Rarh region

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Location of Gangaridai (Rarh region) in 323 BC
Extent of Harshavardhana Kingdom in 647 AD
Location of part of Rarh region at present

Rarh (Hindi: राढ़, Bengali: রাঢ়, Rāṛh) is a region that lies between the Chhota Nagpur Plateau on the West and the Ganges Delta on the East.

Variants of name

Location

It is mainly coextensive with the state of West Bengal also comprising some portions of the state of Jharkhand and Bihar in India.[2][3][4]

The Rarh region historically has been known by many different names and has hosted numerous settlements throughout history. It is suggested that the Rarh region hosted an ancient civilisation also called Rarh and a powerful state, however much of its ancient history remains unknown.[5][6][7][8]

Jat clans

Etymology

The interchangeable variations Radha, Rarha, Ladha, Lara are observed in the oldest Jain book of codes Acaranga Sutra of the 6th century BC.

Some other sources use the endonyms Lala, Rara and Lada.

According to the linguist Sarkar the Chinese called Rarh as Lati, the Greek as Ganga Ridae and the Aryans as Rāṭṭha. Moreover many Greek, Roman and Egyptian sources use the variations of Gangaridai, Gangaridae, Gangaritai and Gangaridum with the sense of a state, nation or civilisation which existed more or less in the same or a larger extent of Rarh. Megasthenes, Ptolemy, Strabo, Pliny, Arrian, Diodorus Siculus, Quintus Curtius Rufus and Plutarch all wrote about Gangaridae.[13][14][15]

The etymology of the word Rarh is not clear however there are many authors suggesting that it originates from a local language of Austroasiatic family. It could have originated from any of the following words of the Santali language; lar means "thread", rarh means "tune" and larh means "snake". And according to Sarkar, the word originates from Proto-Austroasiatic *Rāŗhā or *Rāŗho which means "land of red soil" or "land of laterite".[16]

The etymology of the word Gangaridae is also not clear. According to the historian Dr. Atul Sur, Pliny and Ptolemy it means Ganga-Ridai (Rarh of the Ganges – Ganges' Rarh). However according to other scholars it might derive as Ganga-Hrd (land with Ganges in its heart), Ganga-Rashtra (State of the Ganges) or Gonda-Ridai (Land of the Gonds). Megasthenes calls the people of Gangaridae as Gangarides. Diodorus Siculus describes Gangaridae as "a nation possessing the greatest number of elephants and the largest in size."[17]

Mention by Panini

Suhmanagara (सुह्मनगर) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [18]


Sauhmaka (सौह्मक) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [19]

History

V. S. Agrawala[20] writes that The Kashika gives the following examples of towns with the ending nagara: Suhmanagara (सुह्मनगर) and Pundranagara (पुंड्रनगर) (the capitals of Suhma (सुह्म) and Pundra (पुंड्र) provinces in eastern India, VI.2.89);


V S Agarwal [21] writes that Panini takes Bhakti to denote loyalty of the citizen to the State either a kingdom or a republic. The Kashika mentions, as examples of this kind of Bhakti or loyalty, 1. Angaka, 2. Vangaka, 3. Sauhmaka, 4. Paundraka, 5. Madraka, 6. Vrijika.


6th century BC, Ladha is mentioned in the oldest Jain book of codes Acaranga Sutra.[22]

6th century BC, Lala is mentioned by Dipavangsha and Mahavangsha.[23] Sri Lanka was colonised by Prince Vijaya who hailed from Simhapura in Lala.

4th century BC, Gangaridai is mentioned by Megasthenes.[24] Gangaridae was first described by the Greek traveller Megasthenes in his work Indica. Many Western writers followed him. Many of the descriptions also comprises parts of the area of today's Bangladesh.[25]

3. Ganges: The Mandei (Munda/Manda), and the Malli (Malli), the Gangarides (Ghangas+Rad), the Calingae (Kalinga), the Prasii (Magadha), the Modogalingae - The tribes called Calingae (Kalinga) are nearest the sea, and higher up are the Mandei (Munda/Manda), and the Malli in whose, country is Mount Mallus, the boundary of all that district being the Ganges. [26]


Note - It is interesting to note that the clans observed by Megasthenes in this region are most of Jat clans as highlighted in brackets which are our conclusions.

