigns of other kings have been narrated; but it is difficult to narrate the present one. Here I shall relate king Harsha's character. He was full of energy ; but possessed traits of character inconsistent with each other. He devised various laws, but also subverted all rules. His power was felt on all sides, and yet was frequently disobeyed. He was very charitable, but at the same time plundered many people. He was very kind, but caused many murders. He did many good as well as sinful acts. He was both loved and hated, was both good and bad, and was admired and spoken ill of. Surely he was made of atoms of fire, for even at the time of his birth great men could not look at him. His prowess was not equalled either among men or gods, it might among Danavas. His earrings were bright as suns, and he wore a crown and a turban. His look was like that of a lion. He wore beard, and his shoulders were like those of a bull. He had long arms, and was of a somewhat dark complexion. His body was of proper proportions. His chest was broad, and his waist was narrow, and his voice deep as that of clouds. In form he could shame even super-human beings. He hung four large bells at the four lion-gates that he might know by their sound when any one was coming to speak to him. He heard the complaints of the grieved, and relieved their misery. In the palace there was none meagerly clad, or clad in un-wrought cloth, or without gold ornaments. Numerous people

[p.235]: gathered at the lion-gates, and it appeared as if the wealth of various countries was collected there. The numerous ministers and guards walked in the palace adorned with gold ornaments. Thus reigned the new king, and implicitly followed the advice of Vijayamalla.

King Harsha's court

The court was filled with Vijayamalla's men, whose advise the king followed out of gratitude ; and dis-regarding his own men he gave posts to his father's ministers. Kandarpa was placed at Dvara, Madana at Kampana, and Vijayasinha, &c, in their respective posts. When his anger abated, he released Prashastakalasha and others and gave them their own posts. But recollecting the many evil acts done by Nonaka, and being angry with him, Harsha impaled him with his half brother (son of his nurse). Subsequently, however, when he found himself in difficulties he remembered Nonaka, the wise and faithful to his master, and repented of his deed. A worthy man, though he does us injury, is sometimes of service to us. Nonaka was impaled by Vishabhatta and other Rajpoots, but not before he had seen his wife mutilated, her ears and nose being cut off. The king bestowed wealth on his servants who had shared his captivity. Sunna, son of Vajra, was made prime minister, and when the king was out, the people generally mistook his minister for the king. This Sunna had a younger brother, named Yāyarāja, who was made chief of his attendants, and was, loved by the king more dearly

[p.236]: than even his life. Dhammata,* who for his tenderness for his two brothers had gone to the banks of the Ganges;- now returned with his nephews to Kashmira. The king, for whom Dhammata had lost his elder brother, now honored him and his nephews and looked on him as his own self.

Thus when the king and Vijayamalla were administering the kingdom the latter, instigated by wicked men, changed his mind and wanted to rebel. Why give the kingdom to another after conquering it? Thus advised by the wicked, he wished to usurp the kingdom, and began to plan the death of his elder brother. Intending to kill him in a solitary room, he invited Harsha to a religious feast which he instituted. The king know his purpose, and fearing an attack ordered his army to be collected. In the meantime, when the army was being ready, Vijayamalla stole horses from the royal stable and attempted to get away from the city with the horses forcing his way through the king's army. In his flight he fought with superhuman bravery with the royal army, seated on his horse with his wife. Untimely rains, which fell everywhere, bewildered the people about this time. The contest was hot, and prince Vijayamalla was covered with arrows. The sons of Chandaka (Chandalas) pursued him with a determination to kill.

* See pages 214 — 5. This person was implicated in Harsha's rebellion against his father.

[p.237]: him, and his army became reduced. He came to the spot where the Vitasta and the Sindhu met, and the bridge over it being broken by the force of the waves, he first caused the horses to descend into the water, and then swam over to the other side with his wife. Thus he came out safely with his wife in the face of his enemy, and his horse followed him across tho river. When the enemies were out of sight, he rode on his horse and went towards Darat by the road leading to Lohara. Kandarpa, lord of Dvara, had secured all the passes against Vijayamalla ; but the latter scaled the mountains and reached the city of Darat encircled by mountains. There Vidyadhara welcomed him, and some of Vijayamalla's men joined their master. On the other hand, Harsha learnt that the Damaras were willing to fight for Vijayamalla and began to devise plans, but which did not succeed. Vijayamalla passed the winter at Darat, and having secured the Damaras in his cause, marched out in pride from his retreat in the month of Chaitra. He had now overcome all difficulties, and was encamping on the road, when he died by the fall of snow. Fate mars the efforts of the great by insignificant means ! Harsha was now relieved of his fears. He was the most powerful king of his time and neighbourhood. He, introduced many elegant customs in his kingdom. Previous to his time no one except the king tied his hair or wore, a turban or ornaments. No distinction was allowed in the kingdom, in so much that Madana, lord of

