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Sauvira (सौवीर) is a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata (V.72.14), (VI.10.52),(V.19.19),(V.72.14),(VI.18.13), (VI.20.10),(VI.112.108).


The kingdom of Sauvira was founded by Prince Suvira, one of the sons of Sivi. The neighboring kingdoms of Madra, Kekaya, and Sindhu belonged to Madraka, Kekaya, and Vrsadarbh, the other three sons of Sivi.

Ancestry of Suvira

YayatiAnuSabhanaraKalanaraJanamejayaMaha ShalaMahamanas → (1.Ushinara + 2.Titiksha)

Jat clans

Mention by Panini

Sauvira (सौवीर) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]

Sauvira (सौवीर), a sour drink, is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]


V. S. Agrawala[3] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sauvīra (सौवीर) (IV.1.148). Panini mentions Sauvira and gives valuable social history of the region.It was home of many Gotras - Phāṇṭahṛiti, Mimata, Bhāgavitti, Tārṇabindava, Akaśapeya, Yamunda and Suyāmā. Bhāgavitti may be identified with the present Bugti tribe on the northern border of Sind. Panini mentions Śarakarā (modern Sukkur on the Indus) as a town (IV.2.83). Pali literature mentions Rauruka (modern Rori in Upper Sind as the capital of Sauvira.

V. S. Agrawala[4] mentions Vishayas known to Panini which includes - Sauvira (सौवीर).

In Mahabharata

According to the epic, Jayadratha was the king of the Sindhus, Sauviras and Sivis, having conquered Sauvira and Sivi, two kingdoms close to the Sindhu kingdom. Jayadratha was an ally of Duryodhana and the husband of Duryodhana's sister Dussala. The kingdom of Sauvira is also stated to be close to the Dwaraka and Anarta kingdoms.

Modern equivalents

The Sauvira people mentioned in the Mahabharata may be the etymological origin of the name of the modern-day Saraiki people, according to Ahmad Hassan Dani. [5]Persian scholar Al-Beruni considered Sauvira to represent southwest Punjab, including Multan, Mithankot and adjacent areas in the region of the confluence of the Indus river with other rivers of Punjab in modern Pakistan.


  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.37, 44, 50, 425
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.110
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.50
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.498
  5. Dani, Ahmad Hassan (1982). "Sindhu-Sauvira: A glimpse into the early history of Sind". In Khuhro, Hameeda. Sind Through the Centuries. Karachi: Oxford University Press. pp. 35–42. ISBN 978-0195772500.

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