The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The Yadava origin of the Jats

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The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria)

Manthan Publications, Rohtak. ISBN 81-85235-22-8

Chapter V :The Yadava origin of the Jats*

Views of authors supporting Yadava origin of Jats

More than half a score of scholars, including natives and foreigners, have, with slightly different versions, suggested that the Jats are the descendents of the Yadu-Yadavas. During the eleventh century AD. Al-Biruni1 observed that "Krishna was born of Kansa's sister married with Vasudeva, the Jat ruler of Mathura; the were a Jatt family, a cattle-owning, low Shudra people". In the middle of the eighteenth century A.D. Sudan2, the Poet Laureate of Maharaja Surajmal of the Bharatpur Jat House tried to establish the connexion of the royal Sinisinvaras with Lord Krishna through a legendary genealogical table, which is reproduced by Ganga Singh (Appendix No. 1). Another court poet, Somnath3, and his contemporary poet, Udey Ram4, followed suit. Nazamul Ghani4a and Raja Laxman Singh5 further strengthened the theory.

In the first quarter of the nineteenth century, a noted annalist, Lt. Col. James Tod6, the Political Agent for the Western Rajput States, suggested that "the most extensive agricultural races spread all over India, called Jats or Jits, have a tradition that they are descended from the Yadu race, and that their original country was Gandhar; so was stated to me as the origin of the Jats of Biana and Bharatpur". He7 also mentions that the Yadu Bhatti princes, when they fell from the rank of Rajputs, assumed that of Jits or Jats"; yet again, he8 suggests that "the traditions of the Jits claim the regions west of the Indus as the cradle of the race and make them of Yadu extraction".... He9 also refers to "a fifth century AD. inscription of a Takshak Jit prince whose mother was of Yadu race, strengthening their claim to a niche amongst the thirty six Rajculas, as well as their Yadu descent".

In the early twenties of the twentieth century another noted historian, C.V. Vaidya10 while writing about the Jats, repeated Al-Biruni's assumption, but with a slight difference, that "Nand, the reputed father of Lord Krishna, was a Jat". Prof. K.R. Qanungo,11 the

* It is suggested that the reader may form an opinion about this theory only after going through chapters No. V and VI which are in this respect, allied and complementary.

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pioneer historian of the Jats, is an ardent supporter of the-theory. His view is, so far, considered "the most acceptable" and his scholarly treatmenl, "the most convincing" by G.C. Dwivedi.

The subsequent scholars like Bhai Parmanand12, Messrs. Vithal Krishnaji Khedkar and Dr. Raghunath Vithal Khedkar13, Ganga Singh14, B.S. Dahiya15, Dr. P.C. Chandawat16, Dr. Rajbali Pandey17, Dr. R. Pandey18, and Dr. Upendra Nath Sharma19 etc. seem to have taken a cue from Prof. K.R. Qanungo. B.S. Dahiya20, while deriving two Jat gotras, Tal and Thand or Thind, from Talajangha and Tundilkara, the Haihaya tribes, even connects the word Jat with Sujata, son of Bharata. Unfortunately, he confuses the Haihayas with the Yadavas.

Ram Lal Hala21, in his booklet 'History of Jats' a compendium of words, respective of their meanings, but sounding like Jat or Jatt, suggests that "thirty eight generations prior to Lord Krishna, there was in the Lunar Yadu line a famous emperor of the name of Yata,and since the dynasties were known by various names in the ancient period, the Yadu dynasty came to be known as Jat after Yata".

Pt. Lekh Ram opines that "Jats, in reality, are the descendents of Yadu22, a name, which in the course of time, was distorted into Jadu, Jad and subsequently became Jatt or Jat".

Nesfield23, harping on the same tune, puts his seal on this theory by remarking that "Jat is nothing more than the Hindi pronunciation of Yadu or Jadu, the tribe in which Krishna was born".

It is the views of these writers which probably prompted a modern historian24 to unfortunately assert that, however, "historical evidence has now established that the Jats were Yaduvanshi Aryas."

Last, but certainly not least, Dr. Rajpal Singh25 also does not find any difficulty in accepting this claim "as genuine till some evidence to the contrary is produced to refute it", but at the same time he observes that it would be fallacious to conjecture all the Jat class to have descended from Yadu tribe".

Just as the mythological theory of the origin of the Jats from the matted-locks (jata) of Lord Siva caught the imagination of and found favour particularly with the simple Jats, similarly the Yadu- Yadava origin theory gained popularity not only among the Jats of Bharatpur and the surrounding regions, but also appealed to native and foreign scholars.

The advocacy and justification of the theory by a scholar of the eminence of Prof. K.R. Oanungo, provided a solid base for its

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acceptance by subsequent scholars who popularized it further. However, almost a the supporters of this theory probably gained strength from the declaration of Al-Biruni and connected the Jats with Krishna who was shown only as Yadava in the Mahabharata and the Puranas.

It appears that with the emergence of the Jat state of Bharatpur, strategically placed between Rajputs at Jaipur, Marathas at Gwalior and the Mughals at Delhi, with whom the Jats were not having very cordial relations, the rulers of the Bharatpur House were straining every nerve to win over the sympathy and support of the Yadava and Jat devotees of Lord Krishna, in Mathura and Agra, in order to strengthen their position against the surrounding unfriendly powers. Hence, the court poets of Bharatpur, under the likely instructions of their patron rulers, adumbrated the theory of the Yadu origin of the Jat rulers of Bharatpur to gain the favour of the Jats and Yadavas of the Braj region, though, the numerical strength of the later was negligible there at the time (infra, ch. VI). The theory clearly reflects the "political subterfuge" invented at the behest of Bharatpur rulers. The historical colour given to this legend by Prof. Qanungo, made this theory with the passage of time, almost a tradition with the Jats of the state.

Just as the bards (Charans, Doms and Bhats) at the courts of Rajput chiefs, who were vying with each other for an honourable ancestry, connected them with one or the other famous personality of mainly the Solar stock of the Aryans by fabricating legendary genealogies26, similarly Sudan and others tried to satisfy their patrons' eagerness and eulogized them, under the given circumstances, by hooking up the Bharatpur House with Lord Krishna and the Lunar Yadavas. Dr. Chandavat27, on the authority of Jawala Sahai, Brokeman and the Archaeological Survey Reports, (a century later record), supports the assertion of Sudan etc; but his support gets diluted, rather, loses all merit, when he himself, on the authority of much later sources, accepts the legend of Balchand that goes contrary to his own theory.

