Variants of name
- Kakanmath/Kakan Math (ककनमठ)
- Sihoniya (सिंहौनिया)
- Shingapani (शिंगपाणी) (Mentioned in Line 2, Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman 532 AD )
- Sinhapani (सिंहपाणी)
Sihoniya (also Suhoniya) was known to be the capital of the Kushwahas. The Kushwaha kingdom was established in 11th century within 1015 to 1035 AD. The Kachwaha (Kushwaha) king Kirtiraj got a Shiva Temple built in Sihoniya.
This temple is known as the Kakan Math Temple. It stands on a spot two miles away from Sihoniya in the northwest of Morena district, about 35 km. The general belief is that king Kirtiraj had erected the temple to fulfill the wish of Queen Kakanwati. The temple is 115 feet high, built in the Khajuraho style. The local lore also goes that the historical Tomar rulers had built the Kakan Math temple. 
Sihoniya is a holy place of the Jains. In the east of the village, there are the ruins of the Jain temples of the 11th century A.D. In these temples there are statues of the Tirthankars such as Shantinath, Kunthnath, Arahanath, Adinath, Parshvnath and others. The main temple has three statues : Shantinath, Kunthnath and Arhanath of 10 to 15 ft. in height. They are of the 11th century A.D.
Mention by Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham writes about visit of Bairat by Hwen Thsang. According to Hwen Thsang the capital of the kingdom of Poli-ye-to-lo which M. Reinaud has identified with Paryatra or Bairat, was situated at 500 li, or
[p.338]: 83-2/3 miles, to the west of Mathura, and about 800 li, 133-2/3 miles, to the, south-west of the kingdom of She-to-tu-lo that is, of Satadru, or the Satlej. The bearing and distance from Mathura point unequivocally to Bairath the ancient capital of Matsya as the city of Hwen Thsang's narrative, although it is upwards of 100 miles further to the south of Kullu than is recorded by the pilgrim. But I have already given an explanation of this discrepancy in my account of the intermediate position of Satadru in Northern India.
Abu Rihan, the contemporary of Mahmud, places Narana, the capital of Karzat, at 28 parasangs to the west of Mathura, which, taking the parasang at 3½ miles, would make the distance 98 miles, or 14 miles in excess of the measurement of Hwen Thsang. But as the narratives of the different Muhammadan historians leave no doubt of the identity of Narana, the capital of Karzat, with Narayana the capital of Bairat, this difference in the recorded distance from Mathura, is of little moment. According to Abu Rihan, Narana, or Bazana, was called Narayan,<arabic> by the Musalmans, a name which still exists in Narayanpur, a town situated at 10 miles to the north-east of Bairat itself. From Kanoj to Narana, Abu Rihan gives two distinct routes; the first direct via Mathura being 56 parasangs, or 196 miles, and the other to the south of the Jumna being 88 prasangs, or 308 miles. The inter-mediate stages of the later route are, 1st, Asi, 18 para-
[p.339]: sangs, or 63 miles; 2nd, Sakina, 17 parasangs, or 59½ miles; 3rd, Jandara, 18 parasangs, or 63 miles; 4th, Rajauri, either l5 or 17 parasangs, 54 or 59½ miles, and 5th, Bazana, or Narana, 20 parasaiigs, or 70 miles. As the direction of the first stage is speeially recorded to have been to 'the south-west of Kanoj, it may be at once identified -with the Asai Ghat on the Jumna, 6 miles to the south of Etawa, and about 60 miles to the south-west of Kanoj. The name of the second stage is written ...?... Sahina, for which by the simple shifting of the diacritical points, I propose to read ...?... Suhania, which is the name of a very large and famous ruined town situated 25miles tothe north of Gwalior. Its distance from the Assai Ghat is about 50 miles. The third stage named Jandara by M. Reinaud, and Chandra by Sir Henry Elliot, I take to be Hindon reading ,...?... for...?... distance from Suhaniya by the Khetri Ghat on the Chambal river is about 70 miles. The fourth stage, named Rajori, still exists under the same name, 12 miles to the south-west of Macheri, and about 50 miles to the north-west of Hindon. From thence to Narainpur and Bairat, the road lies altogether through the hills of Alwar or Macheri, which makes it difficult to ascertain the exact distance. By measurements on the lithographed map of eight miles to the inch, I make the distance to be about 60 miles, which is sufficiently near the 20 parasangs, or 70 miles, of Abu Rihan's account.
