Ambashtha

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Ambashtha (अम्बष्ठ) was an ancient Janapada mentioned by Panini and in Mahabharata (II.29.6), (II.48.14),(VI.18.13),(VI.20.10), (VI.112.110),

Origin

It gets its name from ruler of the name Ambashta (अम्बष्ट). The Chandravanshi Raja Suvrata (सुव्रत) was born in this Ambashta (अम्बष्ट) clan.[1]

Variants

Jat clan

Mention by Panini

Ambashtha (अंबष्ठ) is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]


Ambashtha (आंबष्ठ) is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]

History

V. S. Agrawala[4] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Ambashṭha (अंबष्ठ) (VIII.3.97) - It is a janapada under a monarchy. Mahabharata locates them in the north-west and describes them as a kingship. Ambashṭhas may be taken as Greek Abastanoi or Sambastai on the lower course of the Chenab.


Tej Ram Sharma[5] describes that....We get three different versions about the origin of the Yaudheyas : third version is ....

(iii) The Harivamsa 594 and the Vayu Purana 595 state that King Usinara of the Puru dynasty had five queens named Nrga or Mrga, Krmi, Nava, Darva and Drsadvati who gave birth to five sons named Nrga, (or Mrga),'Krmi, Nava, Suvrata and Sibi (or Sivi) respectively. Sibi was the lord of the Sibi people or of the city of Sivapura, while Nrga (or Mrga) was the ruler of the Yaudheyas or of Yaudheyapura. The other three sons of Usinara, viz., Nava, Krmi and Suvrata, were the lords respectively of Navarastra, Krmilapuri and Ambasthapuri. 596 According to Pargiter, King Usinara established the Yaudheyas, Ambasthas, Navarastra,and the city of Krmila, all on the eastern border of the Punjab; while his famous son Sivi Ausinara originated the Sivis or Sibis in Sivapura. 597


594. I. 31.24-28: takes the reading Nrga.

595. 99.18-22: takes the variant reading Mrga.

596. D.C. Sircar, Oz. pp. 252-53.

597. Pargiter, M. P. 264.

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 28 mentions about Ambatthakola....In a southerly direction from the city, at a distance of eight yojanas, silver appeared in the Ambatthakola-cave. A merchant from the city, taking many waggons with him, in order to bring ginger and so forth from Malaya, had set out for Malaya....Then leaving the waggons behind and taking the lump of silver with him the excellent merchant went in haste to Anuradhapura and told the king of this matter, showing him the silver.

आराम जनपद

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[6] ने लेख किया है ...आराम (AS, p.69) इस उद्धरण में आराम जनपद के निवासियों का उल्लेख मद्रों और अंबष्ठों के साथ है जिससे सूचित होता है कि आराम जनपद पंजाब में इन्हीं जनपदों के निकट स्थित होगा। 'माद्रारामास्तथाम्बष्ठा: पारसीकादयस्तथा'। (विष्णु पुराण 2, 3, 17)

अंबष्ठ

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[7] ने लेख किया है ...अंबष्ठ (AS, p.7) नाम के एक प्राचीन जनपद तथा जाति का उल्लेख संस्कृत और पालि साहित्य में अनेक स्थलों पर मिलता है। यह पंजाब का प्राचीन जनपद था। 'महाभारत' में इसका उल्लेख इस प्रकार है- 'वशातय: शाल्वका: केकयाश्च तथा अंबष्ठा ये त्रिगर्ताश्च मुख्या: (महाभारत उद्योग पर्व 30, 23)

'विष्णुपुराण' (2,3,17) में भी अंबष्ठों का मद्र और आराम जनपद के वासियों के साथ वर्णन है- 'माद्रारामास्तथाम्बष्ठा पारसीकादयस्तथा'

'बार्हस्पत्य अर्थशास्त्र' (टॉमस, पृ. 21) में अंबष्ठों के राष्ट्र का वर्णन कश्मीर, हूण देश और सिंध के साथ है।

अलक्षेंद्र के आक्रमण के समय अंबष्ठनिवासियों के पास शक्तिशाली सेना थी। टॉलमी ने इनको अंबुटाई (Ambutai) कहा है।


सिकंदर के इतिहास से संबंधित कतिपय ग्रीक और रोमन लेखकों की रचनाओं में भी अंबष्ठ जाति का वर्णन हुआ है। दिओदोरस, कुर्तियस, जुस्तिन तथा तालेमी ने विभिन्न उच्चारणों के साथ इस शब्द का प्रयोग किया है। प्रारंभ में अंबष्ठ जाति युद्धोपजीवी थी। सिकंदर के समय (327 ई. पू.) उसका एक गणतंत्र था और वह चिनाब के दक्षिणी तट पर निवास करती थी। आगे चलकर अंबष्ठों ने संभवत चिकित्साशास्त्र को अपना लिया, जिसका परिज्ञान हमें 'मनुस्मृति' से होता है.[8]

In Mahabharata

Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.29.6), (II.48.14),(VI.18.13),(VI.20.10), (VI.112.110),


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 29 mentions the Countries subjugated by Nakula in West. Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.29.6). [9]....And the illustrious Nakula after this, subjugated the whole of the desert country and the region known as Sairishaka, Mahetta, Shibis, Trigartas, Ambashthas, Malavas, Panchakarpatas....


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.48.14).[10]....Ambashtas, Kukuras, Tarkshyas, Vastrapas along with the Palhavas, Vasatayas, Mauleyas along with the Kshudrakas, and Malavas,...


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 18 'describes the large armies of the Kurus and the Pandavas ready for war. Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.18.13).[11]....the Shalvas, Matsyas, Ambashtas, Trigartas, Kekayas, Sauviras, Kitavas, and the dwellers of the Eastern, Western, and the Northern countries...


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 20 describes the warriors in Bhisma's division. Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.20.10).[12]....In Bhishma's division were all the sons of Dhritarashtra, and also Shala who was a countryman of the Valhikas, and also all those Kshatriyas called Ambashthas, and those called Sindhus, and those also that are called Sauviras, and the heroic dwellers of the country of the five rivers (Panchanadas).


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 112 describes Abhimanyu in Mahabharata War. Ambastha (अम्बष्ठ) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.112.110). [13]

Notable persons

Distribution

References

  1. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya etc, : Ādhunik Jat Itihas, 1998,p.222
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 53, 80, 425
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 80
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.53
  5. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,pp.171-172
  6. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.69
  7. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.7
  8. भारतकोश-अंबष्ठ
  9. शैरीषकं महेच्छं च वशे चक्रे महाद्युतिः, शिबींस त्रिगर्तान अम्बष्ठान मालवान पञ्च कर्पटान (II.29.6)
  10. अम्बष्ठाः कौकुरास तार्क्ष्या वस्त्रपाः पह्लवैः सह, वसातयः समौलेयाः सह क्षुद्रकमालवैः (II.48.14)
  11. शाल्वा मत्स्यास तदाम्बष्ठास तरिगर्ताः केकयास तदा, सौवीराः कितवाः पराच्याः परतीच्यॊथीच्यमालवाः (VI.18.13)
  12. तस्य सैन्यं धार्तराष्ट्राश च सर्वे; बाह्लीकानाम एकदेशः शलश च, ये चाम्बष्ठाः क्षत्रिया ये च सिन्धौ; तदा सौवीराः पञ्चनदाश च शूराः (VI.20.10)
  13. शाल्वाश्रयास त्रिगर्ताश च अम्बष्ठाः केकयैः सह, अभिपेतू रणे पार्दं पतंगा इव पावकम(VI.112.110)

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