The story of Balchand

According to Ganga Singh (1967: 20-30), Balcnand, the Jadon Rajput, a descendent of Madan Pal in his fifth generation in the Sinsini village, forcibly married the Saurot gotri wife of a Dagar gotri Jat. He was excommunicated by the Rajput biradari and was declared as gotraless. Consequently, he adopted Sinsini, the name of the village, as his gotra. He joined the Jat biradari of the village of his own sweet will after

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throwing a pritibhoj to the villagers. He was accepted as leader in the tumultuous period and became the founder of the Bharatpur Sinsinwar Dynasty. Ganga Singh also says that Balchand and four of his ancestors up to Suai Thakur remained hidden in Sinsini village where a faithful Chobdar (unnamed) of Vijaypal took his son Madanpal and latter's four sons to hide them from the wrath of the Muslims after the defeat and suicide of Vijaypal, the last alleged Chauhan ruler of Delhi, by the enemies. This is, in short, Balchand's story, as given by Ganga Singh.

Upendra Nath Sharma differs a bit from him. He describes Balchand as a Jadon Rajput hero who turned out all other Rajputs from the area and founded Sinsini, his citadel, at a safer place in the jungles, after the name of their god, Shin, whom the Jats worshipped. There- after Balchand, the Jadon Rajput and the Jat inhabitants of this village, with whom he helplessly had to mix after his excommunication by the Rajputs for marrying a Jat lady, began to be known as Sinsinwar Jat (1977: 63f). So far as the foundation and name of the village are concerned, we find from Deshraj (1934: 553-628; and "Jat Jagat", no. 14, 1942, p. 11) that its old name was Surseni, which Sharma rejects as doubtful without giving any proof or reason. For his version of this fable, Sharma depends, as he himself says, on the jagas he does not name, and on much later sources, which also followed the jagas we do not rely on very much.

The two innocent scholars seem to have fallen victim to the divergent "lies" of the jagas and their statements contradict each other. If the anonymous Chobdar, according to Ganga Singh, hid Madanpal and his sons, the direct ancestors of Balchand, in Sinsini village five generations before Balchand (son of Suai Thakur), then Upendra Nath Sharma's contention (that Balchand was the founder of Sinsini) falls to ground. His further assertion that its founder, Balchand, the Jadon Rajput, (the gotraless of Ganga Singh), adopted Sinsini, the name of the newly founded village, as his gotra and subsequently all the Jats of that village came to be known Sinsinwar, is also preposterous. We also reject U.N. Sharma's fortified claim that the Jats were worshippers of Shin at that time. They have gone down in history as iconoclasts rather than as worshippers of gods and goddesses. They have ever been worshippers, but of the forces of nature. Shin, we must remember, was

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the most hated and undesirable god in ancient Indus Valley, worshipped by the priestly c1ass,which was strongly opposed by the ancestors of the Jats, who worshipped Sun, as Source of all life. That the Jats of Sinsini were worshippers of Shin must be another concoction of the jagas relied upon as such by subsequent writers uncritically to defame the Jats. There is no greater improbability that Surseni, the old name of the Jat village must have been changed by some unscrupulous jagas to Shinseni (Sinsini) just as Parniprath was changed into Panipat, Swarnaprasth into Sonepat and Dilli or Dhilli into Delhi.

The legend of Balchand bristles with further absurdities. According to tradition, a particular community has always the right to ostracise a member of their own community only, and not that of another. An excommunicated person, as experience shows, continues to bear the gotra of the community (biradari), which punishes him for a serious fault of his. He never becomes gotraless as Balchand, the Jadon Rajput, is maligned to have become by some unprincipled bhats and jagas. Howsoever, severe the punishment may be, it does not forfeit the legitimate gotra of a person. An ostracised person, as the tradition is green even now, can be re-admitted after expiation, only to his own biradari alone, and is always unacceptable to other communities in our caste-ridden society. Even a foundling, bereaved of his parents, has his owngotra, though we may not know it simply because of its suppression by his unfortunate parents who abandon the infant under the compulsion of some unavoidable circumstances. Balchand is never stated to be an infant in any text. On the other hand, he is described as fully grow-up hero and as a descendent of Suai, son of Madanpal (in the fifth generation of the former), who, as we shall have the occasion to prove in the next chapter, were Tomar Jats, and not even Jadon Rajputs, as they were made to be.

Balchand's excommunication by the Rajputs and throwing a feast by him, a device usually resorted to by a defaulter to please and pacify his own biradari in order to seek re-admission into it and to probably redeem his lost position and status, clearly reveal that he was a Rajput, and not a Jat. What is even more absurd, he was deemed to have been gotraless only after forcibly marrying a Jat wife of a Jat. Obviously, as a Rajput, he must have been of the gotra of a section of the Rajput biradari which ostracised him. If this incident. as reported,

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is true, as Ganga Singh himself believes and would have us also to believe, but without any solid proof and reliable evidence, Balchand as well as his annalists render him equally condemned in the eyes of the Jats also for robbing a Jat of his wife, and consequently unacceptable to them as well. His admission to the Jat biradari is unimaginable and impossible in the caste-ridden medieval society in which social taboos of the like were religiously followed. But even then Balchand was projected as a Sinsinwar Jat leader on the oasis of merely some hearsay, as Upendra Nath Sharma(1977: 66) himself believes uncritically, and was interpolated as such in the spurious royal genealogy of the Jat rulers of the Bharatpur dynasty, even when there was no love lost between the Jats and Rajputs at that time. In the given circumstances, we cannot escape the irresistible conclusion that the Balchand anecdote, relied upon by later historians, is, an unintelligent fabrication and ,its interpolation is nothing but a puerile connivance of some bhats and jagas at the instance of some interested party, which may for ever remain unknown, to vitiate the origin of the Bharatpur dynasty and to curry favour with the adversaries.

This irrational and ridiculous fable is indiscriminately given a prominent narration by all scholars who have written a book on the Bharatpur House. Ganga Singh and Upendra Nath Sharma who are, by and large, considered impartial and objective in their approach, are also no exceptions in this respect. The most surprising fact about such writers is that to guard themselves against possible castigation for being indiscreet, they take shelter behind the Jagas, who are notorious fabricators. Indeed, a lie repeated hundred times becomes a truth for ever. Subsequent Gazetteers and historians quote these modern "Sutas", to support themselves. They shot their arrows from behind these "Shikandis"! We have further exposed the hollowness of this theory in the next chapter.