[p.238]: Kampana, bad incurred the king's auger for tying his hair, and Joyananda, the chief minister for wearing colored cloth. But this king introduced fitting dresses in his kingdom. He ordered some of his female servants to adorn some of his ministers with good robes.

Liked the customs of the south: He liked the customs of the south, and introduced coins like those current in Karnata. His court was filled with men adorned with palm leaves and broad marks of sandal and good long swords. Women clothed themselves like men, and wore garlands of gold in imitation of the leaves of Kotaka, and adorned themselves with marks of sandal and lines of collyrium drawn from the eyes to the ears, and with the holy thread made of gold. The ends of their garments kissed the ground, and their breast and arms down to the elbows were covered by bodice. Their smiles were white as camphor.

Those who came to beg from the king could, by the king's bounty, feed others who depended on them ; as the clouds, by their connection with the sea, can nourish the earth with rain. By the king's liberality those who came to sing became almost as rich as himself. He bestowed immense gold on the learned, and allowed them to ride on cars drawn by pair and to use umbrella. In the reign of Kalasha, one Rihlana, a learned man, went out of Kashmira and lived in the court of Karnata. There the king named Parmadi gave him the title of Vidyapati; and he used to ride on elephant before the army, and he alone used the umbrella in presence of

[p.239]: the king. But now he heard that the liberal Harsha was a friend of the learned, and repented having gone out of Kashmira.

Harsha's capital became one of the beautiful things of the earth, adorned with gold and high building, which touched tho clouds. In tho pleasure-garden of the king, there were almost all sorts of trees. He excavated a large tank named Pampa, adorned with various birds and animals. He himself was learned in various Departments of knowledge. Even to this day his songs are listened, even by bis enemies, with tears in their eyes. He used to sleep two praharas during tho day and to keep up nights, when he gave audience to the people and passed his time in enjoyment. Ho spent the night in conversation with the learned, and in songs and dancing in the court, which was lighted with thousand lamps. At the close of conversation was only heard the noise caused by the chewing of betel or the sound produced by the dried Shefali in the hair of the women. A cloud like canopy hung above, and the burning lamps looked like a wall of fire. The bars of gold were like serpents, the swords looked like smoke, the females beamed like Apsaras, the ministers were as stars, the learned like an assembly of the gods, and the singers like gandharvas. This place appeared to be the seat of both Yama and Kuvera, for Charity and Fear here walked together, Such was the appearance

[p.240]: of the court at night, which it is impossible to describe. The king was richer than Indra.

Business and Administration of King Harsha

In his time transactions were carried on mostly by gold and silver coins, and very little by copper dinnars. Sunna was the chief executive officer, and had attained to the highest rank, but behaved meanly owing to his great avarice. He deprived the monasteries (mathas) at Ajayavana, one of his estates, and at Mulaka and Vijayeshvara, of the means of their support. In the reign of this king the hungry, the helpless, the sick and the poor were relieved of their grievances. One Champaka squandered his long accumulated wealth by spending it at Nandikshetra for seven days in every year. The king enriched the Brahmanas, who wore deer-skins by his liberality. The king's wife, Vasantalekha, a daughter of the Sahi family, built monasteries and villages for the habitation of the Brahmanas in the capital and at Tripureshvara. She shone as bright as a flame, and her character was so elevated that the like of her was never seen in the country. The new ministers, as they grew up in power, guided the king's mind against the former ministers, on whom they always looked with jealousy. It is by a whim of Fortune that great men are deceived and led- by the weak. Though the king was learned and well skilled in business, yet he was misled by his wicked ministers. In order to repay the enmity of his father, now dead, he caused the monasteries, &c, in the capital, called after bis father's name, to be plundered. And having

[p.241]: squandered the hoarded treasures of his avaricious father, he gave him the name of Payusena.

In the mean time, Bhuvanaraja planned to get possession of Lohara, and secretly collected foot-soldiers and stationed them at Kota. But hearing that Kandarpa, the lord of Dvara, was advancing to meet him, he again hid himself.

