Chauhan Samantas

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Chauhan Samantas tries to explain Chauhan Samantas and rulers in Chauhan dominions from C. 800 to 1316 A.D. This section is mainly taken for research purpose from Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions from C. 800 to 1316 A.D., by Dasharatha Sharma, Books treasure, Jodhpur. ISBN 0-8426-0618-1.

Professor Dasharatha Sharma (1903–1976) was an Indologist and a noted expert in the history of the Rajasthan. He received a Doctor of Literature (D. Litt.) for his thesis Early Chauhan Dynasties. His noted monograph Early Chauhan Dynasties was first published in 1959.

There were two types of samantas of Chauhans:'Mukut Bandh' and 'Mandaleshwar'. 'Mukut Bandh' were those samantas who were owners of their areas but accepted Chauhans suzerainty. 'Mandaleshwar' were those samantas who got jagirs on the pleasure of Chauhan rulers. Some of Samantas are listed below:

Kaka Kanha (Kanhadadeva)

Genealogy of Chauhan rulers Prithviraja-II - Ramadeva
  • Kaka Kanha - A big Jagir, Kanha was uncle of Prithviraj Chauhan. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.128). Prithviraja III's kaka Kanhadadeva was a great warrior. He had 18 sons. His descendants are in large number in Chauhans. He was known as Kaka Kanha and present Alwar district's northern part, Sambhal and Moradabad were in his Jagir. He constructed there a Saraneshwara Shiva temple. [1]
  • Bela - Kanha's daughter Bela's husband was killed in war with Kutubuddin and his daughter named Bela became a sati. There is a temple of Bela in Sambhal where a fair is organized every year.[2]
  • Bhimadeva - Kaka Kanha's son Bhimadeva got Isagarh, Mathin (माठीन) in Jagir. Bhimadeva had four sons, out of them eldest was Lakhan Singh. He stayed at Mathin. Mathin was later known as Mandawar.
    • Lakhan's son Haladeva faced Timur's attack on Mandawar in which Haladeva was killed. His son became Muslim and was gifted with Mandawar in Jagir and Rao title. Mandawar's Muslim still use Rao title. [3]
    • Lakhan's one descendant Dhiradeva went to east. His descendants are in Aligarh and Bulandshahr districts.
    • Lakhan's one son went to Mainpuri. In war of Maharana Sanga with Babar at Khanwa the people from Mainpuri also came. After the war they settled in Mewar. These include Umrao's of Sola, Bedla Kotharia and Pasoli. Since they had come from the east so they were called Purviye. [4]
    • Lakhan's younger brother was Gopal. Gopal's descendant Chauhans are in Makrana in Nagaur, Rajasthan. Gopal's younger brother Padmasinha's descendants are called Pawaiya Chauhans and they are in Gwalior.[5]
  • Giriraj - One son was Giriraj whose descendants are called Geela. They are now Jats. [9]
  • Vijayaraja settled in Hansi and
  • Baladeva went to Kumad (कुमाड) and the Vatsagotri Chauhans are out of them.[12]
  • Raijada Chauhans - Immediately after taking the reign of administration into his hands in V. 1237 (1180 AD) Prithviraja III had to fight against his cousin brother Nagarjuna who was the son of Vigraharaj IV. Prithviraja marched against him with a large army and laid a siege to Gudapura. Nigarjjuna was defeated and he to ran away to Fatehpur Janapad in Uttar Pradesh. He took shelter in an an ashrama under a changed name Raimana. Raimana married there and his descendants are called Raijada Chauhans. (K. Devi Singh Mandawa: Prithviraja Chauhan, p. 107)
  • After defeat of Prithviraja III by Muslims the Chauhans of Ajmer settled in various parts of country where they are still living.

Hari Raj

Hari Raj - He was Brother of Prithviraj Chauhan. On the death of Prthviraja III, his son Govindaraja was made ruler of Ajmer on the payment of a heavy tribute. But the Chauhans had still some fight left in them; they were not disposed to submit so readily to the Muslim invader. Advancing from the hills of Alwar, where he had retired after the disastrous defeat of Taraori, Prthviraja's younger brother Hariraja drove out Govinda from Ajmer, and made himself the master of at least a fraction of his ancestral kingdom. His friends in the other parts of the old Chauhan Empire tried their best to help him.

Jatwan - A Chauhan chief rose against the Muslims near Hansi. But he was defeated and slain on the borders of Bagar by Qutb-ud-din, the representative of Muhammad Ghori in India. Elliot read Jatwan, instead of Chauhan and interpreted as a leader of the Jats.[13] Firishta makes him a commander of Bhimadeva II's forces and states that he was killed in 591 H. while trying to meet Qutb·ud·din's attack on Anhilwada. This shows his ignorance of the actual facts, because we know from the Taju-l-Masir, a contemporary source, that he was defeated and slain on the border of Bagar in 588 H. Jatwan is as pointed out by prof. Hodivala, a mistranscription of the word Chauhan. By Bagar, the tract where this Chauhan chief was slain, is meant the region stretching from the south west of Fatehabad, Sirsa, Hissar and Bhiwani. There is another Bagar in the south including the Banswara and Dungarpur States. The knowledge of this fact and the mention of Bagar as a tract where Jatwan was slain perhaps lead Firishta to conjecture that he was a relative of Bhimadeva II whose kingdom included the tract. [14]

Delhi too, which had submitted to the Muslims soon after the fall of Ajmer, raised its head once again in insurrection. The city was captured after a long siege. The Raja escaped, but only to be defeated and slain soon after in an action with Qutb-ud-din. Hariraja on his side had not been quite idle. He attacked the Muslim nominee Govinda who had, after being driven from Ajmer, retircd to Ranthambhor. A better policy, would, perhaps, have been to attack the Muslims while they were besieging Delhi. Hariraja allowed, instead, his partisans to be defeated piece meal and then himself to be driven with ease from before the walls of Ranthambhor by Muslim forces freed from their task elsewhere. [15]