Nowadays, almost all prominent Sikh Jat leaders28 are using the name of their respective villages as their third name or as their gotra, but it does not mean that they are gotraless. If Balchand, the alleged-Jadon Rajput (Thakur, who was rejected as such as a bona fide Jat by annalists), having deviated from the popular tradition of following the gotra of one of the original seven Brahmanical Rishis, which the Rajputs are as yet adhering to, adopted the name of his cowstall or cowshed29

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(gotwara} in the Village (Sinsini, where his ancestors sought asylum) in observance of the Indo-Aryan Kshatriya practice; he has not committed any sin for- which he was censured. Even if we concede the fable of Balchand as true, we may pertinently pose a question.If the Bharatpur House was; to all intents and purposes; related with Krishna, the alleged scion of the Vrishnis; where-was then the necessity of devising and introducing so emphatically as well as so frequently the Balchand fable? This over-doing, however, leaves no room whatsoever but to suspect the genuineness of the intention of the later writers to popularise the erroneous concoctions of the jagas and bhats to further obscure their, origin. This is really an "old wives tale" as fantastic and frivolous as the one coined by Vasu brothers30. Balchand might not even be a Jadon Rajput. He might have to escape the enemies, concealed his real identity as was earlier done by Suai Thakur and his brothers (infra).

This is not the only example. Medieval Indian history is replete with such concocted stories. So far as the later sources, tapped by Dr. Chandavat, are concerned, it may be remarked that they seem to be blinded by "the bardic fantasies" and did not guard themselves against them. Even if we tentatively accept the genealogy, alluded to by Dr. Chandavat and others, to connect the Bharatpur House With Lord Krishna, we come across further some glaring discrepancies and difficulties which vitiated it (at steps no. 11,13, 21,29,30,31,36-39) and rendered the genealogy hopelessly unreliable. This genealogy is conspicuous by its absence in the Puranas or the Mahaaharata, which are said31 to have been redacted time and again even up to the middle of the 19th century. The names suffixed with "pal" are represented as Jadon Rajput in the genealogy, but latest researches prove that they were Tomar, who are an important (gotra) tribe of the Jats (Ch. VI).

Further, declaring Yadu or Yadava origin of the Bharatpur House does not, as Dr. Rajpal Singh rightly holds, automatically make all other Jats of India belong to the Yadava stock. As the popular belief has it,the Mahabharata War in which Krishna played the decisive role, took pace in 3102 B.C.32, but what about the genealogy of Krishna's descendents after that date? Hence, in view of the above, it may be said that Sudan-Somnath-Udey Ram contention, upheld by subsequent native and foreign writers, is unacceptable to us.

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Tod's claim stands exposed

Tod's contention regarding the Yadu origin of the Jats is equally disappointing and misleading. His own submission that "so was stated to me as the origin of the Jats of Bayana and Bharatpur" is hopelessly vague and mischievous unless he discloses his informant. His historical narrative has lost much of its value simply because it was not based on authentic evidence. His favour and love for the Rajput chivalry compelled him to rely primarily on "heroic poems", composed by Rajput bards, which are no better than "opium-eaters' taL;aw for caravansarais. The poets, (bards), the only chroniclers, of western India during the hay-day of Rajput ascendancy, were free in their magniloquence and obscurity, and no restraint was observed by them upon the freedom of their bardic muse. Crooke33 also opines that "there is a sort of compact or understanding between the bard and the prince, a barter of "solid pudding against empty praise", whereby the fidelity of the poetic chronicle is somewhat impaired". He34 further, observes that "a material draw-back upon the value of these bardic histories is, that they are confined almost exclusively to the material exploits of their heroes and to the 'rung-run-bhoomi' or 'field of slaughter'. Writing for the amusement of a warlike race, the authors disregard civil matters and the arts, and pursuits of peaceful life, love and war are their favourite theories". "The fierce light of the Rajput Knight's self-sacrifice and the glitter of his shining sword dazzled Tod's eyes and almost benumbed his judgment"35.

When scholars place little premium on Tod's Annals as a reliable source on the origin and history of even the Rajputs for whom it was mainly written, how can it be a very authentic source of information for the haphazard references regarding the Yadu origin of the Jats? Tod mentioned only one Jat prince of the Takshak dynasty as of Yadava origin because his mother was of Yadu race. But Tod has forgotten that in the patriarchal society of the Jats descent is determined from father and not mother. Hence, Tod's claim stands exposed.

The chief exponent of the Yadava origin of the Jats: Qanungo.

The chief exponent of the Yadava origin of the Jats was Prof. K.R. Qanungo. A careful examination of his theory shows that he derives support from flimsy arguments, viz. if the learned professor places reliance upon the assertion of Al-Biruni, then he has no reason to hold the Jats as originating from the Yadus. In the statement of Al-Biruni about Krishna as a Jat, though Krishna is represented as

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belonging to the Yadavas in the catena of ancient Sanskrit texts, Qanungo seems to have sought a happy marriage of convenience in connecting the Jats with the Yadavas by putting together the two opposed views. This reasoning is grievously fallacious. Krishna was not a Yadava, nor are the Jats, as stated by him, the descendants of the Yadavas. Al-Biruni only states that Krishna-Vasudeva family is Jatt. He does not say Yadon or Jadon Jatt in spite of the fact that he was familiar with all the important communities of India of his time. Since the Rigvedic period the Yadus have never been called Jats, then how can Jats be their progeny?

To further fortify his theory Qanungo offers some other evidence. To him the Jats, like the ancient Yadus, were not a homogeneous tribe but a confederacy of tribes with different traditions of their origin. The Jats and the Yadus were alike in their spirit of adventure, nomadic habits and heterodox beliefs. This is not enough to identify the two, for the similar traits referred to by Qanungo regarding the Yadus and Jats can be true in case of so many other aboriginal tribes also who are neither Jats nor Yadus. Such similarities cannot be considered as the acid tests for the origin of a race. Further, Qanungo connects the Jats with the Yadus on geographical grounds. According to him the Yadus once in ancient period lived in the land of Sapta Sindhu where the Jats originated and where from, at a later time, they migrated towards north-eastern region and being little esteemed by more orthodox Aryan tribes with monarchical constitution,they were regarded as Shudra-cattle-owning people. No doubt, the Brihatsamhita36 and R.P. Chanda37 the primary sources of inspiration for Qanungo attest his contention regarding the migration of the Yadus but neither of them hold the Jats as the descendents of the Yadavas. However, Cunningham, while discussing the Dhe and Hele Jats of the Ganga-Jamuna Doab and the Pachhande and Deshwali Jats of Delhi and Ruhilkhand, as 'late' and 'aboriginal' also informs us that Bharatpur owes its rise to Churaman Jat, who, after the death of Aurangzeb, migrated with his followers from the banks of the Indus, but he never calls them Yadava38.