At this Sangramapala, king of Rajapuri, found opportunity to rip against Kashmira. But the king became angry with Kandarpa for trying to collect the scattered man of Kota, and sent Dandanayaka to Rajapuri. He hastily went with hiss army by way of Lohara, hut loitered for a month and a half near the waters of Kota. On the approach of the summer months, he got frightened by the power of the enemy and felt no inclination to proceed in the expedition. On the other hand, Kandarpa was rebuked for his inactivity, as he did nothing, not knowing the king's inclination. When, rebuked, he determined, although he had no military equipments, to conquer Rajapuri, and vowed not to take food till he had conquered it. He proceeded along the mountains, lived in mountain caves, and abstained from food, and found him self, on the sixth day, a little beyond one yojana of Rajapuri. He reached the place without mooting with opposition, and entered the enemy's line and disarmed them. Of the army of Dandanayaka, only one officer fallowed Kandarpa ; his name was Kularaja, and he was born of the line of Buddharaja. He was killed by

[p.242]: the warriors of Rajapuri in the way, and they thought, because that officer had the device of a white umbrella, that it was Kandarpa himself whom they had killed. At noon, however, Kandarpa, with twenty or thirty men, entered the capital or Rajapuri. Before the gates of this city, three hundred infantry of Kandarpa opposed thirty thousand warriors of the enemy. In this battle the Kashmirians lost two hundred men, and four hundred of the Khashas perished. When the battle was over, the place was lighted by numerous fires for performing the last rites of the dead, and it, looked like the cooking place of Death. By this act of Kandarpa the fiendish anger of the king was appoased in the bloody battle field.

Exasperated by the defeat, the enemy rallied, and came to fight again with Kandarpa in the last prahara of the day. Kandarpa discharged iron naracha besmeared in a preparation of oil, which set fire on every side where they fell. The foolish enemies believing that Kandarpa knew the art of discharging fire arms, and in fear, fled afar. Even in the midst of danger, the bravery, spirit, presence of mind, tact and coolness never leave great men. At sunset he entered the capital, but again saw the streets outside the city covered with soldiers. But when he again came out to fight, he found that Dandanayaka had arrived, and seeing the carnage caused in the late battle, had remained there in fear with his army. Borne are emboldened by their own loss, — some are frightened at the sight of the loss of other people.

[p.243]: Who can understand; human nature? Kandarpa then came out and brought the frightened captain into the town, as the Hangsa in the fable led the crow. Who can, by his own valor, enter a foreign country like Kandarpa, when tho people there are loyal, and the army large and united? Within one month Kandarpa returned to his country, after exacting tribute from, the fallen king of Rajapuri. Harsha welcomed him, and rose as he came, so that he became the object of envy of Dandanayaka and others.

Kandurpa was invested with a title for the good administration of Parihasapura. But the king, through the evil advice of his prime minister who had been largely bribed, removed the seat from Kandarpa and ordered him to sit near his feet. The ministers who were jealous of Kandarpa, were very glad, particularly as they thought that some one out of them would gain the lordship of Dvara. By their advice the king made Kandarpa lord of Lohara and sent him to that province where a rebellion had broken out. The mean-minded ministers thus drove Kandarpa, the wise and valorous, from the neighbourhood of the king. Kings who cannot judge for themselves soon perish by the council of the wily. As sands creep out of the hand, so the liking of the king towards Kandarpa gradually decreased during his, absence. The ministers now told the king that Kandarpa had taken with him two sons of Utkarsha and intended to reign at Lohara. The

[p.244]:king believed their tale, and sent Patta and Asidhara with an army to capture and kill him. By some mistake in the sending of letters, Kandarpa learnt of the arrival of the army and its purpose ; he became astonished and disgusted and stunned for the moment. Just at this time Asidhara arrived. Kandarpa was then playing at dice. Asidhara attempted to tie his hand, but Kandarpa withdrew his hand, and he wrung the hand of his opponent so that he retired in excess of pain. Kandarpa then reproached himself that he had ever taken service under such a king after serving under king Anantadeva. He said in sorrow to Patta that if the king would send him his relatives, he would deliver up the fort in his possession and depart. When his relatives came, he did not revolt against his king, but quietly gave up his possessions and went to Benaras.