All these even events took place in 1192 A.D. The next two years were a period of almost unbroken success for the Muslims. In 1194 A.D. Muhammad Ghori and his generals captured Kanauj, Banaras, Asni and Kaul or Koil. Hariraja tried his luck once more. He sent his general Jaitra towards Delhi while the Muslims were away on their eastern expeditions. "The people were", writes Hasan Nizami, "caught in the darkness of his oppression and turbulence, and the blood and property of the Musulmans fell into danger and destruction." But this state did not last long. The defeat of Jayachandra once again left the Muslims free to employ their full force against the Chauhans. Realising the gravity of the new menace from their side Qutb-ud-din returned to Delhi, and marched against Jaitra, even though it was the middle of the hot season and the Turks and Afghans of the army found it extremely inconvenient to wear their Armour and ride against the enemy. Jaitra fell back upon Ajmer. Here, according to Firishta, Jaitra and his master Hariraja gave battle to the Muslims and were defeated and slain. According to the Hammiramahakavya, however, Hariraja, despairing of putting up any effective resistance, consigned himself to flames, and thereafter the fort fell into the hands of the Muslim ruler. That this is the right version may be seen from the: Taju-l-Ma-Asir, a contemporary source, according to which too Jaitra (and most probably also his master) "sacrificed himself in the flames of a fire" immediately before the fall of the fort [16] Tuntoti mentioned as Tamtuthi (तंतुठी) in the inscription is nearly 20 miles from Ajmer. [17]

Thus with Hariraja, who had been on the throne of Ajmer at least up to the 1lth day of the dark of Vaishakha, V. 1251, ended the kingdom of Sapadalaksha after a continued existence of nearly five centuries. It had on the whole, a glorious history, and till Indian hard still gets eloquent and rhapsodical, as he sings of the brave deeds of the mighty Bisala and the gallant Prthviriija. [18]

Dahiya or Dahima

Dahiya/Dahima - Dahimas were very important in darbar of Prithviraj Chauhan. Kaimas Dahiya was chief minister of Prithviraj Chauhan during his childhood. He was a big jagirdar and Bayana Fort was in his Jagir. Another Dahima samant was Chamundarai, whose sister was married to Prithviraj Chauhan. He was a great warrior and chief senapati of Prithviraj Chauhan. He was killed in last war with Gauri. Chamunda's son was also a samanta. Jatu near Agra was in his Jagir. Other Dahima samantas were Rooprai and Jangalirai. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.128)

Dahiya (Dahima) of Parbatsar - In an inscription year v.s. 1056 (999 AD) found in Kevay Mata temple in village Kinsariya in Marwar region Dahimas have been recorded as descendents of rishi Dadhichi. Chachcha Rana had got constructed this temple here. Chachcha Rana's son Udharan was a great warrior and Parbatsar and Maroth were in his Jagir. His son was Vilhan jagirdar of Maroth. One of the queens of Prithviraj Chauhan was Dahiyani. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.131)

It is to be noted that during the time of Dadhichi, varna system in Aryas was not rigid. So Dadhichi's descendants are found both in Brahmanas as Dahimas and Kshatriyas as Dahiyas. Dahiya clan is also common in Rajputs and Jats. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.131)

Dahiyas of Janglu - Dahiyas of Janglu were also samanta of Chauhans. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.131)

Dahiyas of Maroth - We get three names of Dahiyas of Maroth: Kadavarao (कड़वाराव), PadmaSingh and Jayant Singh. During the reign of Prithviraj Chauhan, one of the samanta rebelled and the jagir was given to Gauds. The Jats of Karwasra and Karwa have originated from Kadavarao. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.131)

Dahiyas of Sanchor - Early Chauhan Dynasties by Dasharatha Sharma, pp. 193-195 gives history of Sanchor. It tells us that Dahiyas were rulers there. Nainsi gives the following account of the conquest of Sanchor by the Chauhans:

"Sanchor was originally under the Dahiyas. In the time of Vijayaraja Dahiya, Vijayasimha, son of Alhana, ruled over Simhavada. For some reason or other Vijayaraja Dahiya's nephew Mahiravana Vaghela turned against his uncle and going to Vijayasimha Chauhan proposed the capture and equal division of Sanchor between themselves. Vijayasimha agreed, and reaching Sanchor, on being invited by the Vaghela, killed the Dahiyas and had himself proclaimed the ruler of the place on the 11 th of the dark half of Phalguna, Samvat 1141."

Maurya Samantas

Mauryas - Samprati Maurya, grandson of Ashoka, was ruler of Rajasthan. Samprati constructed many forts in Rajasthan. Famous fort is that of Kumbhalgarh. On ruins of this fort Maharana Kumbha constructed present historical fort. Samprati constructed a fort in Jahajpur also. Many branches of Mauryas ruled in Rajasthan. Mauryas defeated Yaudheyas in Shekhawati region who moved to northern parts of Bikaner such as Sindharani, Maroth etc, where they lived for a long period. The Maurya samantas of Prithviraj were Bhima Maurya, Saran Maurya, Madalrai Maurya and Mukundrai Maurya. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.137)

Most of Jat Historians consider that Jat word is derived from sanskrit word Gyat. Jat historians also consider Ashoka Maurya a Jat ruler as Mor or Maurya is a Jat clan. There is one ancient Jaina Temple at Nadlai on Jerawala Parvata. Narlai (नाड़लाई ) is a village in Desuri Tahsil of Pali district in Rajasthan. It bears an Inscription of v.s. 1686 (=1629 AD) . This tells us that the temple was originally built by Samprati Maurya, grandson of Ashoka Maurya. Samprati has been mentioned as Jaina Ashoka as per Jaina traditions. [19] Nadlai Inscription of 1629 AD Line-2 is "विरुद धारक भट्टारक श्री विजयदेवसूरीश्वरोपदेशकारित प्राक्प्रशस्ति पट्टिका ज्ञातराज श्री सम्प्रति निर्म्मापित श्री जेरपाल पर्वतस्य" The Line -2 above clearly writes Samprati Maurya as Gyat Rajja (ज्ञातराज) . We can conclude from this that Samprati Maurya, grandson of Ashoka Maurya, was a Jat Raja and Mauryas are Jats.