Qanungo again refers that certain Jat clans like Bal, Bhullar, Chahal and Kahlon, who point to Malwa in the South which, to Pargiter was the nucleus of the Yadavas, as their home. Qanungo seems to have made little endeavour in the study of the Jat folk-lore39 which testifies

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that during devastating famines and droughts the Jat cattle herders from the Panjab, Rajasthan and Haryana used to migrate to Jamuna-Khaadar belt as well as to fertile Malwa etc. for subsistence and would return to their native places in good seasons. He also seems to have altogether forgotten that Malwa40 is an ethno-geographic name given to a region in the south by the Jat tribe of Mall-Mallava who migrated there from the Malwa region of the Punjab after Alexander's invasion or at a later time. The tribes alluded to by Qanungo may also be the descendents of the Mallavas. Mere saying that they claim to have come from the South is insufficient to establish their origin from the Yadava.

So far as the social composition of the Yadavas and Jats is concerned, we do not see eye to eye with Qanungo. History bears ample testimony that the two were quite dissimilar in this respect. The Yadavas were heterogeneous people. As their genealogical accounts stand in the Puranas and the Mahabharata, we find the Haihayas, the Satvatas, the Andhakas, the Vrshnis, the Kukuras, the Surasenas, the Abhiras and the so-called Yadon Rajputs of Bayana and Bharatpur interpolated in the Yadava genealogies. All of them were, in fact, non-Yadava. The Haihayas were Scythians/Sakas (Tod, Vol. I, 33,76. Wilson, Vishnu Purana, 236,335). Hewitt (op.cit., 3,443) identifies them with Royal Gonds. Kirfel and Morton Smith (1973: 169,171) consider the interpolation of the Haihayas in the Yadavas as simple nonsense. The Satvatas, including Andhakas and Vrishnis, were Vratya Vaisa (Manu, X, 23). To Shafer (1952;152) and to Buhler (SBE. Vol. XXV, 407, fn.23) they were western Anavas, i.e. descendents of Anu, who was not a Yadava. Aitreya Brahmana (VIII, 14) and Raychaoudhary consider them as Bhojas and Jayaswal (Hindu Polity, 75) is surprised to find them merged with the Yadavas. The Kukuras were Khokhars of Punjab (Chandra, Mori; 1945: 64). The Surasenas were Solar Aryan descendents of Surasena, son of Shatrughana, brother of Ramada-sarathi (Wilson op.cit., 151). To Kosambi (1976: 116) and Cunningham (1924:706) they were not Yadava. The Abhiras were Abirs of modern opinion (cf. Manu, X.8, and X.15. Kosambi, Ibid.). The Yadon Rajputs were Tomar (Ch. VI). As soon as the aforementioned tribes reached the stage of monarchy and established their respective independent kingdoms in the regions contiguous with territories previously ruled over by the imperial Yadavas, they were validated in the

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genealogies of the latter (Romila Thapar, Ind. His. Rev., Jan.1976, Vol.II, No.2, pp.270-80, cf. also her book 1990. 326-360). Their lineal relationship with the Yadavas is mereiy fictional according to her.

The Jats, on the contrary, were a homogeneous stock. Some writers may question their homogeneity because of the assimiation of the Sakas (Scythians) including their various branches with the Jats. But latest researches(imfra, Chs VII to XI) have proved beyond doubt that they were one and the same people. They were kith and kin. The Sakas, Kushanas, Yueh-Chih, Hunas and Parthians amalgamated with the Jats because blood is always thicker than water. It will not be an exaggeration to remark that they were different sections of the Jats/Getae who acquired or were given these names in Central Asian countries before returning to India as invaders and mixing with their old Indian brethren.

As to the claim of Qanungo that the Jats like the Yadus were called Shudra, it may be said that since the Kshatriya tribes had taken, besides their weapons, to agriculture also, as their occupation, particularly after the Maurya and the Gupta Golden ages, the Jats, according to C.V. Vaidya41, have suffered most for being ranked as Shudras in the eyes of the orthodox Hindus. It may, however, be true in case of the Yadus also, otherwise, to Majumdar42 the Yadus were one of the five important tribes constituting the Vedic Pancnajna i.e. Yadus, Turvasus, Druhyus, Anus and the Purus, who were certainly not Shudras. The Yadavas are the descendents of the Yadus whereas the Jats are said to be the dsescendents of the Anus and the Purus, the republican warrior tribes43. With the given historical facts it is pretty difficult to accept Qanungo's assertion.

Qanungo also draws and depends upon a similarity of tribal feuds between the present Dahiyas and the Ahulanas (Gathwala Maliks), in which the aliens (Muslims) regard themselves under one faction or the other, with that of a long standing hereditary feud between the descendents of ancient Yadu and Puru, which was also a struggle between heterodoxy and orthodoxy and between the pure Indo-Aryans and the outlandish people headed by the Yadavas, who were, 'along with their supporters, "Sakas, Barbaras, etc; exiled to the West by Parasu- rama, Sudas, Sagar, etc. Incidentally, this ancient feud, alluded to by Qanungo, inadvertently and clearly establishes the fact that the Jats as

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the descendents of Puru and Anu cannot be the progeny of Yadu-Yadava. Moreover, such similarities are uncalled for in tracing the origin of a tribe or a race. Another similarity utilized by Qanungo, is that the Yadus, like the Jats, formed republican military aristocracies often very tyrannical. This similarity is also unacceptable because the evidence at our hand negates the contention of Qanungo.

While tracing the origin of the Jats Dr. G.C. Dwivedi44 holds that "the powerful Yadavas had an enviable imperialistic tradition'. The Jats, whom Qanungo considers their descendents, excepting a few instances45, never, with their strong liking and covetable attachment for the tribal sort of democratic life, made an effort to be imperialists. No doubt, there was a confederacy of the Yadava tribes in the South and the so-called republican Sangha of the Andhaka- Vrishnis (in the North?), but it may be pointed out that they being 'Rajanayaka' in their constitution, were not, strictly speaking, democratic republics in the sense of the words. It is interesting to note that the Andhaka-Vrshnis as the descendents of the Satvatas (who were the Vratya Vaisyas)46, were not Yadavas. That the Varshneyas, a section of the Vaishya community,known as Barah-Senis in UttarPradesh, who claim Agroha (Hissar) as their original home, are believed to be the descendants of the ancient Vrishnis47, indisputably strengthens our finding. Even the Kukuras, another confederate of Andhaka- Vrishni Samgha may be a southerly distortion of the Khokhar48 or Khokhran, a very brave and ferocious tribe of the Jats of Haryana and Punjab who ever remained a thorn in the side of the Muslim invaders (infra.).

