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Sanderao

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Location of Sanderao in Pali District

Sanderao (सांडेराव) (Sandrai) is a historical village in Sumerpur tahsil in Pali district in Rajasthan.

Origin

Its ancient name was Sandera (संडेरा)/Shanderaka (षंडेरक). This Jaina tirtha is dedicated to Shantinatha. A separate Shvetanbara gachchha known as known as Sanderaka gachchha originated from this place. [1]

Location

It is located on NH-14 in east of Dujana where both roads meet.

Jat Gotras

Population

History

It is an ancient city. A Jain scroll which Colonel James Tod obtained from a Jain guru in Sanderao gives the earliest description of founding of the town. The scroll mentions that on the sack of Valabhi city in Gujarat, thirty thousand Jain families abandoned Valabhi and led by their priests found a retreat for themselves in Marwar, where they erected the towns of Sanderao, Bali and Nadol in 524 AD.[2]

The roll was procured by James Tod from a priest of the Jains residing in Sandrai, in Marwar, whose ancestry had enjoyed from time immemorial the title of Guru, which they held at the period of the sack of Valabhipura in the fifth century, whence they emigrated simultaneously with the Rana's ancestors. [3]

XIII Sanderav Inscription of Kalhanadeva S.V. 1221 (1165 AD)

Text
1. ओं सवंत् 1221 माघवदि 2 शुके अद्देह श्रीकेल्‍हणदेवविजयरा [ज्‍ये] तस्य मातृराज्ञीश्रीमान [ल]देव्‍या श्रीषंडेरकीयमूलनायकश्रीमहावीरदेवाय [चै]त्रवदि 13 कल्‍याणिकनि[मि]त्‍तं राजकीय-
2. भोगमध्‍यात् | युगंधर्या: हाएल एक[:*] प्रदत्‍त: | तथा राष्ट्रकूटपातूकेल्‍हणत [ह्भा] -तुजउत्‍तमसीहमुद्रमकान्‍हणआहडआसलअणतिगादिभि: तलाराभाव्‍यथम [?] गट
3. सत्‍कात् (|)अस्मिदेव कल्‍याणके द्र 1 प्रदत्‍त: || 1 तथा श्रीषंडेरकवास्‍तव्‍य रथकारधणपालमूरपालजोपालसिगडाअमियपालजिसहडदेल्‍हणादिभि [चै] त्र सुदि 13 कल्‍याणके
4. युगंधर्या: [हाएल] ए [क 1 प्र] - -
Sanderav Inscription of Kalhanadeva S.V. 1221 (1165 AD)[4]

This inscription was found at Sanderao, about 10 miles north-west of Bali Pali. It is engraved on a lintel in the sabha-mandapa of the temple of Mahavira. The record contains 4 lines of writing. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of the inscription is in prose. As regards lexicography, Kalyanika or Kalyanaka occurs in LL. 1 and 3, and yugamdhari and haela in LL. 2 and 4, and talarabhavya in L. 2. Kalyanika is a term peculiar to Jaina theology. Kalyanikas are the auspicious days, five in number, on which took place (1) the chyatana (conception) , (2) janma (birth), (3) diksha (initiation), (4) kevalajnana (enlightenment) and (5) nirvana (final beatitude) of each of the Tirthamkara. The expression occurs in No. II of the Mount Abu inscriptions edited by Dr. Ludera ; and on the door jambs of the subsidiary cells in the temple of Tejapala at Delvada, the pancha-kalyanika are specified of all the , Tirthankaras to whom they are dedicated. The meaning of yugandhari and of haela is unknown to me. Bat I surmise that haela here stands for hala and that yugandhari is the name of a specific kind of corn known as jvar. The sense of the remaining word, viz. talarabhavya is also not certain. The expression no doubt occurs in Mangrol Inscription where it is translated as “the revenue of talara” which hardly helps us. The same word occurs talara or talaraksha in Chirwa inscription.

The Inscription is dated on Friday, the second half the dark half of Magha V.S. 1221 of the reign of Shri Kelhanadeva. It states that Analadevi, the queen mother of Kelhanadeva granted land which could be plaughed in one day from the king's personal property (bhoga) to the god Mahavira, the primeval deity of Sanderaka-gachchha, to celebrate kalyanika. One drumma was also given by the Rashtrakutas Patu and Kelhan and their brother's sons Uttamasiha, Mudrama, Kanhana,Ahada, Asala, Anatiga and others with reference to the same kalyanika. Similarly haela of Yugandhara was also granted by rathakaras or cart-builders Dhanapala, Murapala, Jopala, Sigada, Amiyapala, Jisahada, Delhana and so forth all residing at Sanderaka in connection with kalyanika falling on 13th of the bright half of chaitra.

Analadevi mentioned in the Inscription as queen mother of Kelhanadeva must be same as Annulladevi spoken of as in the Nadol plates as the consort of Alhana, father of Kelhana. In the last inscription she is represented as daughter of Sahula of the Rashtrauda family. Patu, Kelhana and so forth, referred to our inscription, must therefore be taken to be relatives from her father's side.