Mohil Samantas

Mohils of Chhapar Dronapur - Chauhan Dhandhu's son was Indra whose descendant Mohil started this branch. Ladnu was founded by Dahaliyas. Bagadiyas won this area from Sajjan's son Mohil in v.s. 1130 (1073 AD). Mohil had acquired the title of Rana and made Chhapar as his capital. There were 1400 villages under him. We have found an Inscription of Mohil's son Hardatt (Hathad) of v.s. 1162 (1105 AD) from Jeenmata in Sikar district. This inscriptions tells that Hathad (Hardatt) constructed Jeenmata temple during reign of Prithviraj-I. We have got many inscriptions of Mohils of the period v.s. 1186 (1129) - v.s. 1388 (1131 AD). The Rana successors of Hardatt were Bar Singh, Bālhar, Āsal, Āhaḍ, Raṇasī, and Sohaṇ Pal. Raṇasī, and Sohaṇ Pal were contemporary of Prithviraj. One of the samanta of Prithviras was Varasirai Mohil. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.132)

Mohils of Janglu - Janglu area was ruled by Mohil Chauhans, who were samants of Chauhan Samrat.Rana Lakha was contemporary of Prithviraj. There were many jagirs of Mohils in Bagad area. These chieftains had to face wars in Nagaur in which many were killed. As per an inscription of 25 April 1183 (Baisakh sudi 2 v.s. 1239) in village Ganedi district Churu Rajasthan, Mohil Jhala and his son lakhan were killed in this war. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.132)

Mohils of Ladnu - Mohils of Ladnu were samantas of Chauhans. Chhapar and Ladnu were initially in the same state. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.133)

Chauhans of Dadrewa

Chauhans of Dadrewa - Dhandhu Chauhan from Sambhar branch went to village Dhandhu in Churu district and established his rule. He had five sons and one daughter. He appointed his second queen's son Kanho as his successor and not the eldest son Harsha. Harsh and his sister Jeen went to hills and did the penance. Jeen got the status of goddess in 930 AD. Her temple is known as Jeenmata temple.

After three generations of Kanho, Jivraj (Jewar) became Rana. He left Dhandhu and went to Dadrewa and made it his capital. His son Goga (946 AD - 1024 AD) was very brave and illustrious. He had many sons. When Ghazni attacked Somnath temple Goga provided him a tough resistance in western Rajasthan. Goga became martyr along with his all sons and relatives. Since no son of Goga was alive his brother Bairasi or his son Udayraj became Rana of Dadrewa. There have been many Gogas in this vansha. Goga is very revered and considered as a deity of snakes in Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.134) Goga died in 1024 AD fighting with Mohammad Ghazni.

Parmara Samantas

Parmara Samantas - There were many Parmaras as samantas of Prithviraj Chauhan. The main out of them was Parmar ruler Vikram Singh's son Jaitra Paramara of Mt Abu. He became Mahamantri of Prithviraj Chauhan after Kaimas. He was killed in second war with Gauri. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.129)

Parmaras of Pugal - Parmaras of Pugal were samantas of Prithviraj Chauhan. The famous Princess of Pugal Padmini was from the family of Parmaras. Later Bhatis occupied Pugal. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.129)

Parmaras of Falaudi - They were samanta under Prithviraj Chauhan. They built a temple of Kalyanji in v.s.1145 (1088 AD). There is one inscription of them of the year v.s.1236 (1179 AD). (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.129)

Parmaras of Pokaran - They built a temple of Laxmi Narayan. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.130)

Yaudheya Samantas

Yaudheya - Many branches of Yaudheyas ruled in western Rajasthan.Samprati Maurya, son of Ashoka, was ruler of this area. He defeated Yaudheyas in Shekhawati region who moved to northern parts of Bikaner such as Sindharani, Maroth etc, where they lived for a long period. Vigraharaja's maternal uncle Simbal was Yaudheya ruler of Maroth and was senapati as well as samanta of Chauhans. One of queens of Prithviraj Chauhan was Yaudheya. They were later on called Johiyas. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.130-31)

Dodiya Samantas

Dod or Dodiya (डोडिया) - Earlier they had rule over some states in Gujarat. Present Hadauti was earlier occupied by Hunas and known as Huna Pradesh. Dods (डोड) defeated them and established their capital at Dodgarh (Gagrum). This area was under Nagavanshi rulers. This is mentioned in an Inscription of v.s. 847 (770 AD). Dodiyas defeated them and continued to rule here till v. s. 1300 (1243 AD). Jahajpur area in Mewar was also ruled by Dods. An inscription of their rule is found of the year v.s. 1334 (1177 AD). Telanjarai Dod was a samanta of Prithviraj. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.135)

Dods of Bulandshahr - This town was earlier known as Vana (वाणा). This was ruled by Dod Kshatriyas, who were samantas of Chauhans. During reign of Prithvirah the ruler of this area was Anang. Anang had left a grant of v.s. 1233 (1176 AD). According to this grant 16 generations of Dods ruled here. They probably established here around 900 AD. When Mahmud Gazanvi attacked Mathura, Bulandshahr was ruled by Hardatt Dod. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.135) Kachhawaha - Amer Kachhawaha Janhan's son Panjjuvan Rai was samant of Prithviraj Chauhan. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.130)

Other Samantas

Pundir - Pundir are considered Suryavanshi Kshatriyas. Three generations of Pundirs viz, Chandrasen Pundir, his son Dhir Pundir, his son Pawas Pundir were very brave and samants of Chauhans of Nagaur and Punjab. One of Rani of Prithviraj Chauhan was from Pundir family of Nagaur Jagir. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.130)

Tanwars of Delhi - They were ChandravanshiKshatriyas and consider them selves as Pandavavanshi. In v.s. 1209 (1152 AD) Vigraharaja Chauhan attacked Tanwars and defeated Anangapala II. Vigraharaja (Bisaldeva) married his daughter Deshal Devi to Anangpal. Govindaraja Tanwar fought for Prithviraj Chauhan in first was with Gauri and was injured, but killed in second war. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.131)

Khichi Chauhan - Āsarao's son was Manakrao, whose descendants are known as Khichi. Asrao gavi his son jagir of 84 villages. He constructed two forts Bhadanon and Jayal. After this ajairaj, Chandrarao, Lakhanrao, sangamrao and Gundalrao were samantas of Chauhans. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.135) Sankhalas of Roon - Paramara ruler of Barmer's son was Dharani Barah, whose son was Sankhala. Descendants of Sankhala were known as Sankhalas. Sankhala rulers of Roon and Karkotaka in south of Jaipur were samantas of Chauhans. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.137)