Probably, not being content with vaguely deriving the Jat from Yadu and possibly to precisely connect the Jat with a similarly sounding name, Qanungo pinpointed the Sujatas, supposed to be a branch of the great Yadavas, but again his theory is wrecked on the bedrock of his own argument49 which he advanced against the theory of Col. Tod, who suggested kinship among the Indian Jats, the Goths of the Roman Empire, the Juts of Jutland and the Getae of Herodotus, which he (Qanungo) regarded as fanciful, and with its basis of the similarity of sounds, as doubtful. Had the Jats been the descendents of the Sujatas, their existence would have been corroborated by the Mahabharata which is so liberal in elaborating the genealogies of the royal dynasties but is silent about the supposed descendents of the Sujatas.50 They are,

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however, considered by Wilson51 as a probable invention of the compilers of the Brahmand, Padama, Linga and Harivamsa. Moreover, the Gotras and Kulas of the Jats and the Yadavas are not similar. No doubt, B.S. Dahiya strives to connect the two Jat gotras, Tal, and Thand or Thind with Talajangha and Tundilkara Haihaya tribes but his view also seems to be farfetched, for surely we know that their descendents are still surviving in the Tundikeras, Tundaris, Bair Kairsa, etc, in the Narbada and Tapti valley52 and like the Jaathars of south, they do not claim any connection with the Jats. Truth, however, is stranger than fiction to him. Moreover, Mr. Dahiya never knew that the Talajanghas etc. are undoubtedly later interpolations53 in the Yadava line and were actually Scythians. Finally, the glaring weakness of Qanungo's theory is that he does not give us the genealogy of any Jat tribe or a ruling Jat dynasty which might be connected either with the Yadus of the eleventh century or with the Yadus of the Rigvedic Age. Hence it is difficult for us to agree to his contention of the Yadu ancestry of the Jats.

Ram Lal Hala, Pandit Lekh Ram and Nesfield views disproved

Following in the footsteps of Qanungo, Ram Lal Hala also suggests that the Yadu dynasty came to be known as Jat after their famous emperor Yata. But history does not bear any testimony to the existence of an emperor of this name. Hala's view is too frivolous to deserve acceptance. Two more scholars, Pandit Lekh Ram and Nesfield also harped on Qanungo's string with the presumption that Yadu was, in the course of time, distorted into Jadu, Jad and finally became Jatt or Jat in Hindi. But neither of them has described the grammatical and philological rules under which the Yadu as a word can be changed into Jat. The philological process of deriving the word Jat from Yadu is as difficult as to derive it from Yadava54. Hence, in view of the facts given above it is hardly convincing to accept the Yadava origin of the Jats.

Origin of Jats from Jnati theory rejected

The last scholar to write on the subject is Thakur Desh Raj55 who differs from others in the derivation of the word Jat. According to him, the word Jat is a corrupt form of the so-called 'Jnati' (ज्ञाति), a name supposedly attributed to a Samgha of the Andhaka- Vrishnis, formed by Krishna, who incorporated in it many other democratic clans of the Yadavas. It is, no doubt, true that the Andhaka-Vrishni Samgha was very ancient but strangely enough neither Panini, nor Kautalya, nor the Mahabharata, nor, even the Puranas, speak of this samgha as Jnati.

Most likely, Desh Raj was swayed by the apparently democratic

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characteristic of the Rajanayak Yadava Sangha, a Political trait for which the Jats, too, throughout their known history, (barring a few examples of the very recent times), have been showing strong preference. Moreover, the learned author does not seem to have taken notice of the fact that the Sangha56 was famous for its Rajanayak leaders, who alone, as we have already shown, had the right to rulership as well as for its full-fledged party system as the main feature of their constitution, whereas with the ancient democratic republics of the Jats, family, as the basic unit, was the source of their political life. Panini, undoubtedly, mentioned Jnati in his sutras (I. 1.35 and VI. 2. 133) but he no where describes it as a term applied to any kind of Samghas Desh Raj has understood it. Hence his assumption does not carry conviction with us, for we have already pointed out that the Andhak- Vishnis were not Yadava and, as Dwivedi holds, the Yadavas were imperialist and not democratic republican in their political life.

Thakur Desh Raj57 further suggests that the ancient Jnatrikas or the Gyatrikas of Bihar were also Jats, who later on migrated to the Punjab. As for identification of the Jats with the Jnatrikas, we have no evidence to the effect that the latter migrated to the north-west. Instead, Mrs. Sinclair Stevenson58 attests their present existence, with their divisions, in Basarh (Vaisali) where they lived some two thousand years ago. It is, no doubt, true that, according to Dr. Hornle59 the Jnatrikas were Kshatriyas who formed the clan of the name (gotra?) of Naya or Nath to which Lord Mahavira, the last Tirathankara of the Jains, belonged, but there is neither a tribe of this name among the Jats nor are they, with rare exceptions, Jains, by faith. Vaisali, one of the settlements, of the Jnatrikas, as attested by Dr. Hornle60 was an oligarchic republic, the government of which was "vested in a senate composed of the heads of the residentKshatriya clans and presided over by an officer who had the title of king, assisted by a viceroy and commander-in chief." To Mrs. S. Stevenson61 this government bears resemblance to that of a Greek state. But the constitution of the Vaisali Jnatrikas' government was not similar to those of the Ayudhajivisanghas of the Western Kshatriya tribes62, the reputed ancestors of the Jats and mere recognition of republicanism as a characteristic of their government is insufficient to identify the Jats with the Jnatrikas. Hence, if the facts, given above, have any weight, it is illogical to accept the suggestion

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of Desh Raj also. We may, however, accept the Jnarikas as Jats if they were the descendents of the Sakas of Basarh (Vaisali), but Desh RaJ never stated this fact.

