Sone

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Ganga River and tributaries

Son River (सोन नदी) of central India is the largest of the Ganges' southern tributaries.

Variants of name

Origin

The Son originates near Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh, just east of the headwater of the Narmada River.

Course

It flows north-northwest through Madhya Pradesh state before turning sharply eastward where it encounters the southwest-northeast-running Kaimur Range. The Son parallels the Kaimur hills, flowing east-northeast through Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Bihar states to join the Ganges just above Patna. Geologically, the lower valley of the Son is an extension of the Narmada Valley, and the Kaimur Range an extension of the Vindhya Range. Dehri on Sone is the major town situated on Son River. The Son river at 784 kilometres long, is one of the largest rivers of India.

Chief tributaries

Its chief tributaries are the Rihand and the North Koel.

Koyal River

Koyal River or Koyal/Koyala (कोयल) (AS, p.236) is a tributary of Sone River.[1]

History

The Sheshnaga rulers who earlier had their capital at Rajgir, shifted to Patliputra on the confluence of Rivers Ganga and Sone. The ambitions Nanda killed their last ruler and annexed the State. Nanda also conquered the Kaushal kingdom.

अंध नदी

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[2] ने लेख किया है ...अंध (AS, p.5) श्रीमद्भागवत में उल्लिखित एक नदी.... 'नर्मदा चर्मणवती सिंधुरन्ध्रशोणश्च' (5,19,18). सिंधु, यमुना की सहायक सिंध है और शोण वर्तमान सोन. इन्हीं के समीप बहने वाली किसी नदी का नाम अंध हो सकता है. संभव है, यह वर्तमान केन या शुक्तिमती ही का नाम हो. इसका संबंध अंधक से भी हो सकता है जो श्री डे के अनुसार भागलपुर के निकट गंगा में गिरने वाली चंदन नदी है.

महाशोण

Mahashona (महाशोण) = महाशोणा = Shona शोण (AS, p.726) - गंडकींमहाशोणां सदानीरां तदैव च, एकपर्वतके नध्य: क्रमेणैत्या व्रजन्त ते।' महाभारत सभा. 20, 26-27. (दे.शोण)

Historical places

Harsha Charita of Bana

The Harsha Charita of Bana/Chapter I mentions ....Some two leagues hence across the Shona is the abode of the sainted Cyavana, a forest rivalling Caitrarath ...traight rigid lashes and pupil motionless as in a picture. Crossing the Shona, Dadhica quickly reached the site of his father's seclusion....


The Harsha Charita of Bana/Chapter III]:'The Exposition of The King's Ancestry mentions'.....Tomorrow I will narrate the story." "So be it," they all assented, and rising soon after, he proceeded to the Shona for his twilight worship.

In Mahabharata

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 9 mentions about Sone.


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 83 mentions bamboo clump where Narmada originates. Touching next the waters of the Vanshagulma (वंशगुल्म) (III.83.9) constituting the sources of both the Sona and the Narmada, one obtaineth the merit of the horse-sacrifice. [3]


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Shona (शॊण) is in verse (VI.10.28). [4]

In Ramayana

Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 40 mentions that Sugreeva orders vanara-s to search east under the leadership of Vinata, a mighty vanara. ....Then Sugreeva commissioning Vinata explains the topography and geography of Eastern side of the Jambu Dwipa, 'the Indian subcontinent,' and its eastward, comprising whole of South-East Asia.

20, 21, 22. "Search shall be conducted at the riversides of heartening rivers like River Bhagirathi, another name for River Ganga, and River Sarayu, like that at River Kaushiki, and at the pleasing surrounds of River Yamuna, and on Mt. Kalinda, as well at River Saraswati, River Sindhu and at the river whose waters are lustrous like gems, namely River Shona, and further at River Mahi and River Kalamahi which rivers are brightened by mountains and forests surrounding them.

मार्गध्वम् गिरि दुर्गेषु वनेषु च नदीषु च ।
नदीम् भागीरथीम् रम्याम् सरयूम् कौशिकीम् तथा ॥४-४०-२०॥
कालिंदीम् यमुनाम् रम्याम् यामुनम् च महागिरिम् ।
सरस्वतीम्सिंधुम्शोणम् मणि निभ उदकम् ॥४-४०-२१॥
महीम् कालमहीम् चैव शैल कानन शोभिताम् ।
ब्रह्ममालान् विदेहान् च मालवान् काशि कोसलान् ॥४-४०-२२॥

References

  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.236
  2. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.5
  3. शॊणस्य नर्मदायाश च परभवे कुरुनन्दन, वंशगुल्म उपस्पृश्य वाजिमेधफलं लभेत Mahabharata (III.83.9)
  4. शीघ्रां च पिच्छिलां चैव भारद्वाजीं च निम्नगाम, कौशिकीं निम्नगां शॊणां बाहुदाम अद चन्दनाम (VI.10.28)

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