Jod Chauhans of Narhar & Jhunjhunu - Chauhan Dhandhu had founded Dhandhu. Indra could not become Rana on death of his father. Indra had descendants Arjan and Sarjan. Arjan and Sarjan fought with Goga for Dadrewa when Rana Jhawer died. Goga defeated them. This war took place before 1024 AD since Goga died in 1024 AD fighting with Mohammad Ghazni. Arjan and Sarjan moved to a place named Jodi in Churu district. Their descendants were called Jod Chauhans. after death of Arjan and Sarjan their descendants moved in south and established in Narhar and Jhunjhunu. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.138-39)

Nikumbhas of Abhaneri - Nikumbhas of Abhaneri were under Chauhans. They were rulers of Khan Desh. We have two inscriptions about them from village Paran of Shaka Samvat 1075 (1153 AD) and Shaka Samvat 1128 (1207 AD). The Alwar fort was built by them. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.139)

Badgujars of Rajor & Devanti - Badgujars of Rajor & Devanti were also samantas of Chauhans. Some names reported from Prithviraj's Badgujar samantas are: Randhir Badgujar, Ramray Badgujar and sangransi Badgujar. During Mughal period Kachhawahas vanished their states. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.139)

Gohils of Khed - Gohils or Gahlot are Suryavanshis. They were rulers of Mewar. One of their branch established a state in Khed in Marwar. Gohils of Khed were samantas of Chauhans. Prithviraj's samanta was Govind Ram Gahlot. later Rathors occupied their state and Gohils moved to Kathiawar. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.140)

Gohils of Pipad - Gohils of Pipad were samantas of Chauhans. Hansi's samanta was Kelan Gahlot who was maternal uncle of Someshwar. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.140)

Hools of Sojat - Hool or Hul is branch of Gahlots. They were under Chauhans. Sojat in ancient times was known as shuddhadanti (शुद्धदंती). Haria Hool was a popular name in Rajasthan.(Devi Singh Mandawa,p.140)

Bhils - Bhils had also some states in Rajasthan under Chauhans,such as Bundi and Bhinay (Ajmer).(Devi Singh Mandawa,p.140)

Tank - There were states of Tanks also in Rajasthan. One Thathari Ram Tank was a samanta of Prithviraj. Some states were after Tankni queens also. Tank is a branch of Nagavansha. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.140)

Rathors - The Rathor samanta of Prithviraj was Sanyam Rai Rathor. Hathundi was a state of Rathors. An inscription of their period of year v.s. 1053 (997 AD) mentions names,viz Harivarma, Vidagdharaj, Bhammat and Dhawal. We get one inscription of year v.s. 1063 (1006 AD) at Dhanop (Shahpura), which mentions Bhalli Danti Varma and his two sons Buddhraj and Govindraj. We have found one more inscription at Bagad, which is of Bagadiya Rathores. It mentions names of Raka and his son Biram. The samantas of Prithviraj must be from these Rathors who were having states prior to the present Rathors. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.140-41)

Chandel's - Chandels were Chandravanshi Kshatriyas. They had a big state in Jetubhukti and had a war with Prithviraj Chauhan and were defeated. Rewasa, Kasli and Raghunathgarh in Sikar were under Chandels. It is not known when and how they came to this area. An inscription of Chandels was found at (Raghunathgarh of v.s. 1150 (1093 AD). Three inscriptions of year v.s. 1243 (1186 AD) were found at Rewasa. These reveal that Rewasa pargana was under Prithviraj Chauhan. These are about some warriors. Jaisi , Moharai and Veerabhadra were samantas of Prithviraj Chauhan. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.136)

Padihar of Kharad - This area was won by Roopde Padihar. They ruled it for many years. Later it was occupied by Bhatis. In addition to Padihars of Mandor, there were some more states under Chauhans. Samantas of Prithviraj were Nahadrao (Nagabhatt) of Mandor, Chandrasi Padihar, Mahansi Padihar, Pipirai Padihar and Viramrai Padihar. Nahadrao's daughter was married to Prithviraj Chauan. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.136)

Gauds - They were rulers in Gondbangale,where they founded Lakhnoti city. Bachharaj was awarded jagir near Ajmer and Waman was given Maroth. this area is still known as Godati. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.136)

Bhati - Bhatis were rulers of Jaisalmer, which was not under Chauhans. We have names of three Bhatis who were Samantas of Prithviraj Chauan:Sarangrai, Achalesh and Bhanrai. We do not know which were their Jagirs. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.136-37)

The Jat Samantas

Jats - There were many Jat states under Chauhan dynasty. According to James Tod, Jats were one of the 36 Royal Kshatriya clans. The people at that time were known more by clans but even we find some samantas who wrote them as Jat. We find that when Bika occupied Jangladesh it was ruled by at least sevan Jat clans, namely:

Table of Jat republics in Jangladesh:

S.No. Name of janapada Name of chieftain No. of villages Capital Names of districts
1. Punia Kanha 300 Luddi Bhadra, Ajitpur, Sidhmukh, Rajgarh, Dadrewa, Sankhoo
2. Beniwal Raisal 150 Raisalana Bhukarkho, Sanduri, Manoharpur, Kooi, Bae
3. Johiya Sher Singh 600 Bhurupal Jaitpur, Kumanu, Mahajan, Peepasar, Udasar
4. Sihag Chokha 150 Suin Rawatsar, Biramsar, Dandusar, Gandaisi
5. Saharan Pula 300 Bhadang Khejra, Phog, Buchawas, Sui, Badnu, Sirsila
6. Godara Pandu 700 Shekhsar Shekhsar, Pundrasar, Gusainsar (Bada), Gharsisir, Garibdesar, Rungaysar, Kalu
7. Kaswan Kanwarpal 360 Sidhmukh

It is not properly recorded who were samantas out of them but circumstantial evidences indicate that some of them must be samantas of Chauhans. K. Devi Singh Mandawa has reported one name i.e. Sarangsoor Jat who was a samanta of Prithviraj Chauhan. (Devi Singh Mandawa,p.137-38)

Ratan Lal Mishra[20] writes that prior to the advent of rule of various Rajput clans in Rajasthan, there were many Jat clans with republic states or ganarajyas ruling in a democratic way. According to James Tod as mentioned in his book "Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (1829)" this area of Rajasthan was known as Jangaladesh, region was inhabited by Jats, who had for ages been established in these arid abodes, prior to Bika Rathor annexed these small republics. For details of Jat states in Rajasthan see Jangladesh and मध्यकालीन राजस्थान में जाट गणराज्य एवं उनका पतन.