The foremost fathers of the Yadus and the Jats were agnates well as cognates. In other words, it may be said that they are from the same father but from different mothers. There father was,' as the Mahabharata indicates, Yayati. Yadu's mother was Devyani, a Brahmin lady, daughter of Usanas-Sukra, the priest of Vrshparvan whereas the mother of Anu and Puru, (whom the Jats claim as their progenitors), was Sarmishtha, the princess of King Vrshaparvan63. The Brahman - Kshatriya rivalry for supremacy is imputed to an insinuating diatribe64 between these two queens of Yayati, which since then embittered not only the relations of the cognates, but also having trickled down from generation to generation, has been, despite the strenuous efforts to mitigate it, working havoc with and eating into the very vitals of of society.

It may not be out of place to quote from Gustav Le Bon which bears a striking relevance here, Our dead, besides being infinitely more numerous than the living, are infinitely more powerful. They reign over the vast domain of the unconscious, that invisible domain which exerts its sway over all the mainifestations of the intelligence and of character. A people is guided far more by its dead than by its living members. As is by its dead and by its dead alone, that a race is guided. Century after century, our departed ancestors have fashioned our ideas and sentiments, and in consequence all the motives of our conduct. The generations, that ,have passed away, do not bequeath us their physical constitution merely, they also bequeath us their thoughts. The dead at the only undisputed masters of the living, We bear the burden of their mistakes and reap the reward of their virtues 65.

In view of the above, it may be said that whereas the Brahmin Kshatriya rivalry could not help but adversely influence the Brahmin-Jat relations on the one hand, could not also stop short to seriously impair the cordiality of the cognates i.e., the Jats and Yadavas, the latter being the progeny of, as noted above, of Devyani, the daughter of Brahmin, Ushnas-Shukra, the priest of Vrishparvan. It is, undoubtedly as a result of the legacy of the aforesaid rivalry that the Jats have ever been embittered against the Brahmins and the Yadavas, for the Yadus

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and Turvasus, (sons of Devyani), cognates of Anus and Purus, alongwith the sons of their (Yadava's) grand maternal uncle, Shukra, deserted the cause of the Anus and Purus in the Rig Vedic Dasarajna wars and joined the Bharatas against their cognates. (for details cf. Ch, IX). Ultimately in the light of the discussion which point out to the ever-lasting unhealthy relation between the Yadavas and the Jats one can hardly expect the Jats to be the progeny of the Yadus.

It may be concluded that the theory of "Yadu Origin of the Jats" is as futile an effort of its propounders as to "draw lines on the surface of water". Having failed to properly and satisfactorily trace the origin of the Jats, the exponents of the theory thought it convenient to connect them with the Yadavas, a ruling race of pre-historic times, probably to ensure a respectful antiquity to them, but they failed to realise that the Jats, as cognates of the Yadus, are as old as the latter.

It may be observed in the end that in the land of biases and prejudices, which had their hay-day towards the end of the medieval period in our country, the adumbrators of this theory played their last trump card in assigning Yadava origin to the Jat rulers of the Bharatpur House in the well-camouflaged hope that the illiterate Jat peasantry would swallow it, partly because of the prestige of its advocates and partly because it was so flattering to be linked with Lord Krishna. They would not stop to think that it was an attempt to gobble up their Jat identity. Our conjecture has been proved right by the later developments. The stratagem used by the court-bards served as a fertile ground for latter writers to established this fake theory still further. What is amazing and regrettable, is the fact that a historian even of the caliber of Qanungo was swamped by the pia fraus invented by the bards. He declared, however, that "the Jats are difficult to persuade that they are not descended from the ancient Yadavas, though they cannot produce any evidence in support of their claim". This formulation is virtually an admission of the fact that their is no proof to establish this made up theory.

The exponents as well as the adherents of the "Yadava origin of the Jats' are, however, simply misled by the confusion of the Haihayas alongwith their five alleged tribes including their descendents, the Jatas or Sujatas in the genealogies of the Yadavas, most probably in their fourteenth generation66 by the Puranakritas, Kirfel, quoted by Morton

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Smith67, rejects this confusion as sheer nonsense. The Haihayas were, infact, according to Tod68, Scythians or (Sakas). The Haihayas derived their name, as such, from the word 'haya', which means 'horse'69. The Scythians (Sakas) are invariably identified70 with the Jats. The ancient Indian historical tradition has, 'however, undoubtedly established the fact that the Sakas (Haihaya-Scythians) and their descendents rendered succour to the Yadavas in men, money and material in their prolonged wars against Parasurama, Bahu and Sagar 71 who is said to have, in the long run, turned them out of the country. The Jats are described as Sujatas, the sons of Bharata, the foremost of the hundred sons of Talajanghha of the Haihayas in the Puranas (Vishnu, IV, 1I, 17). We know it for sure that those Jats, who helped Cyrus and Darius, the Iranian Emperors72 and Alexander the Great73 in their central Asian conquests as well as the Muslim invader, Mohammad bin Qasim74 in his conquest of Sindh, were appellated in Greek and Latin as "euergetae or good Jats" and those, who opposed them, were notoriously called with the opprobrious sobriquet of enemies, robbers, especially as Jat-i-badzaat (of evil race). The unknown can often be best explained by the known. Similarly, the Jats, (Haihaya-Scythians) who came to the help of the Yadavas in their ordeals, were called Su-Jatas, a name which gives two meanings i.e. "good-Jats" because 'Su' in Sanskrir75 means "good or noble" and also "Saka-Jata", for "Su" in archaic Chinese language76 was also used to denote the Sakas. Since the grateful Yadavas commonly addressed them as Sujatas, they were described likewise in various Puranas 77. However, notwithstanding their fabrication in the Yadava genealogy, it may vividly be understood that they were not at all the descendents of the latter, and the exponents of the theory misused them not only as a sheet-anchor but also as a powerful lever to raise it. It is extremely interesting to note that this reference to the Jats as Sujatas is the first and the last in the Puranas 78.

The theory of the "Yadava Origin of the Jats" dismissed

Finally, I must press into service the evidence from various sciences which impartially clinch the issue once and for all in our favour. The somatometric79 serological80 dermatoglyphic81 and other morphological studies82 recently conducted on the Jats, Ahirs, Gujars and Rajputs with a view to trace out later's origin unmistakably, rather, unerringly indicate that though all these populations might have sprung or branched off from the same ancient ancestral population, from the seriological data available on the Jats on colour,?,

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taste sensitivity and other physical characters show a greater similarity among these populations, yet the studies firmly testify the

Consequently, in, the light of the findings ,given above it can safely be concluded that the Yadava origin of the Jats is merely wild speculation. At the most, as aleady noted, and also as seemingly borne out by the above evidence, they might have, ab initio, been cognates, and the Ahirs (Abhirs) are Yadavas only by virtue of their confusion in the latter's genealogies.