He killed a chief of Gaya and placed another in his stead, and thus obliged the withdrawal of the tax which was levied on the Kishmirians who came here to perform the Shraddha of their forefathers. He also destroyed a robber chief and cleared the way to the East, and made it safe for the travellers. He destroyed a fierce tiger at Benaras, and adorned the East with many temples.

Since the exile of Kandarpa, the bad ministers envied one another, and did much injury to the king. As fattened rams, maddened with pride, strike one another with their horns, even so the ministers quarrelled with one another. And as thornless shrub which lie between the

[p.245]: rams is a son torn to pieces, even so the helpless king suffered from the disputes of his ministers. Thus passed sometime.

Dhammata's plan to get the kingdom by rebellion

Dhammata, son of Tanvangga, wished to get the kingdom by rebellion, and attempted to kill the king. The wily Dhammata induced Jayaraja, son of a prostitute*, to murder the king, and sent him for that purpose. He thought within himself that after the king's death he would inherit the kingdom, as Jayaraja was a prostitute's son. And Jayaraja too would naturally be suspected of the crime. They incited the people of the village of Vilava to rebellion, and also won over two or three inmates of the king's Household. The plan succeeded for a while, and the king sent Dhammata with honors to Rajapuri as ambassador. But Jayaraja eventually found his plans beginning to fail and came to Dhammata, who was waiting in the house of " thousand good omens" for an auspicious day to start. When holding a private consultation, they were overheard by a follower of Prayaga from near the wall. He divulged everything to Prayaga, who informed the king about it, and the king forbade the journey of Dhammata. Afraid of the destruction of his own kinsmen, the king refrained from taking severe measures ; he only remained always on guard. Jayaraja seeing his attempt fruitless, employed Naga and Paja, two heroic but low damaras as his spies. The king heard that Jayaraja had set out with his followers to fight with him and made preparations for defence

* See page 222- 223.

[p.246]: The wily Dhammata, on the other hand, armed himself on the morning, and pretending to set out for battle, led Jayaraja into a chamber to worship. Jayaraja then, with his nephew Dhammata, entered the room and, to his terror, found himself before the king in a room with closed doors. Having set the guards outside the room, Prayaga, by the king's order, whispered to Dhammata to murder Jayaraja. The king thought ttat as Jayaraja confided in Dhammata he would surely disarm himself. And by ordering Dhammata to murder his colleague, Dhammata would not think that the king had knowledge of his guilt. And if Jayaraja resisted and fought with Dhammata, the death of one or both of them would be to the king's advantage, and people would not blame or suspect the king if both of them died in the souffle. Thus thinking the wise king determined on that stop, and Dhammata, believing that his own share of the guilt was unknown to the king, thus spoke with insolence to Jayaraja: "The king is displeased with thee, and if thou art no longer a rebel, then cast aside thy arms with-out delay to show thy innocence." Whether by divine influence, or by reason of his confidence in Dhammata, Jayaraja, though expert in arms, laid down his weapons when thus rebuked. When Tulla, son of Ajjaka and grandson of Tanvangga, saw the weakness of Jayaraja, he severely rebuked him: "Surely thou art not born of Kajja by king Kalasha, your father must surely have been a neuter." Tulla knew not the virtue of patience

[p.247]: under necessity, and these words were like cold water sprinkled on a sleeping man. When Jayaraja was tortured to confess the plans of rebellion, he confessed his own crimes, but did not say regarding those of Dhammata. At night he was tortured to death by a cord put round his neck by Jayaka, a door-keeper. His head was severed from his body, and thrown into the waters of Bhattaranadvala, where it was eaten by fishes. In the Kashmirian era 71, in the month of bhadra, Jayaraja was murdered, and thus the king secretly planned the destruction of Dhammata.

For this purpose the king sent for Thakkura named Kalasharaja, a man well skilled in arms, and who was living at Lohara. The king received him with kindness, and told him that when Prayaga would send a messenger to him, he would do the work. Prayaga feared that the act might be left undone, and angrily told the king to take council and to do what seemed fit. The king was sitting with his five principal ministers when Vamana told him that the deed should be done before the ministers left the room. He said these words and there died within tho closed doors. By the kings order Prayaga sent a messenger to Kalasharaja, and accordingly, Kalasharaja, with his two sons, went to Dhammata. Dhammata was at that time; in the capital, and was exposing sena (a kind of hunting bird) to the sun. When he saw Kalasharaja and his two sons, be shrieked, and his Servants fled. Kalasharaja then asked Dhammata

[p.248]: to draw his weapon and Dhammata took up his dagger to kill him. Kalasharaja struck him in the front, and his sons from behind. Dhammata fell down and died. The eldest son of Kalasharaja was wounded by the weapon of Dhammata, which was poisoned, and suffered from repeated sores. Unfortunately for him, his sword had broken and he was ill-armed. They threw him down from behind, and his body was, by the king's order, given to be eaten by dogs. The king took under his protection Rihlan and Sahlana, grandsons of Tanvangga, as they were unarmed.