  • Burdak (975 AD - 1258 AD) - According to Bards, Burdaks founded village Sarnau near Harshanath and Jeenmata in Sikar Rajasthan and made their capital. Sarnau was made Jagirdari of Burdaks under Raja Mahi Pal of Delhi in samvat 1032. Burdaks ruled at Sarnau Fort from samvat 1032 to samvat 1315 (975 AD - 1258 AD). In samvat 1315 (1258 AD) Sarnau falls to Delhi Badashah Nasir-ud-din Mahmud (1246–1266) son of Iltutmish (1211–1236) of Slave dynasty. At that time Chaudhary Kalu Ram, Kunwar Padam Singh and Kunwar Jag Singh were Jagirdars from Burdak clan. There were 84 villages in this Jagir. Bhat records tell origin of Burdak from Rao Burdakdeo who died in fighting with Ghaznavites at Lahore in 1000 AD. Harsha Inscription tells about Pattabadaka vishaya which means a Paragana of Burdaks under Royal grant. Rao Burdakdeo’s elder son Samudra Pal begot two sons: Nar Pal and Kusum Pal. Smudra Pal went to Vaihind near Peshawar in Pakistan to help Raja Anand Pal and was killed there in war. Samudra Pal’s wife Punyani became sati in samvat 1067 (1010 AD) at Sambhar. Harsha Inscription tells us that villages donated from Patta-Badak paragana to deity Harshadeva were : Ekalaka, Krisānu-kūpa and Uru-saras donated by Simharaja. (L-34: समनंतरमत्रावलिख्यते महाराजाधिराजश्रीसिंहराज: स्वभोगैरनद्ध यूकद्दादशके सिंहप्रौष्ठं तथा पट्टबड़क विषये चैकलककृशानूकुपोरुसरा कोह विषये; L-37:वाप्त पट्टबड़क विषयोदर्ककथनं कृत्वा संख्यानस्वहस्तांकितशास)
  • Jakhar - The king of the Jakhar clan, Jakhbhadra, settled in Jangladesh and made his capital at Reni (modern-day Taranagar). [21] At a later date, the Jakhars established a kingdom, the ruins of which are found at Madhauli, which was in the princely state of Jaipur. [21]Dasharatha Sharma in "Early Chauhan Dynasties" [Page-178] writes about Jalor Chauhan ruler - Chachigadeva. According to Nainsi, Chachigadeva had three sons, Samantasimha, Chahadadeva and Chandra (Khyat: I, p. 183). His Prime Minister in V. 1323 was Jakshadeva. The mahamatya Jarava mentioned in the Ratanpura Inscription of V. 1333 might be a misreading for Jakha, the Prakritised form of Jaksha. [22] We can conclude from this that Jakshadeva or Jakha, The Prime Minister or amatya of Chachigadeva, is a person of Jakha/Jakhar Jat clan. This fact is also supported from contemporary local tradition in the form of Bigga Ji Jakhar (1301 - 1336), a folk-deity of Jangladesh area of Rajasthan.
  • Nehras - The Sundha inscription (Jodhpur) of Chachigadeva mentions the Salya (Syal), the Sangas, and the Nahras. [23] [24]. Dasharatha Sharma in "Early Chauhan Dynasties" [Page-176] writes about Jalor Chauhan ruler - Chachigadeva. We have eight inscriptions for Chachigadeva, the son and successor of Udayasimha. These range from V. 1319 to V.1333. The earliest is the Sundha Inscription of V. 1319 edited by Dr. Kielhorn in EI, IX. pp. 74ff. Some three years earlier however than the earliest of these (which belongs to V. 1319) is the record of a pratishtha at Jalor, dated the 6th of the bright half of Magha V. 1316. It states that Padru and Muliga put a gold cupola and gold dhvaja on the temple of Shantinatha at Suvarnagiri in the reign of Chachigadeva (Kharataragachchhapattavali. p. 51). "Hating his enemies as thorns" states the Sundha Inscription "he destroyed the roaring Gurjara lord Virama," enjoyed the fall of the tremulous (or leaping) Patuka, deprived Sanga of his colour and acted as a thunderbolt for the mountain, the furious Nahara". (स्फूर्जद्-वीरम-गूर्जरेश-दलनो य: शत्रु-शल्यं द्विषंश्- चञ्चत-पातुक-पातनैकरसिक: संगस्य रंगापह: उन्माद्दन्-नहराचलस्य कुलिशाकर:....Verse-50) Dasharatha Sharma writes that The "furious Nahara" of the inscription, again, is equally unidentifiable. But we know from Jat history above that नहराचल means Nehra Mountain. There is a mountain in Jhunjhunu called Nehra Pahad which in Sanskrit is called नहराचल. Thus Nehras were rulers in Vikram Samvat 1316 (1260 AD). [25]
  • Sang - Dasharatha Sharma writes that Sanga (संग), the third adversary of Chachigadeva , mentioned above, in the Sundha Inscription has not been satisfactorily identified till now. [26] Jatland Considers Sanga to be king of Sang Jat clan.
  • Goras - We get name of Nagar Rai Gor as a samanta of Prithviraj. Chhoti Sadri inscription of year v.s. 547 (491 AD) gives some information about Gora rulers. This inscription indicates that Maharaja Dhanya soma (धान्य सोम) was a popular king of Gor Kshatriya clan. Rajyavardhan (राज्यवर्द्धण), Rashtra (राष्ट्र) and Yasha Gupta (यश गुप्त) rulers followed in succession. The inscription also reveals that the Gor kings had constructed goddess temple in memory of their ancestors on magha shukla 10 in samvat 547 (491 AD). The inscription proves the rule of Gor kings near 'Chhoti Sadadi' place in Rajasthan in 6th century. They were considered to be powerful till the rule of Maharana Raimal. [27]
  • Jethava (जेठव), Vala (वला), Baja (बाजा) - Dasharatha Sharma in "Early Chauhan Dynasties" [180-191] writes about Jalor Chauhan ruler - Samantasimha and Kanhadadeva. About V. 1353, Samantasimha associated his son, Kanhadadeva , with himself in the government of Jalor; The Jalor inscription of Samantasimha, V. 1353, refers itself to the reign of Maharajakula Sri-Samvatasimha, while Kanhadadeva was subsisting on his lotus like feet and bearing the burden of administration (EI, XI, pp. 61f.). Similarly the Chohtan inscription V. 1356, speaks of Maharajakula Sri-Samvatasimhadeva and Rajan Kanhadadeva. In V. 1353 (1296 AD) the ruler on the throne of Delhi was Firuz's nephew and assassinator, Ala-ud-din Khalji, perhaps the greatest of Sultans of Delhi, whose avowed ambition was to end all Hindu principalities and kingdoms, and who had been advised by his trusted counselors to treat the Hindus as no better than slaves. Kanhadadeva had not to wait long for a chance to prove his mettle. In the third year of his joint reign, i.e., 1298 A.D., Alauddin decided to conquer Gujarat and destroy the temple of Somanatha. As the best route for his army lay through Marwar, he despatched a robe of honour to Kanhadadeva and desired that he should permit the Khalji forces to pass through his territory. Worldly wisdom should have dictated instant submission to the imperial orders. But to the brave Kanhadadeva svadharma mattered more than worldly pleasures, or a kingdom or even his life. He therefore sent back Alauddin's messenger with the blunt answer : "Your army would, on its way, sack villages, take prisoners, molest women, oppress Brahmanas and slay cows. This being against our dharma, we cannot accede to your request." Though the refusal must naturally have angered Alauddin,he took no immediate steps against Jalor. The Khalji army, commanded by Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan, marched instead through Mewar. Like a storm of extreme fury, it laid low every state, every chiefship, every principality that lay across its path, conquered very soon the whole of Gujarat and Kathiawar, and destroyed the temple of Somanatha, in spite of the gallant opposition offered by the Jethava (जेठव), Vala (वला), Baja (बाजा) and Chudasama (चुडासामा).
  • Meel - The Harsha inscription tells us names of villages which were donated by nearby Chauhan rulers or chieftains from their controlled area to the temple of Shiva at Harsh. Koli Kupakā donated by Jaya-Sri-raja has been identified with Kolida. It was capital of Meel Jats.
  • Meel / Chhikara - Dasharatha Sharma in book "Early Chauhan Dynasties" [Page-171] while discussing Udayasimha Chauhan of Jalor writes that Iltutmish pushed on, and managed to reach Udayasimha's desert capital. Udayasimha opened negotiations; and the Sultan though he could hardly have been satisfied with the token tribute of a hundred camels and two hundred horses offered by Udayasirhha, accepted it and confirmed Udayasimha in his possessions. Nearly five years later, perhaps in V. 1278 when Iltutmish once again assumed the offensive against Rajasthan, and after sacking Nagda advanced even upon Gujarat, Udayasirhha joined as already stated above, the league organised by Viradhavala Vaghela of Dholka and his minister Vastupala. The drama gives the name of the Muslim invader as Milachchhrikara (मीलच्छ्रिकार). As regards the date of this expedition we put it about V. 1278 (1221 A.D.). Jatland considers that Milachchhrikara may be a combination of Meel + Chhikara, representing the combined forces of the two clans.
  • Bola, Bhariya, Bohda, Mahiya - Bola, Bhariya, Bohda, MahiyaGotras in Inscription Bali Stone Inscription of Ashvaka S.V. 1200 (1143 AD) was found at Bali in Pali district, Rajasthan at the temple of Bola mata. It mentions Bhariya, Bohada, Mahiya resident at the village of Thambhila. (Line-4: प्रति प्रदत्तं द्रां 2 [पू0मो]हणसुतवाल्ह[ण]गार[वा]टं प्रति द्रां 1 सीत्क भरिया बोहङा-महिया प्रभति अरहट्टप्रति प्रदत्त द्रां 1 भां बूटा प्रति द्रां 1 वं उदकपीहया आ. ते. पली 1 प्रदत्त || यस्य यस्य.)
  • Bhariya - Bhadia Jats founded villages Thathawata in Churu district, Banthod and Rol villages in Sikar in district in Rajasthan about 800 years back. Sonasar in (Jhunjhunu) was founded in 1616 AD. They left charagahas on all sides of the villages in the name of his family members Banthod is probably biggest village of Bhadias with about 200 families. We find mention of Bhariya in following Inscriptions: 1. Nadol Inscription of year Vikram Samvat 1233 (1176 AD), 2. Lalrai Shantinath Temple Inscription of 1176 AD, 3. Lalrai Jaina Temple Inscription of 1176 AD
  • Khoja - Khoja Jats ruled in Tonk in 11th century. The author of ‘Tarikh Rajgan Hind’ Maulvi Hakeem Majmulgani Khan has mentioned about Tonk giving its geographical description and location of Tonk town on Banas River. He has further mentioned that Khoja Ram Singh after a war at Delhi came to this place and founded Tonkra (टोंकरा) town on magha sudi teras samvat 1003 (847 AD) . After a long period on magh sudi 5 samvat 1337 (1281 AD) when Ghiyas ud din Balban won Madhaupur and Chittorgarh, this town was again inhabited and called as Tonk. Thus the descendants of Ram Singh ruled Tonk from samvat 1003 to samvat 1337 (847-1281 AD). Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266–1286), ex-slave, son-in-law of Sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud had destroyed this town, which was rehabilitated.[28]
  • Makad - They are probably descendant of a King named Makada (माकड़). XXVI Sanchor Stone Inscription of Pratapasimhadeva of year S.V. 1444 (1387 AD) mentions about king named Makada. The verse-1 of it says that there was one Virasiha of Karpuradhara, that his son was a king named Makada, and that the son of the latter was Vairisalya. (Line-23. [म]वर्षो आसीन्नृपो माकडनामधेयस्‍तन्नंद - See:Chahamans of Marwar)