XVII Sanderav Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1236 (1179 AD)

Text
१. ॥ [थां]थासुतराल्हापाल्हा[भ्यां] मातृप[द]श्रीनिमि[त्ते] [सतं]भको प्रदत्त:
२. [सं]वत १२३६ कार्तिकबदि [२] बुधे अ[द्दे]ह श्रीनडूले महारा[जा*]धिराजश्री-
३. केल्हणदेवकल्याणविजयराज्ये प्रवर्त्तमाने [राज्ञी] श्रीजाल्हणदेवि-
४. भुको श्रीषं[डेर]कदेवश्रीपार्श्वनाथप्रतापतः थांथासुतराल्हाके[न] भा[भ्रा]तृ-
५. पाल्हापुत्रसोढासुभकररा[म]दैवधरणि[यवो]हीसवर्द्धमा[न]लक्ष्मी-
६. धरसहजिगस[ह]देव[सहियग]छा (?) [रा]सांधीरणहरिचन्द्रवरदेवादि-
७. भि: युतेन म - - परमश्रेयोर्थे विदितनिजगृ[हं] प्रदत्त: ॥राल्हाश[स]-
८. [त्क]मानुषै वसद्भि: व[र्षं] प्रति द्राएला ४ प्रदेया [।*] शेषजनानां वस-
९. तां साधुभि: गोष्टिके: सारा कार्या ॥ संवत १२६६ वर्षे द्दे-
१०. [ष्ट]सुदि १३ शनौ सो[यं] मातृधारमति पुन: स्तम्भको उधृ[त] [।*]
Sanderav Stone Inscription of Kelhanadeva S.V. 1236 (1179 AD)[5]

This inscription, like No, XIII, was found at Sanderav, and is incised on a pillar in the sabha-mandapa of the temple of Mahavira. The record contains 10 lines of writing. The first 4 lines are well preserved and can be easily read, the remainder being too weather-worn to be deciphered with perfect confidence. The characters are Nagari. The language is Sanskrit, and the whole of tho inscription is in prose. As regards orthography, the only point that requires notice is the doubling of a consonant following an r. Aa regards lexicograpby, attention may be drawn to the words draela, L.8, and Sara L.9. The latter occurs also in the Mount Abu inscription No, II (above, Vol. VIII p, 220, 1, 9), where the sense of 'care, supervision' has been assigned to it by Prof. Luders.

The first line of the inscription is an independent record in itself, and speaks of a column having been presented by Ralha and Palha, sons of Thamtha, in memory of their mother. The second line contains the date, Wednesday, the 2nd of dark half of Karttika in the [Vikrama] year 1286, and the inscription refers itself to tho reign of the Maharajadhiraja Shri-Kelhanadeva of Nadula. Then we are told that his own house was placed by Ralhaka, son of Thamtha, together with his brother Palha and his sons Sodha, Subhamakara and others at the disposal of shri-Parshwanatha, the god of Shamderaka (Sanderav) in tho bhukti or personal property of the queen Jalhanadevi. Four draelas were to be given to the god annually by people residing in Ralha's house: Lines 9-10 are apparently connected with line 1 and inform us that the pillar was restored for the spiritual benefit of Dharamati on Saturday, the 12th of the bright half of Jyaistna in the [Vlkramat] year 1266. Dharamati is called matri and was probably the mother of Ralha and Palha.

डॉ. गोपीनाथ [6] लिखते हैं कि इस लेख में जाल्हणदेवी ने, कल्हण देव की रानी थी, अपना घर पार्श्वनाथ को भेंट किया. इस मकान में रहने का भाड़ा ४ एल प्रतिवर्ष देने का इसमें उल्लेख है. इसका मूल पाठ इस प्रकार है-

"वि.स. 1236 कार्तिक बदी २ बुधे श्री कल्हनदेव कल्याण विजय राज्ये राज्ञी श्री जाल्हणदेवी पार्श्वनाथ परम श्रेयार्थ गृहं प्रदतः राल्हाश सत्कमुनुषै वसद्भि वर्षप्रति द्रा. एला ४ प्रदेया."

Sanderav Inscription of Maharaja Samantasimha V. 1256-1258

To Add

References

  1. Encyclopaedia of Jainism, Volume-1 By Indo-European Jain Research Foundation p.5540
  2. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, Annals of Mewar,p.254
  3. James Tod: Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Volume I, Publisher: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press 1920, Annals of Mewar,p.251
  4. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.46-47
  5. Epigraphia Indica Vol. XI (1911-12): A S I, Edited by E. Hultzsoh, Ph.D. pp.51-52
  6. शर्मा डॉ. गोपीनाथ शर्मा: राजस्थान के इतिहास के स्तोत्र, 1983, पृ. 99

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