As the Mahabharata represents, Yadu and Turvasu; Druhyu, Anu and Puru, the alleged sons of Yayati respectively from his Brahman wife, Devayani and Kshatriya wife, Sarmishtha, they can at best be, if their relationship is genuine, considered as half brothers and certainly, not as descendents of one another. Interestingly the Rigveda nowhere shows them as the sons of Yayati. They are, in fact, described as independent eponymous tribes, forming their Ganas and Samghas in emergency. The Yadus and Turvasus, along with their priests, were won over and "weaned" away by Indra83 and Vashistha from the Druhyus, Anus and Purus to help the Bharatas in the Rigvedic wars. As such, they have from the very outset separated themselves and deserted the cause of their confederate cognates, Druhyus, Anus and Purus, the progenitor-ancestors of the Jats. In view of circumstantial evidence the theory of the "Yadava Origin of the Jats" does not at all carry conviction with us and is dismissed as merely an effort to "look for a needle in a hay stack".

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Notes and References

1. Al-Biruni's India, ed. Dr. E.C. Sachau, Vol.1, p.401, Hindi Trans. by Rajni Kant Sharma, Allahabad,1967, p.287.
2. Sujan Charita, p.4, q. by Dr. P.C. Chandavat, Maharaja Surajmal Aur Unka Yuga (Hindi), Agra, 1982 p.14, fn.4
3. Ibid.
4. Ibid.
4a. Shastri, Y.P. Jat Kshatriya Itihas; Kankhal,1944,p. 138.
5. Ibid.
6. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan,Vol. 11,1957; pp. 179-80.
7. Ibid,p. 299.
8. Ibid., p. 88.
9. Ibid.,p.89
10. Hist. or Med. Hindu Ind. Vol.1, New Delhi, 1979, pp. 37,87. Dr. Rajbali Pandey considers Nand either to be Gujar or Jat.
11. Hist.of Jats,N.Delhi, 1982, pp. 10-12. Jat Kshatri (Urdu) by Lt. Ram Sarup, Delhi, 1936, p. 25.
12. Yoginder Pal Shastri.op.cit., p.40
13. The Divine Heritage of the Yadavas, Allahabad, 1959, p.XXV-VI.
14. Yadu Vansh, Vol. I, "Bharatpur Rajvansh Ka Itihas", Bharatpur; 1967, pp. 12-14.
15. Jats - The Ancient Rulers, Delhi,1986, pp. 12-13.
16. Op.cit., pp. 13-15.
17. Yadu Vansh Ka Itihas, Mangal Prakashan Jaipur,l977, pp. 63-67.
18. The Jats, Jaipur, .1974, p. 1..
19. Jaton ka Navin Itihas, Jaipur, 1977, pp, 63-67.
20. op.cit, p. 13.
21. Yoginder Pal Shastri, op.cit., p. 41. Ram Lal Hala, Jat Itihas, p. 30.
22. Yoginder Pal Shastri, op.cit., p. 40.
23. Nesfield, J.: Brief View of the Caste System of North-west Provinces, Allahabad,l931.
24. Dr. K.C. Yadav, Review of the book 'Rise of the Jat Power' by Rajpal Singh, Herman Publishing House, New Delhi, 1988, in the Tribune, Sunday Reading, April 9,1989, p. 2, Cols. 3-6.
25. op.cit., p. 3.
26. Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan., J. N. Asopa, Origin of Rajputs; AC. Banerjee, Lectures on Rajput History.
27. Op. cit., p. 15, fns .. 2,3.

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28. S. Partap Singh Kairon, S. Prakash Singh Badal, ex, C. Ms. of Punjab, S. Sunder Singh Majithia and a host of others, Ch. Shamsher Singh Surjewa1a, I.P.M. Haryana, Om Prakash Chautala, Ex. C.M. and Ex. M.P. President, Haryana S. Janta Dal. His actual gotra is Sehag (Suhag). The last names are those of their respective villages.
29. Debiprasad Chattopadhyaya, Lokayat; Pandhari Nath Prabhu, Hindu Social Organisation etc.
30. Supra.
31. Ali, S. Muzafar, op.cit, Delhi,1973, pp.2-7, R.Safer, Ethnology of Anc. Ind. Weisbaden, 1954, p. 63, Pargiter, op.cit, Ch.Vi
32. Vartak, Dr. Padamakar Vishnu, The Scietific Dating of Mahabharata War, Veda Vidnyana Mandal, Pune-30, pp.39-41. The learned Dr (MBBS) claims to have determined the date as 16 October 5561 B.C. which has been confirmed by the Super Computer (Ibid.p.31)
33. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, Vol.1, London, 1960, p.XV
34. Ibid., p. xvi.
35. Banerjee, Anil Chandra, lectures on Rajput Hist., Calcutta, 1962, p. 185.
36. Shastri A.M.: Ind. as seen in the Brhatsamhita of Varahamihira, Delhi 1969, p.77.
37. Chanda, R.P., The Indo-Aryan Races, Calcutta, 1969, p. 16.
38. ASRI., Vol.II, 1963-64, p. 57.
39. Joseph, E., Jatu, 1911, p. 56, JASB Vol. VI, No. 12, p. 773; Joseph, op.cit.,p. 18. C. V. Vaidya, op.cit., Vol. I, Delhi, 1979, p. 87. Haryanvi Folk Proverb: "Sawan pahli pananchim, jai dhrukai baal; Pia tunh ja Malwai main jaaon nansaal". Engish Translation: "If strong westerly winds blow on the dark fifth day of the Saawan month, there will be severe famine and the wife suggests to her man to go to Malwa for earning and she would go to her maternal father's house to subsist on." Let us also see what does Saint Kabir say in his 'Kabir Beejak' on Baagar desh and Malwa?
(a) "Baagar desh loovan ko ghar hai, Tahain jani jebu daajan ko dar hai". (Desert is the home of loos (hot winds), whosoever goes there is in danger of being roasted.
(b) "Desh Malwa gahir gambhiraa, dag dag roti, pag pag neeraa." (Malwa Country is ever green & fertile, everywhere food and everywhere water).
40. Jayaswal, K.P., Hindu POlity, Banglore 1968, p.l46; Singh, M.R. Dr.; A Critical Study of the Geog. Data in the Early Puranas, Calcutta, 1972. pp. 369-72.
41. Hist. of Med. Hindu Ind., Vot. I, New Delhi, 1979. p. 63.
42. The Vedic Age, London, 1951, p. 306.
43. Cf. G.,C. Dwivedi, 'Origin of the Jats" AIH, VoL XLVIII, 1970.
44. Ibid,p.380 (?)