1st century BC, Gangaridae is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus:

"When he (Alexander) moved forward with his forces certain men came to inform him that Porus, the king of the country, who was the nephew of that Porus whom he had defeated, had left his kingdom and fled to the nation of Gandaridae..."[27]

Note - Porus is considered to be a Jat King. He did not come alone to this region. He had fled to this region along with his other Jat clans people.

1st century AD, Gangaridae is mentioned by Quintus Curtius Rufus.

"Next came the Ganges, the largest river in all India, the farther bank of which was inhabited by two nations, the Gangaridae and the Prasii, whose King Aggrammes ..."

1st century AD, Gandaritai is mentioned by Plutarch:

"The Battle with Porus depressed the spirits of the Macedonians, and made them very unwilling to advance farther into India... This river (the Ganges), they heard, had a breadth of two and thirty stadia, and a depth of 1000 fathoms, while its farther banks were covered all over with armed men, horses and elephants. For the kings of the Gandaritai and the Prasiai were reported to be waiting for him (Alexander) with an army of 80,000 horse, 200,000-foot, 8,000 war-chariots, and 6,000 fighting elephants."[28]

1st century AD, the people of Gangarides is mentioned by Pliny the Elder:

"In the final part of its Ganges course, which is through the country of the Gangarides.... But Prasii surpass in power and glory every other people, not only in this quarter, but one may say in all India, their capital Palibothra (Pataliputra), a very large and wealthy city, after which some call the people itself the Palibothri, (He talks about Prasii during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya)... In the parts which lie southward from the Ganges the inhabitants, already swarthy, are deeply coloured by the sun, though not scorched black like the Ethiopians.[29]

Note - Chandragupta Maurya is also considered to be a Jat King by some historians.

3rd century, Gangaridai is mentioned by Dionysius Periegetes:

"Next come the wild tribes of the Peukalensians, beyond whom lie the seats of the Gangaridae, worshippers of Bacchus, ... the land here projects into the deep whirling ocean in steep precipices, over which the fowls of heaven in swift flight can hardly wing their way."[30]

From 9th till 16th century:[31]


A Jain monk of Rara is mentioned in an inscription from Mathura.


Radha's queen's imprisonment by Chandella is mentioned in the epigraphic records from Khajuraho.

Radha is mentioned as being the ancestral settlement of Senas; in the Naihati Copper plate inscription of Vallalasena.


Radha is mentioned as being a waterless, dry and woody region; in the Bhuvaneshvara inscription of Bhatta Bhavadeva.

The division of Lada into North and South is mentioned in the Tirumulai rock inscription of Rajendra Chola. (11th century)

The same division of Radha is also mentioned in the Gaonri Plates of Vakpati Munja (10th century), in Shridharacharya's Nyayakandali, in the Amareshvara Temple inscription of Mandhata (Nimar district in Madhya Pradesh), in Krsna Mishra's Prabodha-Chandrodaya and in Mukundarama's Chandimangal (16th century)

According to Acaranga Sutra Mahavira travelled in 'Ladha' in Vajjabhumi and Subbhabhumi at a time (5th century BC) when the country was lawless and the people were harsh at him. Alexander the great was supposed to have been discouraged to come to eastern India due to the power of the 'Gangaridae'.

The Bhubaneswar inscription of Bhavadeva Bhatta records that "Radha was a waterless, dry and woody region".

Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay, the famous Bengali historian says: "During Chandragupta Maurya's rule Gangaridae was independent like the Andhra kingdom and Gangaridae was joined with Kalinga(ancient Orissa)."[32] It is interesting that the description of the armed forces of Gangaridae and Calingae during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya as given by Megasthenes are identical (both possessed army of 60,000-foot-soldiers, 1,000 horsemen and 700 elephants).

