Riksha

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Riksha Parvata (ऋक्ष पर्वत) is a mountain range described in the epic Mahabharata. It is identified to be the part of the eastern Vindhyachala mountain ranges in the central India. Narmada, Tapti and Sone rivers originate from these mountains. Amarakantaka in included in it. This region was inhabited by Riksha tribe. [1] It is mentioned in the military campaigns of Pandava general Bhima.

Origin

Variants

History

Genealogy of Riksha

Genealogy of Narishyanta as per Bhagavata Purana is as under:

Manu prayed to Vishnu for one hundred years for other sons. He got ten sons like unto himself. Ikshvaku was the eldest.[2]

Manu
1.Ikshvaku - 2.Nriga - 3.Saryati - 4.Dishta - 5.Dhrishta - 6.Karusha - 7.Narishyanta - 8.Prishadhra - 9.Nabhaga - 10.Kavi

(7). NarishyantaChitra SenaRikshaMidhvatPurnaIndra SenaVitihotraSatya-SravasUru-SravasDevadattaAgnivesya (Incarnation of Agni also known as Kanina and Jatu-Karna) → Agni veshyayana Brahmanas,

ऋक्ष पर्वत

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[3] ने लेख किया है ...ऋक्ष (AS, p.105): विष्णुपुराण 2, 3 के अनुसार सात कुलपर्वतों में से एक है- महेन्द्रो मलयः सह्मः शुक्तिमानृक्षपर्वतः विंध्यश्च पारियात्रश्च सप्तैते कुलपर्वताः'।

ऋक्ष पर्वत विंध्याचल की पूर्वी श्रेणियों का नाम है, जिनमें नर्मदा, ताप्ती और शोण आदि के स्त्रोत स्थित हैं। अमरकंटक इसी का भाग है- पुरश्च पश्चाच्च तथा महानदी तमृक्षवंतं गिरिमेत्य नर्मदा'। महाभारत शांति पर्व 52, 32

स्कंदपुराण में भी नर्मदा का उद्भव ऋक्ष पर्वत से माना गया है। कालिदास ने ऋक्ष या ऋक्षवान् का नर्मदा के प्रसंग में उल्लेख किया है- निःशेष विक्षालित धातुनापि वप्रकिया मृक्षवत्स्तटेषु, नीलोर्ध्व रेखा शवलेन शंसन् दंतद्वयेनाश्मविकुंठितेन'। (रघुवंश 5, 44)

विष्णुपुराण 2,3,11 में तापी, पयोष्णी और निर्विध्या को ऋक्ष पर्वत से निस्सृत माना गया है- तापी पयोष्णी निर्विंध्या प्रमुखा ऋक्षसम्भवाः'। श्रीमद्भागवतपुराण 5,19,16 में भी ऋक्ष का उल्लेख है- विन्ध्यः शुक्तिमानृक्षगिरिः पारियात्रो दोणश्चित्रकूटो गोवर्धनो रैवतकः'।

ऋक्ष नाम महाभारतकालीन जनश्रुति में ऋक्षों या रीछों के कारण ही संभव हुआ होगा- ऋक्षेः सम्वर्धितो विप्र ऋक्षवत्यथ पर्वते'। (महाभारत 49,76)

सम्भव है श्रीराम का जिन ऋक्षों ने रावण के विरुद्ध युद्ध में साथ दिया था, वे ऋक्ष पर्वत के ही निवासी थे।

In Mahabharata


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 60 gives genealogy of all the principal creatures. Riksha (ऋक्ष) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.60.60). [4]

Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 89 gives History of Puru and Pandavas (Aila dynasty). Riksha (ऋक्ष) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.89.28). [5]...And the Kushikas are the sons of Jahnu of immeasurable prowess. And Riksha who was older than both Jana and Rupina became king. And Riksha begat Samvarana, the perpetuator of the royal line. And, O king, it hath been heard by us that while Samvarana, the son of Riksha, was ruling the earth, there happened a great loss of people from famine, pestilence, drought, and disease. And the Bharata princes were beaten by the troops of enemies. And the Panchalas setting out to invade the whole earth with their four kinds of troops soon brought the whole earth under their sway. And with their ten Akshauhinis the king of the Panchalas defeated the Bharata prince. Samvarana then with his wife and ministers, sons and relatives, fled in fear, and took shelter in the forest on the banks of the Sindhu extending to the foot of the mountains. There the Bharatas lived for a full thousand years, within their fort. And after they had lived there a thousand years, one day the illustrious Rishi Vasishtha approached the exiled Bharatas, who, on going out, saluted the Rishi and worshipped him by the offer of Arghya.


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 90 gives History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha. Riksha (ऋक्ष) is mentioned in Mahabharata (I.90.23-24). [6]...And Richa took to wife Sudeva, the princess of Anga, and upon her he begat a son named Riksha. And Riksha married Jwala, the daughter of Takshaka, and he begat upon her a son of the name of Matinara, who performed on the bank of Saraswati the twelve years' sacrifice.


Adi Parva, Mahabharata/Book I Chapter 90 gives History and family tree of Puru, Bharatas and Pandavas commencing from Daksha. Riksha (ऋक्षा) is mentioned as wife of Ajamidha in Mahabharata (I.90.39). [7]....And Ajamidha had four wives named Kaikeyi, Gandhari, Vimala and Riksha. And he begat on them two thousand and four hundred sons. But amongst them all, Samvarana became the perpetuator of the dynasty.


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Rikshavan (ऋक्षवान) (Mountain) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.10).[8]....Mahendra, Malaya, Sahya, Shuktimana, Rikshavan, Vindhya, and Pariyatra,--these seven are the Kala-mountains (i.e. mountains forming boundaries of divisions) of Bharatavarsha.

External links

References

  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.105
  2. Skandha IX Chapter-2
  3. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.105
  4. अपत्यं तु मृगाः सर्वे मृग्या नरवरात्मज, ऋक्षाश च मृगमन्दायाः सृमराश चमरा अपि (I.60.60)
  5. ऋक्षं भूमिन्य अथॊ नीली दुःषन्त परमेष्ठिनौ, केशिन्य अजनयज जह्नुम उभौ च जनरूपिणौ (I.89.28)
  6. ऋचः खल्व आङ्गेयीम उपयेमे सुदेवां नाम, तस्यां पुत्रम अजनयद ऋक्षम(I.90.23) ऋक्षः खलु तक्षक दुहितरम उपयेमे जवालां नाम, तस्यां पुत्रं मतिनारं नामॊत्पादयाम आस(I.90.24)
  7. अजमीढस्य चतुर्विंशं पुत्रशतं बभूव कैकेय्यां नागायां गान्धर्यां विमलायाम ऋक्षायां चेति, पृथक्पृथग वंशकरा नृपतयः, तत्र वंशकरः संवरणः (I.90.39)
  8. महेन्द्रो मलयः सह्यः शुक्तिमान ऋक्षवान अपि, विन्ध्यश च पारियात्रश च सप्तैते कुलपर्वताः (VI.10.10