Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 46

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Mahabharata - Sabha Parva

Mahabharata Book 2 Chapter 46: English


describes game at dice and kings who were present in that assembly

Janamejaya said,--"O thou foremost of all conversant with the Vedas, how did that game at dice take place, fraught with such evil to the cousins and through which my grand-sires, the son of Pandu, were plunged into such sorrow? What kings also were present in that assembly, and who amongst them approved of the gambling match and who amongst them forbade it? O sinless one, O chief of regenerate ones, I desire thee to recite in detail all about this, which, indeed, was the cause of the destruction of the world."

Santi said,--"Thus addressed by the king, the disciple of Vyasa, endued with great energy and conversant with the entire Vedas, narrated everything that had happened."

Vaisampayana said,--"O best of the Bharatas, O great king, if thou desirest to hear, then listen to me as I narrate to thee everything again in detail.

"Ascertaining the opinion of Vidura, Dhritarashtra the son of Amvika, calling Duryodhana told him again in private--'O son of Gandhari,

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have nothing to do with dice. Vidura doth not speak well of it. Possessed of great wisdom, he will never give me advice that is not for my good. I also regard what Vidura sayeth as exceedingly beneficial for me. Do that, O son, for I regard it all as for thy good also. Indeed, Vidura knoweth with all its mysteries the science (of political morality) that the illustrious and learned and wise Vrihaspati, the celestial Rishi who is the spiritual guide of Vasava--had unfolded unto the wise chief of the immortals. And O son, I always accept what Vidura adviseth. O king, as the wise Uddhava is ever regarded amongst the Vrishnis, so is Vidura possessed of great intelligence esteemed as the foremost of the Kurus. Therefore, O son, have nothing to do with dice. It is evident that dice soweth dissensions. And dissensions are the ruin of the kingdom. Therefore, O son, abandon this idea of gambling. O son, thou hast obtained from us what, it hath been ordained, a father and a mother should give unto their son, viz., ancestral rank and possessions. Thou art educated and clever in every branch of knowledge, and hast been brought up with affection in thy paternal dwelling. Born the eldest among all thy brothers, living within thy own kingdom, why regardest thou thyself as unhappy? O thou of mighty arms, thou obtainest food and attire of the very best kind and which is not obtainable by ordinary men. Why dost thou grieve yet. O son, O mighty-armed one, ruling thy large ancestral kingdom swelling with people and wealth, thou shinest as splendidly as the chief of the celestials in heaven. Thou art possessed of wisdom. It behoveth thee to tell me what can be the root of this grief that hath made thee so melancholy.

"Duryodhana replied,--'I am a sinful wretch, O king, because I eat and dress beholding (the prosperity of the foes). It hath been said that man is a wretch who is not filled with jealousy at the sight of his enemy's prosperity. O exalted one, this kind of prosperity of mine doth not gratify me. Beholding that blazing prosperity of the son of Kunti, I am very much pained. I tell thee strong must be my vitality, in as much as I am living even at the sight of the whole earth owning the sway of Yudhishthira. The Nipas, the Chitrakas, the Kukkuras, the Karaskaras, and the Lauha-janghas are living in the palace of Yudhishthira like bondsmen. The Himavat, the ocean, the regions on the sea-shore, and the numberless other regions that yield jewels and gems, have all acknowledged superiority of the mansion of Yudhishthira in respect of wealth it containeth. And, O Monarch, regarding me as the eldest and entitled to respect, Yudhishthira having received me respectfully, appointed me in receiving the jewels and gems (that were brought as tribute). O Bharata, the limit and the like of the excellent and invaluable jewels that were brought there have not been seen. And O king, my hands were fatigued in receiving that wealth. And when I was tired, they that brought those valuable articles from distant