Dipavangsha and Mahavangsha state that Sri Lanka was colonised by Vijaya Simha who hailed from Simhapura in 'Lala' (Rarh).

Geography of Rarh region

Western parts of Rarh merging with the Chhota Nagpur Plateau was historically called Vajjabhumi a definition demarcating it from the eastern part of Rarh which was called Subbhabhumi, Sumhabhumi or Suhmo.

There are many descriptions of the geographical area called Rarh or Gangaridae, some being quite imprecise they are capable of indicating a very large area and some though being precise, differ in their descriptions. Most precise descriptions of Rarh seem coextensive with West Bengal. More imprecise descriptions denoting larger areas usually derive from Western sources describing Gangaridae. Some sources describe a smaller area while referring to Rarh as a geographical area and a larger description comes with Rarh defined as a geopolitical unit.[33][34][35]

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, Rarh is mainly Murshidabad's surrounding region, a high, undulating continuation of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau to the West, and the Bagri, a fertile, low-lying alluvial tract, part of the Ganges (Ganga)-Brahmaputra delta, to the East.[36] Banglapedia says that Rarh consists of a large part of West Bengal.[37] And according to West Bengal Travel & Tourism Guide, the northeastern border of Rarh is located within Birbhum.[38]

Historically, a statement in Digvijayaprakasha locates Rarh as from the north of the Damodar River and to the west of Ganges in the south. Even though earliest written documents divides Rarh as West Rarh and East Rarh, later documents starting from the 9th and 10th century AD, divides it to Daksina Radha (Southern Rarh) and Uttara Radha (Northern Rarh). However as inferred from later documents, this newer distinction (North/South) is not based on geography but two political states.

Southern Rarh included different large settlements of the modern districts of Howrah, Hooghly and Burdwan in West Bengal, or considerable portions of West Bengal lying between the rivers Ajay and Damodar. The Ajay river is usually regarded as constituting the boundary line between Northern and Southern Rarh. Based on different epigraphic records, it is suggested that Northern Rarh included the western parts of the modern district of Murshidabad, the entire district of Birbhum, including some parts of Santhal Pargana, and the northern part of the Katwa sub-division of Burdwan district. There are many archaeological sites in many parts of Rarh, where studies are going on.[39]

Historian P. R. Sarkar, who has been doing research around most of those archaeological sites, gives a very detailed account of Rarh's geography, using the old geographical definitions of West/East Rarh. According to this definition:[40]

History of Rarhi people also called the Gangarides in Greek sources, shows that they have expanded their territory with time. This might explain why most of the Western description of Gangaridae includes a broader region.

In Indian epics

Ganga-hrada (गङ्गा ह्रद) is mentioned in Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 81 verses 85[41], 153,[42] 172[43]. Bathing there and worshipping Mahadeva, one obtaineth the merit of the horse-sacrifice. One should bathe there with subdued soul and leading a Brahmacharya mode of life. By this, one obtaineth merit that is greater than that of a Rajasuya and horse-sacrifices.


Suhma (सुह्म): The Rarh region in Mahabharata was known as Suhma (सुह्म). We find mention Suhma in the north in Arjuna's Conquest and also in Bhima's Conquests in East. Bhima's Conquests in East alsomentions two Suhma Kingdoms.

Arjuna's Conquest: Arjuna was sent north by Yudhisthira to subjugate kingdoms for the Rajasuya Yagya, after crowning as the Emperor of Indraprastha.Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 24 & Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 25 tell us countries Arjuna subjugated. The list includes: Suhma (सुह्म)[44]

Bhim Singh Dahiya[45] writes that Arjuna conquers Suhma and Chola in the North. The Suhma are the Summa of Sindh at the time of Arab invasion, and the Chola/ Chahal clan, respectively.

