The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries
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Manthan Publications, Rohtak. ISBN 81-85235-22-8
Chapter IX :The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries
- Our "Pilgrim fathers" left their hearths and homes,
- And wandered far to Unfamiliar Lands.
- They soughl not Power or Pelf but only Freedom
- Which was by bigots and despots denied.
- They braved the hazards of the Dark Unknown,
- And risk of hostile hosts, inclement climes.
- They would not yield to guiles of wily priests,
- Nor bend their knee before the tyrants' whim.
- 1 Migrations since pre-historical times
- 2 Theories about the original home of Aryans
- 3 Study of original home of the Aryans
- 4 Antiquity of the Aryans and Sapta Sindhu
- 5 The settlements of Rig Vedic tribes
- 6 Life and culture of the Rigvedic tribes
- 7 Dasarajna yuddha
- 8 Large scale migrations
- 9 Theories about original home of Aryans
- 10 Westward migrations of the Indo-Aryans
- 11 Westward migrations of Jats
- 12 Punjab region - the original home of Aryans
- 13 Findings of Russian linguists
- 14 Archaic Arabic literary evidences
- 15 Indo Aryans in Baltic region
- 16 Origin of Germany
- 17 The symbol of Swastika
- 18 Theory of Jat origin from Yazatas
- 19 Jata, son of Brahma, was the founder of the Jats
- 20 Scythian origin of Jats
- 21 Migration of Jats to the New World
- 22 Origin of the name America
- 23 Notes and References
Migrations since pre-historical times
As in the case of certain species of birds which migrate from one part of the globe to another to escape the rigours of climate, migrations were quite common among various races during the ancient times. They moved from place to place and from one country to another either due to variations in climatic conditions or in search of new pastures and grazing grounds or to escape oppression from despotic rulers or to flee from wars or as a result of wholesale exile. In some cases they were impelled to cross the boundaries of several countries by the sheer spirit of adventure or a desire for conquest. Whatever the reasons, there is ample historical evidence to show the frequency of such migrations since pre-historical times.
This section proposes to deal with the migrations of the Jats through the ages, which are further discussed in the succeeding chapter as well. Before we undertake this task, it may be helpful to put some flesh on the bare-bones of our main thesis hinted at earlier. An extended reiteration of these may be stated in the form of a series of propositions, each established by well recognised authorities working independently of each other in various fields and integrated by us into a single coherent hypothesis. First we hold that Aryans and Scythians are identical entities; secondly, that the Jats are of Aryan/Scythian ancestry, and thirdly, that the original home of the Aryans/Scythians/Jats was in the Sapta Sindhu. "which included the Indus or Sindhu with its principal tributaries on the west and the Sarasvati on the east. The Yamuna and
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Theories about the original home of Aryans
Relying upon the antiquity of Tripolje pottery (3rd millennium B.C.), Nehring formulated the view that South Russia extending far beyond to the west was the original Aryan home. H. Guntert, F.R. Schroder and Pokorny by and large support the north-west Europe (land between Weser and Vistula) and white Russia, whereas Brandenstein, on the force of his new method of applied semasiology concludes that north-western Kirghiz Steppes to the South of Urals is their original home where the Indo-Iranians were the earliest to separate from the main body of Indo-Europeans and considers Nehring's Triipolje region as the interim home of the Westward bound Aryan tribes. Nehring rejects Brandenstein's theory for reasons best known to him. Basing his theory on the evidence on flora and fauna, P. Giles suggests that the Aryans, a settled people, lived peacefully in the regions now known as Hungary, Austria and Bohemia, but B.K. Ghosh does not find a single positive argument in favour of this theory.