  • Geela - Kaka Kanha (Kanhadadeva) was uncle of Prithviraj Chauhan. Kanhadadeva was a great warrior. He had 18 sons. His descendants are in large number in Chauhans. Giriraj was son of Kaka Kanha or Kanhadadeva, whose descendants are called Geela. They are now Jats. (K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 106).
  • Jajra - Jāja, Jajā, Jajadeva, or Jajjalana was a minister and commander of Hammira of Ranthambhor. In the annals of Chauhan history, there is scarcely a name better known than that of Hammira the hathi, ruler of Ranthambhor. The fight put up by him against Ala-ud-din Khalji, the tyrannical Sultan of Delhi, with a view to protecting the neo-Muslim leaders, Muhammad Shah and his brothers, who had taken refuge at the Ranthambhor court, has inspired many a poet of Sanskrit, Prakrta, Hindi as well as Rajasthani to sing his glory and offer the incense of admiration at the shrine of his memory. Of people, whom he had favoured, many deserted him. His chief general, Ratipala, and the finance minister Dharmasimha, proved traitors. In his last fight, Hammira was accompanied by only nine warriors, of whom four were not even his co-religionists. But besides these he had at least one more follower of undoubted loyalty, the Chahamana Jaja, Jaja, Jajadeva or Jajjala who was left behind to put up a last ditch fight for Ranthambhor. [30] The material for Jaja's life is extremely scanty. The Prakrtapingalam, a book on Prakrta prosody written some time in the fourteenth century, quotes five verses from some Apabhramsa poem dealing with Hammira's achievements. Of these two refer to Jajadeva; none, it might be noted, mentions even by name, the other ministers and generals of Hammira. This fact in itself should be testimony enough for Jajadeva's pre-eminent position in Hammira's kingdom. Had this Apabhramsa poem drawn upon by the Prakrtapailigalam come down to us, we might have received a full account of the great hero, Jaja. [31] It is a matter of research if they have connection with Jajja - a Muslim Jat clan found in Pakistan.They are descendants of King Jajja of Kashmir 748-751 A.D.
  • Lega - Kot Solankiyan is a village in Desuri tehsil in Pali district of Rajasthan. An Inscription of Mewar Ruler Maharana Lakha was found here. The Kot Solankiyan Inscription of 1418 bears the Gotra of Lega. (उपकेशवंशी लिगा गोत्रे साह कडुआ भार्या...)
  • Chandlai - A small republic founded by Jat chieftain 'Chandla'. He got constructed a pucca pond near the village in the name of her daughter ‘Bhala’ and put an inscription on it on baisakh sudi 15 samvat 1027 (970 AD). Chandla was ruler of Tonk at that time. [32],[33]
  • Bhadu - Bhadus were rulers in Jangladesh where they established an important city Bhadra. Samantraj was a popular ruler of Bhadus. Bhadus had a war with 'Bhagore' people and after capturing it they moved to Marwar area. Bhadus also occupied many villages in Ajmer-Merwara.[34]
  • Bhati - Jat Bhatis ruled Bhatner, presently Hanumangarh, and Bhatinda. Bhatner was historically important because it was situated on route of invaders from Central Asia to India. [35]