Mahabharata mentions Suhma (II.24.20) after the kingdom of Sinhapura (II.24.19). Singhapura or Sinhapura was one of Buddhist Kingdoms visited by Xuanzang in 631 AD. Alexander Cunningham[46] has identified Singhapura with Katas village near Choa Saidanshah in the Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan.

Bhima's Conquests: Bhima was sent out to the East, since Bhishma thought the easterners were skilled in fighting from the backs of elephants and in fighting with bare arms, he deemed Bhima to be the most ideal person to wage wars in that region. The Mahabharata mentions several kingdoms to the east of Indraprastha which were conquered by Bhima. According to Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 26 & Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 27 Bhimasena subjugated the countries including: Suhmas (सुह्म)[47]


Srimad Bhgavatam: By the semen of Dirghatama in the wife of Bali, the emperor of the world, six sons took birth, namely Anga, Vanga, Kalinga, Suhma, Pundra and Odra [48]

Pandu Rajar Dhibi

Pandu Rajar Dhibi' is an archaeological site in Bardhaman district in West Bengal. It was the first Chalcolithic site discovered in West Bengal. The main mound at Pandu Rajar Dhibi is associated with King Pandu mentioned in Mahabharata.[49][50]


The site was first excavated by B.B. Lal in 1954-57.[51] While Pandu Rajar Dhibi was the first Chalcolithic or Copper Age site to be discovered, a number of other sites have been discovered in an area spread over the districts of Birbhum, Bardhaman, Bankura and Midnapore, and interspersed by rivers Brahmani, Mayurakshi, Kopai, Ajay, Kunur, Damodar, Dwarakesvar, Shilabati, and Rupnarayan.[52]

There were two main periods – the Chalcolithic period around 1600 BC – 750 BC, and the Iron Age.[53]

The excavations at Pandu Raiar Dhibi reveal the non-Aryan origin of the majority of non-Brahmin Bengalis. The Copper Age civilisation in eastern India had links with similar civilisation of central India and Rajasthan. In those days the people were capable of building well planned towns with pavements and streets. Agriculture and trade were the mainstays of their economy. It has been suggested that Pandu Rajar Dhibi represents the ruins of a trading township. The people carried out trade not only with interior parts of India but also distant lands such as Crete and the Mediterranean lands. They were predominantly a seafaring people.[54]

Jat History

Normally we do not think of presence of Jats outside the Jat Belt, particularly this remote far off area known as Rarh region or Gangaridai by the Greeks. Let us find some historical evidences. From the following discussion it becomes clear that Jats being the followers of Buddhism continued their dominance in this eastern part of India till the rule of Harshavardhana (b.590–r.606-647 AD). After the fall of Harshavardhana, the Jats from Rarh region returned to the present Jat Belt.

Note - It is interesting to note that the clans observed by Megasthenes in this region are most of Jat clans as highlighted in brackets which are our conclusions.
"When he (Alexander) moved forward with his forces certain men came to inform him that Porus, the king of the country, who was the nephew of that Porus whom he had defeated, had left his kingdom and fled to the nation of Gandaridae..."[57]
Note - The King Porus is considered to be a Jat King. He did not come alone to this region. He had fled to this region along with his other Jat clans people.
Extent of Harshavardhana's Kingdom
  • Harshavardhana (b.590–r.606-647 AD) was a Buddhist Jat emperor whose reign extended to this area also. He is considered to be the founder Jat Khaps. He appointed many officers from the Khaps in the administration of this region.

Jat ruler Chandravarman

Chandravarman (4th century AD) (चन्द्रवर्मा) was a ruler in 4th century of Pakhanna in Bankura district in West Bengal. Pakhanna is considered to be the same as Pushkarana, once the capital of Chandravarman, son of Simhavarman, the extent of whose dominions may have been more or less coterminous with ancient Rarh region or south-west Bengal. It is the place mentioned in the Susunia inscription and dates back to 4th century AD.[59][60]

Defeated by Samudragupta:

According to the inscription on the Allahabad pillar Chandravarman was defeated by Samudragupta and the area became a part of the Gupta Empire.[61]

Tejram Sharma[62] gives details about the King Chandravarman as One of the kings of Aryavarta defeated by Samudragupta.