Tulla and others were enraged and intended to rebel, but were kept back by the wiles of Udayasinha. " You are my sons," said the virtuous Udayasinha to them, and relying on his faith, and influenced by love of life, they laid down their arms. " Come to the king," said Udayasinha to them, "and show that you are innocent." They all went by the way leading to the palace. The umbrella-bearer of Dhammata, who was bred up in Dhammata's house, smiled and said to Tulla : " Have you forgotten, O ! grandson of Tanvangga, what you said to Jayaraja before. Your case is similar to his. Why have you then, O ! fool, assumed patience and weakness ? It appears that you were born of my father, and your heroic father gave me birth." Thus saying he committed suicide by his sword. Pretending to lead them to the king, the officers shut Tulla and others up in the

[p.249]: prison. The king was kind hearted and intended to spare them on account of their youth. But at night one wicked Vimbiya tortured them by tying a rope round their necks in the king's presence. Vimbiya murdered four of them, — Tulla, Vijayaraja, Vulla and Gulla. Even to this day, old men speak of their beauty, even after death, with tears in their eyes. Long was the place of their death known by their scattered teeth red with the murks of betel.

The two sons of Utkarsha had now grown up, and the older of them named Domba was secretly murdered by the king. The young and spirited boy Jayamalla, son of Vijayamalla, whom the king regarded as a spark of fire, was murdered in the similar way. Thus it is by a divine providence that while kings murder their relatives to relieve themselves, their kingdoms are enjoyed by strangers after their deaths. Bees are killed providentially by the waving of tho Asvattha (peepal) leaves near the beehive in order that some stranger may obtain the honey with ease. The great crime of murdering his own relatives spoilt the soundness of the king's judgment, so that even children were murdered by his men.

Kshema, son of Vamana, knew that the king bore an ill will against his own father, and advised him to rob the umbrella and gold belonging to god Kalashesha set up by his father. But he was prevented from this act by the council of Prayaga. Haladhara's gtandson,

[p.250]: Loshtadhara, a courtier who entered like devil into the heart of the ill-advised king, thus privately said to the king in order to please him : "Confiscate the lands and gold of Kalashesha, and with the stones of the temple, I shall build for you a bridge over the Vitasta." The weak king who believes that a picture can be painted on the sky, or doth made of lily thread, or thinks it possible to obtain the gold which is seen only in dreams, or to make a wall of snow, is disappointed. The accomplishment of this plan was prevented by Prayaga, even as a good doctor prevents the desire of food of his patient.

Harsha's plundering of gods and temples

One day in the midst of mirth and jollity, Loshtadhara asked the king to relieve an imprisoned god. The king smiled and asked what he meant. He replied that at Abhundapura there was a god named Bhima possessing gold and jewels. During the disturbance which took place among the king's officers, in the time of Kalasha, the doors of the temple of Bhimakeshava were long closed. And when the disturbance ceased and the doors were opened, it was seen that thieves had stolen the god's golden kavacha. There being yet much wealth left, the doors were closed again in fear of the thieves ; and - since then the doors have remained closed. " Bring you, therefore, the wealth from that place, and the god too relieved of confinement, shall receive flowers, &c." The king did as advised, and got much gold and jewels. " If the god," — so thought the king, — " which is not

[p.251]: worshipped, has so much wealth, what may not those possess which are receiving worship." And when the king, so thinking, went to rob any god, the people of the place paid large ransom for it, which was brought on elephants. The king intended to complete his grand army by plundering gods, and robbed every idol of the wealth bestowed on it by former kings. After he had plundered the idols of their wealth, he employed Udayaraja for tho purpose of bringing the images, and in order to deprive them of their sanctity, he caused urine and ordure to be poured into them through the orifices in their noses, hands and logs. He took away all those images which were built of gold and silver.