Mandasor Pillar Inscription of Yashodharman 532 AD
This pillar was erected by Yashodharman commemorating his victory over the Hunas at Dashapura, (Modern Mandsaur). These are pieces of two Monolithic pillars. These bear inscription which also records the victory of Yashodharman. One of the pillar Capitals has lions seated back to back (C. 6th CAD).
- May that very long banner of (the god) Shûlapâni destroy the glory of your enemies; (that banner) which bears (a representation of) the bull (Nandi), marked by the five fingers (dipped in some dye and then) placed on him by (Parvati) the daughter of the mountain (Himalaya), who causes the distant regions, in which the demons are driven wild with fear by (his) terrible bellowings, to shake; (and) who makes the glens of (the mountain) Sumeru to have their rocks split open by the blows of his horns!
- (Line 2.) He, to whose arm, as if (to the arm) of (the god) Shingapani, the fore-arm of which is marked with callous parts caused by the hard string of (his) bow, (and) which is steadfast in the successful carrying out of vows for the benefit of mankind, the earth betook itself (for succour), when it was afflicted by kings of the present age, who manifested pride; who were cruel through want of proper training; who, from delusion, transgressed the path of good conduct; (and) who were destitute of virtuous delights:
- (L. 3.) He who, in this age which is the ravisher of good behaviour, through the action simply of (his good) intentions shone gloriously, not associating with other kings who adopted a reprehensible course of conduct, just as an offering of flowers (is beautiful when it is not laid down) in the dust; he in whom, possessed of a wealth of virtue, (and so) falling but little short of Manu and Bharata and Alarka and Mandhatri, the title of "universal sovereign" shines more (than in any other), like a resplendent level (set) in good gold:
- (L. 4.) He who, spurning (the confinement of) the boundaries of his own house, enjoys those countries, thickly covered over with deserts and mountains and trees and thickets and rivers and strong-armed heroes, (and) having (their) kings assaulted by (his) prowess, which were not enjoyed (even) by the lords of the Guptas, whose prowess was displayed by invading the whole (remainder of the) earth, (and) which the command of the chiefs of the Hunas , that established itself on the tiaras of (many) kings, failed to penetrate:
- (L. 5.) He before whose feet chieftains, having (their) arrogance removed by the strength of (his) arm, bow down, from the neighbourhood of the (river) Lauhitya up to (the mountain) Mahendra, the lands at the foot of which are impenetrable through the groves of palmyra-trees, (and) from (Himalaya) the mountain of snow, the tablelands of which are embraced by the (river) Ganga, up to the Western Ocean, by which (all) the divisions of the earth are made of various hues through the intermingling of the rays of the jewels in the locks of hair on the tops of (their) heads:
- (L.6.) He by whom (his) head has never been brought into the humility of obeisance to any other save (the god) Sthanu; he, through the embraces of whose arms (Himalaya) the mountain of snow carries no longer the pride of the title of being a place that is difficult of access; he to whose two feet respect was paid, with complimentary presents of the flowers from the lock of hair on the top of (his) head, by even that (famous) king Mihirakula, whose forehead was pained through being bent low down by the strength of (his) arm in (the act of compelling) obeisance:
- (L. 7.) By him, the king, the glorious Yashodharman, the firm beams of whose arms are as charming as pillars, this column, which shall endure to the time of the destruction of the world, has been erected here, as if to measure out the earth; as if to enumerate on high the multitude of the heavenly lights; (and) as if to point out the path of his own fame to the skies above, acquired by good actions; (this column) which shines refulgent, as if it were a lofty arm of the earth, raised up in joy to write upon the surface of the moon the excellence of the virtues of Yashodharman, to the effect that "His birth (is) in a lineage that is worthy to be eulogised; there is seen in him a charming behaviour that is destructive of sin; he is the abode of religion; (and) the (good) customs of mankind continue current, unimpeded (in any way) by him."
- (L. 9.) From a desire thus to praise this king, of meritorious actions, (these) verses have been composed by V sula, the son of Kakka. (This eulogy) has been engraved by Govinda.
