Teutons

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Map of Germania tribes

Teutons were a Germanic tribe mentioned by Greek and Roman authors, notably Strabo and Marcus Velleius Paterculus.

Location

According to a map by Ptolemy, they originally lived in Jutland, which is in agreement with Pomponius Mela, who placed them in Scandinavia (Codanonia).[1] Rather than relating directly to this tribe, the broad term, Teutonic peoples or Teuton in particular, is used now to identify members of a people speaking languages of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family generally, and especially, of people speaking German.

History

In the late second century BC, many of the Teutones, under their leader Teutobod as well as the Cimbri, migrated from their original homes in southern Scandinavia and on the Jutland peninsula of Denmark,[2] south and west to the Danube valley, where they encountered the expanding Roman Republic. The Teutones and Cimbri were recorded as passing west through Gaul before attacking Roman Italy. After decisive victories over the Romans at Noreia and Arausio in 105 BC, the Cimbri and Teutones divided forces and were then defeated separately by Gaius Marius in 102 BC and 101 BC respectively, ending the Cimbrian War. The defeat of the Teutones occurred at the Battle of Aquae Sextiae (near present-day Aix-en-Provence). Some of the surviving captives were reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War.[3]

The linguistic affinities of the Teutones are a matter of dispute amongst historians. Their name is Celtic in form and many writers believe that the Teutones really were Celts, perhaps stemming from a branch of the Helvetii;[4] however, a people of this name are mentioned by the early traveller, Pytheas, as inhabitants of the northern ocean coasts. Strabo and Marcus Velleius Paterculus, moreover, classify them as Germanic peoples, and this is perhaps a more probable view,[5] although the distinction between Celts and Teutones,[6] is not clearly realized by some earlier historians. If the Teutones really came from the same quarter as the Cimbri, it is possible that their name may have been preserved in the Thyland or Thythsyssel regions, found in the far north-west of Jutland.[7]

Jat clans

Migration of Jats from Sapta Sindhu

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)[8] considers Suevi to be the Shivi or Sibia Jat clans, who migrated from Sapta Sindhu. He has narrated as under that probably earliest migrants as leaders of these tribes were Shivi.

Just see the remarkable parallels between the functioning of the Germans and the Indian Jat tribal "Khaap" and "Sarvakhaap" panchayats. This further reminds us of the Vedic republican communities (the Panchajatah or Panchajna), who are considered by us as the common ancestors of the Indian Jats and the German Goths or Gots.

Before concluding, we may go into the question of identity of the Teutons and the Swedes. The Teutons were Aryans including High and low Germans and Scandanavians, and to be more specific Goths (Gots, Getae, Jats, Juts), Lombards (Lampaka or Lamba), Normans, Franks (Vrkas, Saxons (Sacae Getae) and Angles[9] The Suevis (Sivis) including the Vilka (Virkas), the Manns (Mans) the Schillers (Chhilller) (Within brackets are given the Indian names of the tribes) etc. who, as we shall note (infra), migrated from the Sapta Sindhu to the Scandanavian countries in ancient times, were known as


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of p.159


Svi Thjoth or Sui or (Suiones) Joth (Cf no. IX in the book), (Sivi or Sibi Jat), in archaic Norse, and ultimately as the Swedes.

Mr. B.S.Dahiya[10] has assiduously pin-pointed nearly 250 European communities whose names are identified by him with the surnames (gotras) of the Indian Jats. The Sivis were probably earliest migrants as leaders of these tribes. It is these tribes whose anthropological details are given above. In the light of the aforesaid evidence we can reasonably assert that the physical characteristics of the Sivisa (Suevis) and their descendents (the victims of Dasarajna wars, who managed, by hook or by crook, to remain in the Harappan region, cannot be different from those of ones who perforce left the country for good or were deported to their new home in the Scandanavian countries[11].

In the end, it will not be irrelevant to recall what Qanungo very aptly remarked: "In character the Jat resembles the old Anglo-Saxon and the ancient Roman, and has indeed more of the characteristics of the Teuton than of the Celt in him". In view of our investigations, we may well reverse the statement of Prof. Qanungo that the Teutons and others resemble the Jats - their ancestors - and not the other way round. Truly speaking, as and when in the past an upheaval, whether social, political or religious, took place in Sapta Sindhu , shock waves were sent to Central Asia and Middle East from this epicentre and its ripples were recorded as far away as the Baltic, Scandanavian, Netherlandic and American countries in the past, (infra). This is like Australia and the Americas experiencing similar social tremors from Europe in the recent past, and almost due to same kind of reasons. We have yet to see a Volkerwanderung of the Europeans to the Indian sub-continent in the sense in which the exodus of Indo-Aryans flooded Europe in the past. Our investigations pertaining to the historico-somatometrical details· and serological make-up of the Jats, as available from the present, medieval, classical and ancient Indian and foreign sources, in our view, conclusively establish that the Jats, like the descendents of other races, are the direct descendents of the Rig Vedic Aryan tribes whose officina gentium (cradle) was the Sapta-Saindhava country and whose names, in the course of the criss-cross of their migrations down the ages to various climes and countries, underwent recognizable alterations. They have indeed inherited not only their thoughts and sentiments but markedly their physical features also. We may cap all our observations with the final one: "Allah knows better".


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations: End of p.160


External links

References

  1. Northvegr - Saga Book Vol. 7 & 8
  2. Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). "Teutons". Encyclopedia of European Peoples. Infobase Publishing. pp. 797–798. ISBN 1438129181.
  3. Strauss, Barry (2009). The Spartacus War. Simon and Schuster. pp. 21–22. ISBN 1-4165-3205-6.
  4. Chisholm 1911, p. 673.
  5. Chisholm 1911, p. 673.
  6. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teutons#CITEREFChisholm1911
  7. Chisholm 1911, p. 673.
  8. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/An Historico-Somatometrical study bearing on the origin of the Jats, pp.159-160
  9. Ripley op.cit., p. 106.
  10. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II,pp.319-332
  11. Qanungo, History Of Jats, Vol. I, p. 2.