Allahabad pillar inscription of Samudragupta mentions about King Chandravarman in Line 21 which says:

"(L. 21.)- Who abounded in majesty that had been increased by violently exterminating Rudradeva, Matila, Nāgadatta, Chandravarman, Ganapatināga, Nāgasena,Achyutanandin, Balavarman, and many other kings of (the land of) Āryāvarta;-who made all the kings of the forest countries to become (his) servants;"[63]

Thakur Deshraj on Chandravarman:

Thakur Deshraj[64] writes that at the time of Gupta rulers in Malwa there is mention of one more dynasty of rulers in Malwa. Sinhavarma was contemporary of Samudragupta (335-375 AD). Singhavarma had two sons namely Chandravarman and Naravarman. Chandravarma moved from Malwa and established kingdom in Pushkarana (Bankura, West Bengal). Narvarma remained ruler in Malwa. Narvarma had two sons namely Bandhu Varma and Bhim Varma. Guptas had increased their powers in Malwa and Bandhuvarma accepted subjection of Gupta rulers. Bhimvarma became samant of Skandgupta Vikramaditya (455-467), son of Kumaragupta I. He was probably samant of Kaushambi.[65]

Bhangupta Baladitya became ruler of Malwa after 40 years period of Skandagupta. Baladitya has been mentioned along with Jat ruler Yasodharman in defeating the Huns. If we add name of Vishnuvardhan after Bandhuvarma the chronology of these rulers becomes as under:

Susunia inscription of Chandravarman dated 4th century AD:

The Indian Archaeology Blogspot[67] provides us following information about Susunia inscriptions of 4th Century A D From Ancient History of Bengal, vol. I, on Susunia inscriptions:

The Susunia Rock inscription,the earliest reference to the cult of Vaishnavism, is a short Sanskrit inscription in three lines engraved in Brahmi script on Susunia hill, recording the installation of an image of Vishnu during the reign of Chandravarman.

The first two lines of it incised below a big wheel (chakra) with flaming rib and hub, refer to it as the work of the illustrious Maharaja Chandravarman, the lord of Pushkarna....

The third line is incised to the right of the wheel, but its reading and consequently its meaning is not very clear. It certainly refers to the dedication (of the cave) to Chakrasvamin, which literally means the 'wielder of the discuss, i.e., Vishnu...It may be reasonably inferred that the excavated cave, on the wall of which the inscription was incised, was intended to be a temple of Vishnu. Suniti Chattapadhaya "holds that Puskarana mentioned in Susuniya inscription is the modern Pokarnya or Pakharna situated in Bankura District of which Candravarma was the king." (Prachin Vanger Puskarna-janapad - in Vangasri, 1339-40 B.S., 1932-33 A.D., pt. 1, p. 135-136).

On the rock face another script is visible, which is "Sankha Lipi (script)" from a period between 8th to 10th Century A.D. Till date this Sankha Lipi can not be deciphered. Many observe this not as script but symbols.

Radhakumud Mookerji[68] writes that Susunia Rock inscription describes Chandravarma as ruler of Pushakarana (village near Susunia hill in Bankura district). The Susunia inscription describes Chandravarma as son of Simhavarma. Mandsaur inscription of Malwa year 461 = AD 404 also mentions Simhavarma,son of Jayavarma and father of Naravarma. The Gangdhar inscription of Malwa year 480 = AD 423 mentions Vishvavarma as son of Naravarma. The Mandsaur inscription of Malwa year 493 = AD 436 and 529 = AD 472 refers to Gopta Nripa Vishvavarma and his son nripa Bandhuvarma as feudatories at Dashapur under Kumaragupta I. Thus these three inscriptions testify to the following line of Malwa Kings:

SimhavarmaNaravarma (AD 404) → Vishvavarma (AD 423) → Bandhuvarma (AD 426)

The Simhavarma of this list is counted by H P Sastri as identical with Simhavarma, with his son Chandravarma, as mentioned in the Susunia inscription, in which case Chandravarma becomes a brother of Naravarma.

जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज:

ठाकुर देशराज[69] के अनुसार सिंहवर्मा समुद्रगुप्त का समकालीन था। समुद्रगुप्त गुप्त-वंश का परम प्रतापी राजा हुआ है जिसका कि शासन ईसवी सन् 335 से 385 तक बताया


जाट इतिहास:ठाकुर देशराज,पृष्ठान्त-709


जाता है। सिंहवर्मा के दो पुत्र चन्द्रवर्मा और नरवर्मा हुए। चन्द्रवर्मा ने मालवा से हटकर पुष्करन (मारवाड़?) में राज्य स्थापित किया और नरवर्मा मालव-राज बने रहे। नरवर्मा के पुत्र हुए, बंधुवर्मा और भीमवर्मा। गुप्तों का प्रभाव बढ़ गया था इसलिए बंधुवर्मा को उज्जैन के गुप्त राजाओं की अधीनता स्वीकार करनी पड़ी। भीमवर्मा ने कुमारगुप्त प्रथम के पुत्र स्कंदगुप्त विक्रमादित्य के यहां सामन्त के स्थान पर रहना स्वीकार कर लिया और वह सम्भवतः कौशाम्बी का सामन्त बनाया गया। स्कन्दगुप्त का समय ईसवी सन् 455 से 467 तक का है।1

गुप्त-वंश के स्कंधगुप्त विक्रमादित्य के चालीस वर्ष पश्चात् उज्जैन की राजगद्दी पर भानुगुप्त बालादित्य बैठता है। जाट नरेश यशोधर्मा के साथ हूणों को हराने में इसी बालदित्य का नाम आता है।2 यदि बंधुवर्मा के बाद विष्णुवर्द्धन का नाम जोड़ दें तो यह वंश-सूची इस प्रकार बन जाती है -


1. यह वंश-सूची जयशंकर ‘प्रसाद’ के ‘स्कंदगुप्त विक्रमादित्य’ नामक नाटक के परिशिष्ट में भी दी हुई है।
2. भारत के प्राचीन राजवंश, भाग 2
? पुष्करन मारवाड़ में स्थित न होकर बांकुरा जिला पश्चिम बंगाल में है। Laxman Burdak (talk) 07:04, 19 September 2015 (EDT)

Samma clan

Bhim Singh Dahiya[70] writes that where Arjuna conquers Suhma and Chola in the North. The Suhma are the Summa of Sindh at the time of Arab invasion, and the Chola/ Chahal clan, respectively.

Gangas clan

ठाकुर देशराज[71] लिखते हैं कि अब कुछ बौद्ध-कालीन प्रजातंत्री समूहों पर विचार करना है और देखना यह है कि उनमें से कितनों का अस्तित्व जाटों में पाया जाता है।

गंगरिदी : यह मैगस्थनीज के समय में जाति थी। किन्तु प्रसाई जाति के साथ नाम आने से किसी ने इसे महानदी के किनारे और किसी ने कलिंग देश में होने की बात कही है। किन्तु यह गढ़मुक्तेश्वर की ओर कहीं पास ही रहती थी, और अब गंगस कहलाती है। आगे हम बतायेंगे कि गढ़मुक्तेश्वर एक जाट नरेश के नाम पर प्रसिद्ध हुआ है। लेकिन कल्पना के विमान पर चढ़कर लोग इधर-उधर भटकते फिरे हैं, यदि उन्हें गंगसों का पता होता तो ठीक नतीजे पर पहुंच जाते। टोलेमी ने उनकी राजधानी गंगा लिखा है, इसलिए यह मानना पड़ता है कि आज जो राम-घाट के पास गंगा-घाट नाम का शहर है, वही उसकी राजधानी रहा होगा। ‘जाट उत्पत्ति’ के लेखक ने गंगस लोगों की आबादी बुलन्दशहर जिले में वर्तमान बताई है।

Katwa Jat clan

Katwa is a town in Bardhaman district in West Bengal. Here Katwa seems to be founded by Katwa/Katewa Jat clan.