  • Sahu - They have been the rulers of a small republic in Jangladesh. Their capital was at village Dhansia, situated at a distance of 65 km in northwest of Churu town. [36]There were 84 villages in their territory.[37], [38]
  • Dhaulyas of Marwar - Dhaulyas were rulers in Kishangarh and Marwar much before the rule of Rathores. Dhoreliya clan is derived from Dhaulya clan. The most prominent Dhaulya clan ancestor was Tejaji (1074- 1103), who was a Jat folk-deity. The Naga Jats of Marwar are from Vasuki or Ganapati Nagavansh. The Dhaulya clan started after Dhawal Rao or Dhaula Rao ruler of Nagavansh. Swet Naga in Sanskrit is the Dhaulya Naga in prakrit language. Tejaji's ancestor Udayaraja occupied Khirnal area in Marwar and made it his capital. There were twenty four villages in Khirnal pargana and area was quite extensive. This pargana of Khirnal was very famous during those days.[39]
  • Dhaulyas of Badli - According to Ram Swarup Joon,[40] Badra Sen was an officer in the army of Prithvi Raj. Badli Pargana was his estate. He belonged to a Dhulia family of Indergarh. Before the Chauhan rule, Bhadra, Ajmer, Indergarh etc. were the capitals of the Gor Jats.
  • Dudi - Dudi Jats had ruled in Rajasthan. The Dudis are considered to be originated from Pushkar in Ajmer and ruled Didwana, Sambhar Lake, Nagaur area for 30 generations before the rule of Muslims and Rajputs. Raja Dharmpal Dudi ruled Didwana 25 generations ago in Dudi Nagavansh. Dudis founded the town Didwana in Nagaur district of Rajasthan and it was their capital. Dudis also founded Dhundhar and Dudiya Khera towns in Jaipur region. There are number of villages of Dudis in Nagaur, Bikaner, Barmer, Jaisalmer, Hanumangarh and Chittorgarh in Rajasthan. After the Jat kingdom of Rajasthan was taken over by the Rajputs, Some Dudis moved to Haryana and settled in villages around Bhiwani, Jhajjar and Hisar districts.
  • Gaina - Gaina Jats are found in Marwar region of Rajasthan. According to Thakur Deshraj they were rulers of some republics in Didwana area in Nagaur. Probably a group of Johiya Jats was known as Gaina. There is a village called Bardu (बड़दू) in Didwana area in which a marble stone image inscription bears a portrait of Jat chieftain named Kisna Ram Gaina, who has been shown carrying weapons and side by side statue of his wife Sati Rani Rama. This inscription bears date as chait badi 6 samvat 1814 (1757 AD). They ruled here for many centuries. There is also a statue of a Gaina girl that bears date jeth badi samvat 1134 (1077 AD). She died here after his only son died in a war fighting bravely with muslim enemy from Sindh. For some reasons she stayed with in his father's house. [41]
  • Jewlia - The evidences of the rule of Jewlia clan Jats are available in Kishangarh inscription in Rajasthan. A Jewlia Jat chieftain got constructed a Chhatri at Kishangarh in Rajasthan, India. To the southwest of this chhatri is a victory pillar. At this place there is a statue of a Jat chieftain of Jewlia gotra with an inscription of samvat 1111 (1054 AD). To the north of this chhatri at a distance of 15 feet there is an ancient masonry tank for drinking water for cows and a well. The well is constructed from well dressed and cut stones indicating its unique architecture and strength. To the west of this chhatri is a huge pond spread over 50 bigha land also constructed by Jewlia Jat chieftains.[42]
  • Karwasra - This gotra gets name from their most prominent ruler Karhwa Rao.[43] A rock inscription inscribed by his grandson was found in village Mangalana in district of Maroth in Jodhpur princely state, in which they have been called as Dahiyas. It was inscribed in 1215 AD and has been referred to in the book 'Indians in the Cauvery' on pages 87 and 88.
  • Kulhari - Nanana Cooper-plate registering the grants of Chauhan King Alhana (v. 1205) mentions people of Kalhodiya (कल्हौडिया) Vansha in Line-1.[44] According to Thakur Deshraj [45]it is a branch of Johiya Jats. Kulhari jats ruled in Marwar area in 11-12th century. Bahipal was their king and Kot-Marot was their capital. There was a fort also at Kot-Marot. Bahipal had a war with the subedar of Hisar in which he lost his kingdom. Bahipal moved to Kathod (कठोद) and established a new kingdom there. Kathod is about 22 km from Ajmer. The descendants of Bahipal constructed a fort at Koliya. The Raja of Koyalapattan (now called Koliya) arrested the Kulahari Jats. Myth is that their Kuldevi Pada got them released. After that the Kulhari Jats made Didwana as their capital. They established at Didwana statues of Bahipal and the Kuldevi Pada. [46] prevalent in the area in Rajasthani language as under:
  • Moond - According to the bard of this dynasty king Gaj of Ghazni had two sons named Mangal Rao and Masur Rao. Mangal Rao was the ruler of Lahore and Masur Rao of Sialkot. Foreign invaders drove both of them out of their kingdoms. Masur Rao fled away to the deserts of Rajasthan. He had two sons named Abhai Rao and Saran Rao. Descendants of Abhai Rao came to be called Bhurhya Bhatti and those of Saran Rao, Saran. Mangal Rao had six sons, named Mojam Rao, Gulrish, Moolraj, Sheoraj, Kewl Rao and Phul Rao. Descendants of Gulrish came to be called Gloraya or Kiliraya, those of Moolraj, Munda and those Sheoraj, Sheoran. Descendants of Kewal Rao and Phul Rao adopted pottery as their profession and were called Kumhar. [47]
  • Katewa - The River Katli that flows in Jhunjhunu was named after them. They had settled here. There was a Janpada of Katewas on its banks. There is place called Khudana on the banks of Katli where there was a fort ruled by Katewas. Presently one can see only traces in the form of a mud heap. [48]
  • Khoja - Khoja Jats ruled in Tonk in 11th century. The author of ‘Tarikh Rajgan Hind’ Maulvi Hakeem Majmulgani Khan has mentioned about Tonk giving its geographical description and location of Tonk town on Banas River. He has further mentioned that Khoja Ram Singh after a war at Delhi came to this place and founded Tonkra (टोंकरा) town on magha sudi teras samvat 1003 (847 AD) . After a long period on magh sudi 5 samvat 1337 (1281 AD) when Ghiyas ud din Balban won Madhaupur and Chittorgarh, this town was again inhabited and called as Tonk. Thus the descendants of Ram Singh ruled Tonk from samvat 1003 to samvat 1337 (847-1281 AD). Ghiyas ud din Balban (1266–1286), ex-slave, son-in-law of Sultan Nasir ud din Mahmud had destroyed this town, which was rehabilitated.[49]