- From: Fleet, John F. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum: Inscriptions of the Early Guptas. Vol. III. Calcutta: Government of India, Central Publications Branch, 1888, 147-148.
मुरैना में महाभारत कालीन शहर के पुरावशेष मिले
संदर्भ: Bhaskar News, Jun 13, 2013
मुरैना से महाभारत काल का नाता और गहराता जा रहा है। वर्ष 1997 में जिले के कुतवार गांव में हुई खुदाई में आर्कियोलॉजिकल सर्वे ऑफ इंडिया को महाभारत कालीन कुंतलपुर शहर (राजा कुंतिभोज के राज्य की राजधानी) मिला था। अब पुरातत्व विभाग को सिंहौनिया (कच्छपघात कालीन राजाओं की राजधानी सिंहपाणी) में एक और महाभारत कालीन शहर होने के प्रमाण मिले हैं। इस शहर की खुदाई के लिए प्रस्ताव एएसआई को भेजा गया है।
पुरातत्व विभाग को सिंहौनिया थाने के पीछे स्थित मिट्टी के विशाल टीले में करीब चार से पांच हजार साल पुराना (महाभारत कालीन) नगर होने के प्रमाण मिले हैं। वर्ष 2012 में एक सर्वे के दौरान विभाग को महाभारत कालीन मृदभांड (मिट्टी के बर्तन) व अन्य पुरातत्व महत्व के अवशेष मिले थे। इसके बाद यह पुष्ट हुआ कि सिंहौनिया के इस टीले पर कुतवार जैसा ही कोई नगर बसा करता था। ज्ञात हो कि कुतवार गांव के एक मिट्टी के टीले से पुरातत्व विभाग को मृदभांड व अन्य अवशेष मिले थे। इसके बाद खुदाई करने पर शहर सामने आया था।
पानसिंह तोमर का गांव भी महाभारत काल का: एथलीट व डकैत रहे पानसिंह तोमर के गांव भिड़ौसा व लेपा भी महाभारत काल के ही हैं। यहां भी पुरातत्व विभाग को महाभारत कालीन पुरावशेष मिले हैं, जिनमें चार से पांच हजार साल पुराने मृदभांड प्रमुख हैं। पुरातत्वविदों की मानें तो यहां भी महाभारत काल में कोई गांव या शहर बसा हुआ होगा।
महाभारत में उल्लेखित कई जगह हैं अंचल में: महाभारत में पांडवों की मां कुंती का मायका कुंतलपुर नाम से उल्लेखित है। यहां पर कुंती ने कर्ण को आसन नदी में प्रवाहित किया था। यह नगर एएसआई को कुतवार गांव में मिला। यहां वह कर्णखार भी मिली, जहां से कर्ण को बहाया गया था। महाभारत में महाराज शांतनु द्वारा बसाए गए नगर शांतनु नगर का भी उल्लेख है। यह नगर आज भी चंबल किनारे के शांतनुखेरा नामक गांव के नाम से जाना जाता है।
महाभारत में चर्मण्यवती गंगा (चंबल) नामक नदी का उल्लेख है जहां महाराज शांतनु नौका विहार करते थे। यह चंबल नदी, शांतनु खेरा आज भी उसी स्थिति में है। हमने वर्ष 2012 में जो सर्वे किया था उसमें हमें सिंहौनिया व लेपा भिड़ौसा से महाभारत काल की चीजें मिलीं। हम यहां खुदाई करने का प्रस्ताव एएसआई को भेज चुके हैं। अंचल में और भी जगह हैं जो इतनी पुरानी हो सकती हैं, लेकिन इसके लिए हम दूसरे चरण में सर्वे करेंगे। -डॉ. रमेश यादव, पुरातत्वविद रानी दुर्गावती संग्रहालय जबलपुर
- Kakanmath Temple, Morena District
- The Ancient Geography of India/Central India, p.337-339
- Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' pp. 206-207. See Map No. X.
- Reinaud, ' Fragments .'Aabes at Persans,' p. 107. The translator gives Bazana, but this has been corrected by Sir H. M. Elliot to Narana.
- Reinaud, 'Fragments,' p. 100 ; Dowson's edit, of Sir H. Elliot,i. 58
- Archaeological Survey of India Bhopal
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