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regions used to wait till I was able to resume my labour. Bringing jewels from the lake Vindu, the Asura architect Maya constructed (for the Pandavas) a lake-like surface made of crystal. Beholding the (artificial) lotuses with which it was filled, I mistook it, O king for water. And seeing me draw up my clothes (while about to cross it), Vrikodara (Bhima) laughed at me, regarding me as wanting in jewels and having lost my head at the sight of the affluence of my enemy. If I had the ability, I would, O king, without the loss of a moment, slay Vrikodara for that. But, O monarch, if we endeavour to slay Bhima now, without doubt, ours will be the fate of Sisupala. O Bharata, that insult by the foe burneth me. Once again, O king, beholding a similar lake that is really full of water but which I mistook for a crystal surface, I fell into it. At that, Bhima with Arjuna once more laughed derisively, and Draupadi also accompanied by other females joined in the laughter. That paineth my heart exceedingly. My apparel having been wet, the menials at the command of the king gave me other clothes. That also is my great sorrow. And O king, hear now of another mistake that I speak of. In attempting to pass through what is exactly of the shape of a door but through which there was really no passage, I struck my forehead against stone and injured myself. The twins Nakula and Sahadeva beholding from a distance that I was so hit at the head came and supported me in their arms, expressing great concern for me. And Sahadeva repeatedly told me, as if with a smile,--'This O king, is the door. Go this way!' And Bhimasena, laughing aloud, addressed me and said,--'O son of Dhritarashtra, this is the door. And, O king I had not even heard of the names of those gems that I saw in that mansion. And it is for these reasons that my heart so acheth."

Mahabharata Book 2 Chapter 46: Sanskrit

1  [ज]
     कदं समभवथ थयूतं भरातॄणां तन महात्ययम
     यत्र तथ वयसनं पराप्तं पाण्डवैर मे पितामहैः
 2 के च तत्र सभास्तारा राजानॊ बरह्मवित्तम
     के चैनम अन्वमॊथन्त के चैनं परत्यषेधयन
 3 विस्तरेणैतथ इच्छामि कद्यमानं तवया थविज
     मूलं हय एतथ विनाशस्य पृदिव्या थविजसत्तम
 4 [सूत]
     एवम उक्तस तथा राज्ञा वयास शिष्यः परतापवान
     आचचक्षे यदावृत्तं तत सर्वं सर्ववेथवित
 5 [व]
     शृणु मे विस्तरेणेमां कदां भरतसत्तम
     भूय एव महाराज यथि ते शरवणे मतिः
 6 विथुरस्य मतं जञात्वा धृतराष्ट्रॊ ऽमबिका सुतः
     थुर्यॊधनम इथं वाक्यम उवाच विजने पुनः
 7 अलं थयूतेन गान्धारे विथुरॊ न परशंसति