The images were dragged by ropes tied round their ankle-joints, spat upon and made naked, and mutilated. Neither in the capital, nor in towns or villages, was there a temple left from which the idol was not taken out by Haraha the Turushka. Two influential gods were beyond his power, Shriramasvami in the capital, and Martanda at Pattana. When the king was giving alms, two men asked for and obtained two images of Buddha, and preserved them. One of these persons was Kanaka, born at Parihasapura, and the other was Shramana, a good looking singer, born in home other town. A man bent on acquiring richer does not scruple to do evil acts, though he may have large fortune. Though Harsha, had the wealth of his father and grandfather, and the riches brought by Utkarsha from Lohara, yet

[p.252]: he robbed the gods, on whom the former kings bestowed wealth, and still unable to defray his enormous expenses, wished to got more. Fie to such king !

With the king's nominal consent, the ministers appointed new men in the principal offices. Fie to the time-serving servants ! The minister Gouraka, though a good man, assisted the king in plundering the gods, and became a principal financial officer (Arthanayaka). Helaka, a Brahmana who served in the temple of Samarasvami, and who was formerly a confidential officer of Vijayamalla, and was at first hated by the present king, now doubled the tribute from the temple, and became another principal financial officer; he was admitted to the king's presence, and gradually became the greatest officer. What more need be said of a king who exacted money through his various heads of departments, and appointed one over ordure.

Harsha spent money on evil purposes

The money thus got was spent on evil purposes by the ignorant, hypocrite and idle people who surrounded tho sovereign. The king's money was spent in order to get stag-eyed women and horses, to receive the evil council of the courtiers, and flattery of the minstrels. The king's time was spent in appeasing his women's anger or enjoying their favor, in hearing description of horses, in following the advice of servants, and in hunting. Kings walk, sit, drink, feast, enjoy themselves or are merry, or perform charitable acts; following, like a shadow, the example of other people, and without judging whether they are

[p.253]: good or bad. Believing the flattery of their minstrels, they consider themselves superhuman, and imagine that they have one eye or two hands more than other people ; nor ever think that they will have to die. Women who gain ascendancy over kings at night become their ministers by day, and yet the foolish kings think that they are powerful. What others pronounce to be good is eaten by them with relish ; what others pronounce as bad is rejected by them; and when others frighten them, they are struck with sudden fear. Kings and boys are alike. All this, which may be attributed to kings in general, is as nothing compared to what king Harsha did. Pleased with the sound of drums, the king gave to Bhimanayaka, the musician, a pair of elephants, male and female. Champaka's younger brother, Kanaka, a pupil of Bhimanayaka, began to learn singing in the sorrow of his heart ; and to assuage his borrows, the king gave him one lac of golden dinnaras. On one occasion Harsha saw a picture of Chandala, the beautiful wife of Parmandi, king of Karnata, and became enamoured of her. Vile courtiers excite the foolish as men excite dogs. Thus excited, Haraha shamelessly vowed before the court to destroy Parmandi and to have Chandala. He vowed not to use prepared camphor till he obtained her. The bards and minstrels laughed at him, concealing their ridicule in songs : " You are bow on your way to the south : there is camphor in your hand, as we know by its smell, and the camphor is

[p.254]:prepared ; it is fit for king Harsha to present it to his love." "Until the king of Karnata is killed, and Chandala is won ; until Kalyanapura is entered, and Pimmala is visited, and the royal garden is left behind, the powerful king will not use camphor." Madana, lord of Kampana, rose high in the king's favor for his getting the picture to the king, and for which he received dress, ornaments, and a daily pay. The king's foolishness and restlessness became known by Madana's shameless and flattering words.

Some of the courtiers brought an old woman from Kampana and told the king that she was his (-the king's) mother, and so got some gold out of him. Others brought female servants and introduced them to the king as goddesses ; and the king, forgetting his dignity, bowed to them, while the others laughed. The female servants, taught lewdness by the courtiers, made a fool of the king ; and the king's good fortune and greatness left him on account of his being addicted to them. The king wished to have long life, and was so foolish as to ask these servants (considering them as goddesses) for the boon, and they granted him one hundred years of life. He was anxious to have funeral cakes given to him after death, and one Domva gave him a certain liquid, chemically prepared, pretending that it ensured the cake after death, and induced the king to drink it. What more can be said of his foolishness? When asked by the courtiers, he pretended to bestow on them long life as if it were

[p.255]: wealth in his hand. What good man can narrate those shameful things which this sovereign did in order to become handsome and strong ? Thus, for a long time, this bad and foolish monarch was thrown into troubles by his own ministers. As ignorant people are now sceptical about the uncommonly good acts of king Meghavahana and others, so people will hereafter hesitate to believe such uncommonly wicked things about king Harsha. Though the kingdom was mismanaged, yet his enemies could not take advantage of it so long as he lived.