See also


The following books are main source of information of this article:

  • Dasharatha Sharma:Early Chauhan Dynasties
  • K.Devi Singh Mandawa:Samrat Prithviraj Chauhan,2007, pp.127-141


  1. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 106
  2. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 106
  3. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 106
  4. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 106-07
  5. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  6. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 106
  7. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  8. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  9. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  10. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  11. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  12. K. Devi Singh Mandawa, Prithviraja, p. 107
  13. Dasharatha Sharma:Early Chauhan Dynasties, pp. 115
  14. Dasharatha Sharma:Early Chauhan Dynasties, pp. 115
  15. Dasharatha Sharma:Early Chauhan Dynasties, pp. 116
  16. Annual Report of the Rajputana museum, 1911-12,p. 2
  17. Dasharatha Sharma:Early Chauhan Dynasties, pp. 116
  18. Dasharatha Sharma:Early Chauhan Dynasties, pp. 117
  19. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p. 491
  20. Ratan Lal Mishra:Shekhawati Ka Navin Itihas, Kutir Prakashan, Mandawa, Jhunjhunu, 1998,p. 43
  21. 21.0 21.1 Thakur Deshraj Jat Itihas, pp. 594-95. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Thakur Deshraj" defined multiple times with different content
  22. Dasharatha Sharma:"Early Chauhan Dynasties", p.178
  23. Bhim Singh Dahiya: Jats the Ancient Rulers, p.233
  24. Epica Indica, Vol. IX, p. 74 ff
  25. Dasharatha Sharma:"Early Chauhan Dynasties", p.177
  26. Dasharatha Sharma:"Early Chauhan Dynasties", p.177
  27. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.592
  28. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, p.607
  29. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, 237
  30. Dasharatha Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 134
  31. Dasharatha Sharma, Early Chauhan Dynasties, p. 134
  32. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, pp. 603-604
  33. Rajasthan Sandesh, Year 1, Vol 2
  34. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, p. 597
  35. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, p. 601
  36. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.282
  37. GSL Devra, op. cit., Cf. Dayaldas ri Khyat, Part II, pp. 7-10
  38. Jibraeil: "Position of Jats in Churu Region", The Jats - Vol. II, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2006, p. 222
  39. Mansukh Ranwa, Kshatriya Shiromani Veer Tejaji, 2001, p.13
  40. History of the Jats
  41. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, pp. 608-609
  42. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, pp.725, 729
  43. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 229
  44. Line-1. विलासिनी प[द्मा]वती सुता-वीजलाया अपराभि: समं षोडशं [प] दं तथा प्रदत्तम । वंशिकल्हौडियाकस्त्रिपुरुषाणां...प्रदत्त: । मेहरी सी-
  45. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, pp.606
  46. किशोरी लाल फौजदार:"राजस्थान के प्राचीन जाट राज्य", जाट समाज, आगरा, जनवरी-फ़रवरी २००३, प. ६
  47. Jat Samaj: Agra, October, 1993
  48. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, p.614
  49. Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas, p.607

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