     न हय असौ सुमहाबुथ्धिर अहितं नॊ वथिष्यति
 8 हितं हि परमं मन्ये विथुरॊ यत परभाषते
     करियतां पुत्र तत सर्वम एतन मन्ये हितं तव
 9 थेवर्षिर वासव गुरुर थेवराजाय धीमते
     यत पराह शास्त्रं भगवान बृहस्पतिर उथारधीः
 10 तथ वेथ विथुरः सर्वं सरहस्यं महाकविः
    सदितश च वचने तस्य सथाहम अपि पुत्रक
11 विथुरॊ वापि मेधावी कुरूणां परवरॊ मतः
    उथ्धवॊ वा महाबुथ्धिर वृष्णीणाम अर्चितॊ नृप
12 थयूतेन तथ अलं पुत्र थयूते भेथॊ हि थृश्यते
    भेथे विनाशॊ राज्यस्य तत पुत्र परिवर्जय
13 पित्रा मात्रा च पुत्रस्य यथ वै कार्यं परं समृतम
    पराप्तस तवम असि तत तात पितृपैतामहं पथम
14 अधीतवान कृती शास्त्रे लालितः सततं गृहे
    भरातृज्येष्ठः सदितॊ राज्ये विन्थसे किं न शॊभनम
15 पृदग्जनैर अलभ्यं यथ भॊजनाच्छाथनं परम
    तत पराप्तॊ ऽसि महाबाहॊ कस्माच छॊचसि पुत्रक
16 सफीतं राष्ट्रं महाबाहॊ पितृपैतामहं महत
    नित्यम आज्ञापयन भासि थिवि थेवेश्वरॊ यदा
17 तस्य ते विथितप्रज्ञ शॊकमूलम इथं कदम
    समुत्दितं थुःखतरं तन मे शंसितुम अर्हसि
18 [थ]
    अश्नाम्य आच्छाथयामीति परपश्यन पापपूरुषः
    नामर्षं कुरुते यस तु पुरुषः सॊ ऽधमः समृतः
19 न मां परीणाति राजेन्थ्र लक्ष्मीः साधारणा विभॊ
    जवलिताम इव कौन्तेये शरियं थृष्ट्वा च विव्यदे
20 सर्वां हि पृदिवीं थृष्ट्वा युधिष्ठिर वशानुगाम
    सदिरॊ ऽसमि यॊ ऽहं जीवामि थुःखाथ एतथ बरवीमि ते
21 आवर्जिता इवाभान्ति निघ्नाश चैत्रकि कौकुराः
    कारः करा लॊहजङ्घा युधिष्ठिर निवेशने
22 हिमवत्सागरानूपाः सर्वरत्नाकरास तदा
    अन्त्याः सर्वे पर्युथस्ता युधिष्ठिर निवेशने
23 जयेष्ठॊ ऽयम इति मां मत्वा शरेष्ठश चेति विशां पते
    युधिष्ठिरेण सत्कृत्य युक्तॊ रत्नपरिग्रहे
24 उपस्दितानां रत्नानां शरेष्ठानाम अर्घ हारिणाम
    नाथृश्यत परः परान्तॊ नापरस तत्र भारत
25 न मे हस्तः समभवथ वसु तत परतिगृह्णतः
    परातिष्ठन्त मयि शरान्ते गृह्य थूराहृतं वसु
26 कृतां बिन्थुसरॊ रत्नैर मयेन सफाटिकच छथाम
    अपश्यं नलिनीं पूर्णाम उथकस्येव भारत
27 वस्त्रम उत्कर्षति मयि पराहसत स वृकॊथरः
    शत्रॊर ऋथ्धिविशेषेण विमूढं रत्नवर्जितम
28 तत्र सम यथि शक्तः सयां पातयेयं वृकॊथरम
    सपत्नेनावहासॊ हि स मां थहति भारत
29 पुनश च ताथृशीम एव वापीं जलज शालिनीम
    मत्वा शिला समां तॊये पतितॊ ऽसमि नराधिप
30 तत्र मां पराहसत कृष्णः पार्देन सह सस्वनम
    थरौपथी च सह सत्रीभिर वयदयन्ती मनॊ मम
31 कलिन्नवस्त्रस्य च जले किं करा राजचॊथिताः
    थथुर वासांसि मे ऽनयानि तच च थुःखतरं मम
32 परलम्भं च शृणुष्वान्यं गथतॊ मे नराधिप
    अथ्वारेण विनिर्गच्छन थवारसंस्दान रूपिणा
    अभिहत्य शिलां भूयॊ ललाटेनास्मि विक्षतः
33 तत्र मां यमजौ थूराथ आलॊक्य ललितौ किल
    बाहुभिः परिगृह्णीतां शॊचन्तौ सहिताव उभौ
34 उवाच सहथेवस तु तत्र मां विस्मयन्न इव
    इथं थवारम इतॊ गच्छ राजन्न इति पुनः पुनः
35 नामधेयानि रत्नानां पुरस्तान न शरुतानि मे
    यानि थृष्टानि मे तस्यां मनस तपति तच च मे