One night, when the room was lighted by lamps, and he was leaching dancing girls to dance, an enemy from a distance shot an arrow at him. That he did not perish, or was even struck by it, was either because the time of his death had not yet come, or on account of the sins of his subjects.

Somehow the females of the king's zenana became corrupt ; the young women and their youthful paramours planned his destruction. The king, however, discovered their plot, and in anger punished some of the women, and some eloped with their lovers. The servants were afraid of their own guilt, and wished to save themselves at their masters cost. The king's evil name spread on every side, as was but right and proper, he being the son of king, Kalasha. He constantly took to his embraces matrons of the rank of his mother (his aunts) who had taken him on their laps when he was a child, and also ladies of the rank of his sister (his cousins) and oppressed

[p.256]: Naga, the daughter of his father's sister, and forced her to his bed. He had in his pay one hundred Turashka princes, and to the day of his death he used to eat the flesh of tame hog.*

Harsha marched against Rajapuri

On one occasion he got angry with the people of Rajapuri on account of some defect in their offering submission, and marched against that country. Other kings saw his uncommonly large army on the way and considered him powerful enough to attack the three worlds. Harsha sat down with the army before Rajapuri. After a siege of one month, the food within the fort became scarce, and Sangramapala, the king of the place, in order to relieve his men, went out to make peace, promising such tribute and homage as king Harsha might order. Harsha, fixed on his purpose of conquest, refused the terms ; but the king of Rajapuri won over the avaricious Dandanayaka by bribe. When the king of Kashmira retired from the army to his camp, Dandanayaka secretly induced the soldiers to demand extra pay for having left their country behind. The rude and proud soldiers demanded the extra pay, but they were disappointed, as the king's treasury was at a distance. Now, when the king was appeasing the soldiers, Dandanaayaka frightened him by saying that the Turashkas would attack him. The king had very little patience;

* We should make allowance for the facts and opinion of a historian who lived in the reign of one whose not very remote ancestor had usurped the throne of Harsha.

[p.257]: he withdrew his army from the place, and fled in fear, leaving his treasure and baggage in the way. Servants who are favored without being tested, bring on troubles in times of danger like a sword which is taken to battle without being examined. The king himself was unworthy, and disregarded worthy persons. From this time the fame of his power abated. Now he admitted the mighty prowess of Kandarpa, who had done what he and his army could not. The king wished to bring back Kandarpa, but was prevented by the wiles of Dandanayaka. The king arrested Dandanayaka, knowing his disaffection, but did not persecute him on account of entreaty of his courtiers. Dandanayaka, when in confinement, did not take milk, nor the things sent to him by his friends, but stored them. The foolish king after-wards reinstated him in his former post, although he had deserved capital punishment. The courtiers again excited the king with flattery, as Karna, &c, did Duryodhana after his defeat at Ghoshajatra. He who is beaten in arguments abuses his opponent, the unchaste woman scolds and taxes her husband, and the Kayastha who has robbed much wealth throws the king in trouble; thus they cover their own defects and prosper.

Harsha captures fort of Dhata

Now the selfish Hela, who had appropriated the money, entrusted to him for distribution to others, became afraid, and tried to induce the king to some evil action. He advised him, in conjunction with the people of Lohara, to capture the fort of Dhata in order to subju-

[p.258]: gate the province of Darad. This fort was formerly held by Lakvanachandra the Damara, but he was killed by Janaka the lord of Dvara by the orders of king Ananta, and his wife died of starvation at Dvara. But the fort was subsequently again taken by the king of Darad through the negligence of king Kalasha. The people of Darad had also taken Anantagrama. The king was ready to lead the army. In that country there was no lake, and the people used to collect snow for the purposes of water. In the present year there was no rain, and they had consumed their snow. Hela, other-wise called Mahattama, saw their weakness and excited the king against them, and the king prepared himself for the march. At this time the lord of Dvara was proceeding to Vataganda by the king's order. Champaka tried to betray him, but the king prevented him from proceeding and made him lord of Mandala, and he ruled over Dvara with other lords of Dvara. The king then took the lord of Dvara with him and, crossing the river Madhumati, invested the fort with his army. He sent the officers of his army on all sides, and remained alone himself within his entrenchment at a distance from the army. The battle raged between the two armies, and the soldiers of Darad from within their fort hurled stones on their enemies. Malla, son of Gangga, with his sons, did many acts of valor at Dhata, and he also built a religious house. An astrologer had foretold that his son would get a kingdom, and so his heroic sons,