Chusia Jat clan

Chusia (चुसिया) gotra of Jats started after people who moved out from place called Chhota Nagpur. [72]

Naga dynasty

According to Dilip Singh Ahlawat [73], The Naga Jats ruled over Kantipur, Mathura, Padmavati, Kausambi, Nagpur, Champavati, (Bhagalpur) and in the central India, in western Malwa, Nagaur (Jodhpur- Rajasthan). In addition they ruled the ancient land of Shergarh, (Kotah Rajasthan), Madhya Pradesh (Central India), Chutiya Nagpur, Khairagarh, Chakra Kotiya and Kawardha. The great scholar, Jat Emperor, Bhoja Parmar, mother Shashiprabha was a maiden of a Naga Clan.

External links

References

  1. P.R. Sarkar Rarh - The Cradle of Civilization, Ananda Marga Publications, 1981, Kolkata
  2. "Rarh". Encyclopædia Britannica.
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  41. मृगधूमं ततॊ गच्छेत तरिषु लॊकेषु विश्रुतम
    तत्र गङ्गा हरदे सनात्वा समभ्यर्च्य च मानवः
    शूलपाणिं महादेवम अश्वमेध फलं लभेत Mahabharata (III.81.85)
  42. गङ्गा हरदश च तत्रैव कूपश च भरतर्षभ
    तिस्रः कॊट्यस तु तीर्थानां तस्मिन कूपे महीपते
    तत्र सनात्वा नरॊ राजन सवर्गलॊकं परपद्यते Mahabharata (III.81.153)
  43. गङ्गा हरदश च तत्रैव तीर्थं भरतसत्तम
    तत्र सनातस तु धर्मज्ञ बरह्म चारी समाहितः
    राजसूयाश्वमेधाभ्यां फलं विन्दति शाश्वतम Mahabharata (III.81.172)
  44. ततः सिंहपुरं रम्यं चित्रायुधसुरक्षितम, परामदथ बलम आस्दाय पाकशासनिर आहवे (II.24.19) ततः सुह्मांश च चॊलांश च किरीटी पाण्डवर्षभः, सहितः सर्वसैन्येन परामदत कुरुनन्थनः (II.24.20)
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  46. The Ancient Geography of India/Singhapura, pp. 127
  47. ततः सुह्मान पराच्य सुह्मान समक्षांश चैव वीर्यवान, विजित्य युधि कौन्तेयॊ मागधान उपयाथ बली (II.27.14) सुह्मानाम अधिपं चैव ये च सागरवासिनः, सर्वान मलेच्छ गणांश चैव विजिग्ये भरतर्षभः (II.27.23)
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  56. Jat clans as described by Megasthenes,S.N.3
  57. Majumdar, Dr. R. C. (1960). The Classical Accounts of India. Calcutta. pp. 103–128; 170–172; 198; 234.
  58. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
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  62. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of Feudatory Kings and High Officers, p.47
  63. 21. रुद्रदेव-मतिल-नागदत्त-चन्द्रवर्मा-गणपतिनाग-नागसेनाच्युत-नन्दि-बल-वर्म्मा-द्यनेकार्य्यावर्त्त- राज-प्रसभोद्धरणोद्धृत-प्रभाव-महत: परिचारकीकृत-सर्व्वाटविक-राजस्य
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  65. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
  66. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
  67. Indian Archaeology Blogspot
  68. The Gupta Empire,p.9
  69. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter XI,pp.709-710
  70. B.S. Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), p. 290
  71. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter V,p.143
  72. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc, : Ādhunik Jat Itihas , Agra 1998 p.242
  73. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter III, p.242