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45. The Mauryas (More), Guptas (Dharna) and Harsh" (Vrika)
46. Shafer, R.; op.cit, p. 152. Manu. x. 23,
47. Chandra Moti; Geog. and Eco, Studies in the Mbt Lucknow 1945. p.64; q. by Dr. K.K. Das Gupta, A Tribal History of Anc. Ind. Calculta, 1974, p, 189.
48. Ibid.
49. Op.cit, New Delhi, 1982,pp.3-4.
50. Sujata actually means one belonging to a good race (Jati).
51. Wilson, H.H., Visnu Pur., p. 335, fn, 20.
52. Ibid.
53. Smith, R. Morton; Dates and Dynasties in Earliest Ind., Motilal Danarsi Das, Delhi; 1973, p. 169. Cf. Tod, op.cit, Vol.I, p. 76, also for their Scythian origin,
54. Pandey, Rajbali; Yadu Vansh Ka Itihas (Hindi), Shri Krishna Press, Dara Nagar. Varanasi, n.d., p. 238, fn, 2. However, the Jats, according to him, are the descendents of Aiksvaka Dhrsta, brother of Narishyanta. The descendents of the three brothers, i.e. Dharsta, Saryati and Narisyant are said to have occupied the greater Sapta Sindhu country.
55. Desh Raj, Thakur, op.cit., Ch. 'On the Origin of the word Jat."
56. Aggarwal, V.S. Ind. as known to Panini, Varanasi. 1963. p. 454,
57. Op.cit., p. 100-107.
58. Law. B.C. : Some Kshatriya Tribes of Anc, Ind., Varanasi, 1975, p. 121.
59. Ibid.
60. Ibid., p. 123.
61. Ibid.
62. Cr. Aggarwal, V.S. op.cit, Ch. VII, Sec. 8.
63. Pargiter, F.E.,: AIHT, pp. 56-7.
64. Siddhanta. N.K.; The Heroic Age of India. 1975, New Delhi. pp, 23-62.
65. Q. by Pandhari Nath Prabhu, Hindu Social Organisation. Bombay. 1954. p. VII. Fairchild, H.P.; General Sociology, New York, 1934, p. 346.
66. Pargiter, op.cit, p. 144.
67. Smith, R. Morton: op.cit, p. 171.
68. Tod, op.cit, Vol. I. p. 76. Sankalia, H.D., Excavations at Maheshwar and Navdatoli, 1952,53, Poona, 1958, p. 252.
69.Monier-Williaqls, Skt. Eng. Dic. pp. 1288. 1296-7, 1305, Hinhinana is the equivalent word for the neighing of horse in the Jatu or Haryanvi dialects.
70. Cf. "Scythic Origin of the Jats", Ch. VIII in this book.
71. Cf. "Scythic Origin" as well as "Jatthara Origin of Jats· in thisbook.
72. Kephart. Calvin, op.cit. p. 529.
73. Ibid,

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74. Elliot and Dowson, Vol. 1. pp. 131-211.
75.Monier-Wliliams, op.cit., p. 1223.
76. Cunningham. ASRI, Vol. II, 1883-84, pp. 48f.
77. Wilson Vishnu Pur., pp. 335f.
78. The Puranas generally omit the name and use Dasa or Dasyu instead, which Dahyu in the Zend Avesta and Daha in Archaic Persian and Dahae in Greek whereas, Tahae in Bactrian and Dahiya in Haryanvi.
79. Gaur. J.R., A Study of some Anthropometric (Somatometric) Trails Among the Jats, Rajputs and Ahirs of Haryana". An unpublished Thesis (for Ph.D.) submitted to Pb. Univ., Chandigarh. 1989) and also the relevant information communicated to me on Mar. 12. 1990 From Madhuban (... Forensic lab), Mitra, AK. : "The Authors of the Food producing and some Agricultural Populations of N.W. India: Presidential Address to the Anthropology and Archaeology Section, Ind. see. Cong., Hyderabad, 1987. My thank are due to them.
80. Gaur, op.cit.; Mitra op.cit., Mitra,A.K. and B.R. Ghosh; "Rajput Origins and the Tomars of Delhi, "The Anthroppologist, special Edition.....pp. 181-195.
81. Chattopadhyaya, Prasant Kumar and Kushwaha, Krit Pal Singh, A Dermatoglyphic Approach to the Problem of Rajput Origin" Part-I and II. Anthropologic, Vol. IV, No. 3, 1966 pp.67-86.
82. Chattopadhyaya and Kushwaha, op.cit. Part-I, P. 189. Cf. also P.K. Chattopadhyaya, "ABO Blood groups and the Secretor Factor Among the Jats of Delhi', M.Sc. Diss. (Unpublished) Delhi Univ., 1963; and "A Genetic Study of the Jars of Delhi and Pb". Ph.D. (unpublished) Delhi Univ.1969. P.K. Seth, S. Seth, M.B. Rao and S.B. Mani; "Genetical Study of Gujars A1A2 BO Blood Group, PTc. Somatometry and Phelangeal Hair, Ear Lobes, and Clasping, Arms Folding and Leg Folding", Human Heredity, vol. 19, 1969, pp. 190-197. Uma Singh, AK. Kala and Y R Ahuja, "A Genetic Investigation of the Gujars, I Blood Group and ABH Secretion", Anthropologist, Vol.16, 1972, pp. 57-61. P.K. Chattopadhyay, "A Note one the Ear Lobe Attachment Among the Jats and the Ahirs", Acta Genetics, Vol. 17, 1968, pp. 277-282; Frequency of colour Blindness Among the Jats", Human Heredity, Vol. 20, 1970, pp. 23-28; "Some Physical Studies Among the Gujars", Man in Ind., Vol. 50, 1970, pp. 185-88; and P.T.C. Taste Sensitivity Among the Jats", Anthrop. Aus., 1971. I am thankful to Dr. S. Prakash & Dr. V. Ghalla, Deptt. of Anthropology, Pb, University Chandigarh, for the above information.
83. Mishra. D.P.: Studies in the Proto History of India. Orient Longman. N. Delhi. 1971, pp.123. 153; R. V. VII. 19,8; X. 49; IV. 30.17; VI. 20.12. The Yadus and Turvasus cut off from their kith and kin, were brought by Indra, who strengthened them with their alliance with the Bharatas, thus he made them famous.

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