[p.259]: Uchchala and Sussala, tried to increase their fame. The elder of them, aspiring to the throne, set out for the war on the side of the king, and won great reputation. The enemy could hardly keep the fort on account of want of rain and of the powers of the foe. But at this moment a heavy shower of rain, unfriendly to Harsha, overflowed the country; and the tops of the fort was covered with ice as if clad in mail. Fate raises the falling and throws down the aspiring v as if playing with a Kundaka (ball). Troubled with rain, and remembering the comforts of home, the wicked ministers collected themselves within the king's encampment. The king returned from the seat of war, disappointed of his hope of success, and the soldiers began to desert and run away, leaving behind their arms, baggage and treasure. They were pursued by the enemy, and many of them perished in the large river. On the waves of the Madhumati floated the clothes, arms, horses, &c., of the retiring army. The number of men that perished in the river and the number killed or captured by the victorious army of Darad cannot be counted. Uchchala, with his younger brother, tried to save the soldiers of Kashmira thus left without leaders. These two brothers, like two rocks on the beach, checked the rushing and sea-like army of Darada. They won great reputation by protecting the army, and henceforward people considered these two proud men, and not the impotent king, worthy of the kingdom. The veneration of the people for them rose still higher, because after such acts they did not condescend to pre-

[p.260]: sent themselves before the king; Harsha was now relieved of the fear of the enemy and entered his capita. The people compared the brothers with Rama and Lakshmana and the king with Ravana, (thereby fore- shadowing a coming event, viz., the dethronement of Harsha by the brothers).

The shameless and idle king, not in any way depressed by his late reverses, began to oppress his subjects as usual. Mean minded people punish those who are near for small offences, not those who commit serious crimes at a distance. The dog bites the, stone, but not the man who throws it at him. The king once heard that Madana, whom he had created lord of Kampana, spoke of the king's late defeat ; he was angry with him and wished for his death. He also found fault with him, because he did not perform certain act as the queen commanded. Madana was caught at Madava and was brought before the king, but in fear he took refuge in the house of the rich minister named Jhakka. Though the minister begged the king to spare Madana a life, yet the king caused Madana and his sons to be killed by his soldiers. The king's anger could never be appeased. Such, is the doom of those who depend on their Acquaintance with the great and serve them without fear. On the day of Madana's death on the banks of Karnejapa, the curse of queen Suryyamati was fully realized.

Afraid of the power of Kalasharaja, the king confined him in the house of Lakshmidhara, and in order to kill him, sent to him his enemy, Udaya, on the pretence of

[p.261]: learning something from him. The proud Kalasharaja saw the other blazing in prosperity, became very angry, and snatched a sword and killed him. But the angry servants of the murdered man killed Kalasharaja. Thus the servants of the foolish king began to perish one after another.

The great famine of year 73 K.E. (1099 AD)

As salt brings additional pain to sores, so the country, oppressed by the king, suffered additional calamities. The Vishas stole gold plates from the king's palace, hut they died before the sun arose. A great pestilence broke out, and gradually increased, and the warlings of people and funeral music ceased not by day or by night. In the year 73 of the Kashmirian era, a famine broke out in tho village of Udiyakradita, and all the stores became empty. One khari of grain sold at five hundred dinnaras, two pala of vine -juice sold for a dinnara, and one pala of wool sold at six dinnaras; while salt, black pepper, and assafaetida could not be had at all. Rivers were filled up with dead bodies, which were swollen with water. The king, on the other hand, perfectly indifferent to these calamities, observed that his capital could not be seen from a distance owing to the trees which surrounded it, and ordered them to be cut down. The trees, with flowers and fruits, were accordingly cut down, and the black bees moaned everywhere over them, as persons lament over the dead bodies of their relatives. Advised by the Kayasthas, the king severely oppressed the surviving people everywhere to cities and in villages.

Rest of Book VII see - Book VII (i)...262-303

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