Mahabharata Book 2 Chapter 46: Transliteration

 1 [j]
     kathaṃ samabhavad dyūtaṃ bhrātṝṇāṃ tan mahātyayam
     yatra tad vyasanaṃ prāptaṃ pāṇḍavair me pitāmahaiḥ
 2 ke ca tatra sabhāstārā rājāno brahmavittama
     ke cainam anvamodanta ke cainaṃ pratyaṣedhayan
 3 vistareṇaitad icchāmi kathyamānaṃ tvayā dvija
     mūlaṃ hy etad vināśasya pṛthivyā dvijasattama
 4 [sūta]
     evam uktas tadā rājñā vyāsa śiṣyaḥ pratāpavān
     ācacakṣe yathāvṛttaṃ tat sarvaṃ sarvavedavit
 5 [v]
     śṛṇu me vistareṇemāṃ kathāṃ bharatasattama
     bhūya eva mahārāja yadi te śravaṇe matiḥ
 6 vidurasya mataṃ jñātvā dhṛtarāṣṭro 'mbikā sutaḥ
     duryodhanam idaṃ vākyam uvāca vijane punaḥ
 7 alaṃ dyūtena gāndhāre viduro na praśaṃsati
     na hy asau sumahābuddhir ahitaṃ no vadiṣyati
 8 hitaṃ hi paramaṃ manye viduro yat prabhāṣate
     kriyatāṃ putra tat sarvam etan manye hitaṃ tava
 9 devarṣir vāsava gurur devarājāya dhīmate
     yat prāha śāstraṃ bhagavān bṛhaspatir udāradhīḥ
 10 tad veda viduraḥ sarvaṃ sarahasyaṃ mahākaviḥ
    sthitaś ca vacane tasya sadāham api putraka
11 viduro vāpi medhāvī kurūṇāṃ pravaro mataḥ
    uddhavo vā mahābuddhir vṛṣṇīṇām arcito nṛpa
12 dyūtena tad alaṃ putra dyūte bhedo hi dṛśyate
    bhede vināśo rājyasya tat putra parivarjaya
13 pitrā mātrā ca putrasya yad vai kāryaṃ paraṃ smṛtam
    prāptas tvam asi tat tāta pitṛpaitāmahaṃ padam
14 adhītavān kṛtī śāstre lālitaḥ satataṃ gṛhe
    bhrātṛjyeṣṭhaḥ sthito rājye vindase kiṃ na śobhanam
15 pṛthagjanair alabhyaṃ yad bhojanācchādanaṃ param
    tat prāpto 'si mahābāho kasmāc chocasi putraka
16 sphītaṃ rāṣṭraṃ mahābāho pitṛpaitāmahaṃ mahat
    nityam ājñāpayan bhāsi divi deveśvaro yathā
17 tasya te viditaprajña śokamūlam idaṃ katham
    samutthitaṃ duḥkhataraṃ tan me śaṃsitum arhasi
18 [d]
    aśnāmy ācchādayāmīti prapaśyan pāpapūruṣaḥ
    nāmarṣaṃ kurute yas tu puruṣaḥ so 'dhamaḥ smṛtaḥ
19 na māṃ prīṇāti rājendra lakṣmīḥ sādhāraṇā vibho
    jvalitām iva kaunteye śriyaṃ dṛṣṭvā ca vivyathe
20 sarvāṃ hi pṛthivīṃ dṛṣṭvā yudhiṣṭhira vaśānugām
    sthiro 'smi yo 'haṃ jīvāmi duḥkhād etad bravīmi te
21 āvarjitā ivābhānti nighnāś caitraki kaukurāḥ
    kāraḥ karā lohajaṅghā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane
22 himavatsāgarānūpāḥ sarvaratnākarās tathā
    antyāḥ sarve paryudastā yudhiṣṭhira niveśane
23 jyeṣṭho 'yam iti māṃ matvā śreṣṭhaś ceti viśāṃ pate
    yudhiṣṭhireṇa satkṛtya yukto ratnaparigrahe
24 upasthitānāṃ ratnānāṃ śreṣṭhānām argha hāriṇām
    nādṛśyata paraḥ prānto nāparas tatra bhārata
25 na me hastaḥ samabhavad vasu tat pratigṛhṇataḥ
    prātiṣṭhanta mayi śrānte gṛhya dūrāhṛtaṃ vasu
26 kṛtāṃ bindusaro ratnair mayena sphāṭikac chadām
    apaśyaṃ nalinīṃ pūrṇām udakasyeva bhārata
27 vastram utkarṣati mayi prāhasat sa vṛkodaraḥ
    śatror ṛddhiviśeṣeṇa vimūḍhaṃ ratnavarjitam
28 tatra sma yadi śaktaḥ syāṃ pātayeyaṃ vṛkodaram
    sapatnenāvahāso hi sa māṃ dahati bhārata
29 punaś ca tādṛśīm eva vāpīṃ jalaja śālinīm
    matvā śilā samāṃ toye patito 'smi narādhipa
30 tatra māṃ prāhasat kṛṣṇaḥ pārthena saha sasvanam
    draupadī ca saha strībhir vyathayantī mano mama
31 klinnavastrasya ca jale kiṃ karā rājacoditāḥ
    dadur vāsāṃsi me 'nyāni tac ca duḥkhataraṃ mama
32 pralambhaṃ ca śṛṇuṣvānyaṃ gadato me narādhipa
    advāreṇa vinirgacchan dvārasaṃsthāna rūpiṇā
    abhihatya śilāṃ bhūyo lalāṭenāsmi vikṣataḥ
33 tatra māṃ yamajau dūrād ālokya lalitau kila
    bāhubhiḥ parigṛhṇītāṃ śocantau sahitāv ubhau
34 uvāca sahadevas tu tatra māṃ vismayann iva
    idaṃ dvāram ito gaccha rājann iti punaḥ punaḥ
35 nāmadheyāni ratnānāṃ purastān na śrutāni me
    yāni dṛṣṭāni me tasyāṃ manas tapati tac ca me


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