Shura

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Genealogy of Shura

Shura (शूर) was a Chandravanshi King descendant of Maharaja Viduratha (विदूरथ). There is another Shura who is father of Vasudeva and grandfather of Krishna.

Jat Gotras from Shura

Shoor (शूर) Sura (सूरा) Soora (सूरा) Surah (सुराह) Shoora (शूरा) gotra of Jats originated from Maharaja Shura (शूर). [1]

Ancestry of Shura

Hukum Singh Panwar[2] has given the ancestry of Bharatpur rulers starting from 1. Yadu. Shura is at S.No. 37 and Krishna at S.No. 43 as under[3]:

34. Andhaka → 35. Bhajmana → 36. Viduratha → 37. Shura → 38. Shini → 39. Bhoja → 40. Hardika → 41. Devamidha → 42. Vasudeva → 43. Krishna → 44. Pradyumna

Shura in Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[4] tells us [p.107]: The brother and brother's son of Avantivarmma rose against him several times, but he defeated them in battle, and having restored peace in his kingdom, he divided bis wealth among his friends and servants, out of affection towards them. Out of his affection too for his step-brother Suravarmma he raised him to the dignity of heir-apparent. This Suravarmma bestowed the villages of Khadhuya and Hastikarna to Brahmanas, and set up images of two gods named" Suravarmmasvami and Gokula. The holy king also set up a Matha, the pride of the world, and bestowed the village of Panchahasta on Brahmanas. Another brother of the king named Samara, set up images of Rama and his brothers as well as one of Samarasvami. The two younger brothers of Sura named Dhira and Vitrapa who were accountants, built up two temples named after them. These two brothers went up bodily to Kailasa, the heaven of Shiva ! Sura had a door-keeper


[p.108]: named Mahodaya who set up a god named Mahodaya soami. It was in this temple that Rāmaja whose school of grammar was then celebrated, was employed as expositor. Prabhakaravarmma, the king's minister, built a temple of Vishnu named Prabhakarasvami. He had a tame shuka bird who accompanied other Shukas and brought many pearls ; whereupon the minister built the celebrated Shukavali.

The minister Shura patronized learning and encouraged the learned, and many learned men were brought to the court in royal carriages drawn by pair, and were well received. The following authors flourished in this reign :Muktākann, Shivasvami, A'nandavardhana and Ratnākara. Kritamandāra the bard of the minister Shura used to repeat the following sloka in the court as a hint to his master. " This is the time to do good, while fortune lasts, for fortune is naturally fleeting, and danger is always at hand, and when danger comes, there will be no more opportunity to do good." Shura raised many edifices, and among others one for Hara- Parvati, a figure half male and half female, at the shrine Sureshvari. This temple was very strongly built. And having set up the god Shureshvara, he built the temple Shura-matha, as high as his own mansion, for the dwelling of devotees. He built a beautiful town named Shurapura and brought there the celebrated drum which was is Kramavartia. Ratnavardhnna, his son, set up an image


[p.109]: of Shiva named Bhuteshvara at Sureshvari, and built a matha within the enclosure of Shuramatha. Kavyadevi, his wife, set up a Shiva named Kavyadevishvara at Sureshvari.

The king who had no vanity in him, allowed his brothers and Shura and Sura's sons to bear the royal arms. The king was from his childhood a Vishnuvite, but out of regard for Shura he inclined towards Shivaism. He built the town of Avantipura at Vishvoukasara the shrine ,where the souls of the dead receive salvation. There, before he became king, he had set up the image of the god Avantisvami, and after becoming king he set up that of Avantishvara. And out of his silver bathing vessel he made three seats for three gods, Tripureshvara, Bhutesha, and Vijayesha.


Rajatarangini[5] tells thatSussala had received many services from Lothana ; but Shura, the king of many lands, to whom Sussala had given his daughter Padmalekha in marriage, came to the help of the king (of Kashmira,] and Shura's soldiers consequently attacked the soldiers of the enemy. When they had besieged the country, Lothana's heart wavered through fear, and he thought of submitting to the king, and to the punishment he would award. (p.161-162)

In Mahabharata

The Mahabharata Tribe - Sura (शूर) fought in the Kuru army among the tribes of the northwest (VI.20.30); considered identical with the Sur tribe of Afghanistan. (II.29.5), (II.31.13). Mahabharata Bhisma Parva mentions about these people in shloka 38 as under:

शूरसेनाः कलिङ्गाशबॊधा मौकास तदैव च
मत्स्याः सुकुट्यः सौबल्याः कुन्तलाः काशिकॊशलाः (VI.10.38)
तस्यां गृध्यन्ति राजानः शूरा धर्मार्दकॊविदाः
ते तयजन्त्य आहवे पराणान रसा गृद्धास तरस्विनः (VI.10.70)


तत्र युद्धं महद वृत्तं शूरैर मत्तमयूरकैः
मरु भूमिं च कार्त्स्न्येन तदैव बहु धान्यकम (II.29.5)
बाह्लिकाश चापरे शूरा राजानः सर्व एव ते
विराटः सह पुत्रैश च माचेल्लश च महारदः
राजानॊ राजपुत्राश च नानाजनपथेश्वराः (II.31.13)
पराग्ज्यॊतिषाधिपः शूरॊ मलेच्छानाम अधिपॊ बली
यनवैः सहितॊ राजा भगथत्तॊ महारदः (II.47.12)


कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा
औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
थिव्याश चाप्य आन्तरिक्षाश च पार्दिवाश चानिलॊपमाः
वयादिष्टा दैवतैः शूराः सकन्दस्यानुचराभवन (IX.44.109)


The Mahabharata Tribe - Sura (शूर) may be identified with Jat Gotra - Shura (शूरा)

Shoor people were the rulers of Bateshwar (बटेश्वर). They were so powerful that the entire country was named Shaursain (शौरसैन) after them. Shaursaini (शौरसैनी) people were at Bharatpur, whose one branch was known as Sewar/Sevar (सेवर). [6]

Mahabharata mentions a Suryasura and obviously not for the sun (Surya) but for the Sura people [7] Darada (the Darar clan people) a king of Bahlika was born from Surya. [8] The Sura Kings came for Yudhisthira’s sacrifice. [9]


Megasthenes has mentioned them as Suari in his book Indica. ( See - Jat clans as described by Megasthenes)

References

  1. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 281
  2. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Appendices/Appendix No.1
  3. Yadu Vamsavali of Bharatpur given by Ganga Singh in his book 'Yadu Vamsa', Part 1, Bharatpur Rajvansa Ka Itihas (1637-1768), Bharatpur, 1967, pp. 19-21
  4. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book V,pp. 107-109
  5. Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i),pp.161-162
  6. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 281
  7. ibid, 1 / 67 / 58
  8. ibid , 2 / 44/8
  9. Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), 1980, Sterling Publishers New Delhi , p. 289

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