Similarities discovered between Indo-Europeans (Aryans) and Finno-Ugrian language-groups are so striking that Nehring and Hirt are led to believe that the original seat of the Finno-Ugrians was in Central Russia. Failing to achieve their object with the help of linguistics and archaeology, some European racial anthropologists used blondeness, a unique characteristic of Indo-Europeans, as their chief weapon to declare Scandanavia and Germany, where it is very conspicuous, as their urheimat. But they forgot that blonde hair, has ever been more or less, one of the essential features of the Aryans from north-western India to Norway. It is also significant to note that from purely ethnographical consideration, too, Floor concludes that "genetically considered, the Uralians are, in many cases, the zone of origin of numerous Indo-European cultural phenomena". On the other hand, a good number of Lithuanian, Latvian and Baltic poets and writers (infra) themselves admit that Agni, Vidya (Knowledge) and culture came to their countries from India.Edward Meyer locates the region of the Pamir plateau as the area where from the Indo-Iranians spread eastward into the Panjab and westward into the Mesopotamian world whereas, to Herzfeld, it was Russian Turkistan. It is perhaps only Calvin
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Kephart, upon whom we have profitably drawn, who repeatedly reminds us that the Indo-Europeans (Aryans) reached the Oxus valley and the other surrounding territories from the upper reaches of the Indus and western region of Tibet and the Mansrovar lake as early as 8000 B.C. under pressure of the Mongols who lived in the east of the Sacred lake.
On the strength of his epoch-making researches in linguistic paleontology, Schrader also declares South Russia as the original home the Indo-Europeans. B.K. Ghosh, too, is inclined to concede Schrader's claim. But A.C. Das vehemently rejects this theory with the plea that Aryan tribes such as Iranians, Kurds, Kossaeans (Kassites), Mitannis, Hittites (Khattis or Khetas), Phrygians (Bhrigus), Lydians, Armenians and Phoenicians (Panis) all of whom spoke ancient Aryan dialects, migrated from Sapta Sindhu towards the west in very ancient time. He even claims that "the Egyptian and the Babylonian civilizations, which date from 7000 or 10000 B.C., owed their origins to Indo-Aryan Civilization" (Ibid., p.324). As we have shown elsewhere, Kalyanaramana strongly supports A.C. Das with his masterly thoroughness in his famous book "Aryatarangini". Moller also establishes similarity between Aryan and Semitic languages and believes that if Aryans had contacts with central Russia and Arabia, then, naturally, South Russia may rightly claim to be the original Aryan home.
Last but not least, B.G. Tilak propounded his famous theory of the Arctic Home of the Aryans. To establish his view, he interpreted the Vedic and Avestic myths in the light of geological, geographical and astronomical evidences and has also drawn upon comparative mythology. A section of Aryans is indubiously said (Spencer,1965) to have gone from Aryana Vaejo up to Arctic circle. They must be primary ancient Aryan Scientists who explored, studied and disseminated knowledge among their brethren through their books (Rig Veda and Avesta) about various aspects of life and natural phenomena that obtained during the period in the inhospitable Arctica. Their Arctic visits should not be misunderstood as coming of the whole race of the Aryans from that region simply because the knowledge gathered by them finds a natural mention in their holy books, believed to be the oldest in the world. The Australian, American, British, French, German, Indian, Norwegian and Russian teams of adventurers, explorers
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and Scientists nowadays annually visit South Antarctica ad stay there for long for a variety of studies, which ultimately become known to us through reports and text books but if tomorrow, we may, on the basis of this knowledge, begin to say that all these nations originated from South Antarctica, it will be the most unfortunate fallacy on earth to misguide posterity. The theory, however, stood rejected for weak arguments advanced in its support by Tilak in the face of Its cumulative scientific scrutiny by scholars such as A.C. Das, L.D. Kalla, Ganganath Jha, Kailashnath Dwivedi, S. Srikanta Sastri, all of whom favour, and rightly so, the Sapta Sindhu as the original home of Indo-Europeans.
Study of original home of the Aryans
The above discussion brings us to believe that a majority of the scholars have used, more than anything else, the linguistic evidence to prove their respective hypotheses. Though language has not entirely lost its validity as a tool in classifying groups of people, yet it has long been rejected as an acid test of a race. To determine the original home of a people, some rely only on the flora and fauna of a particular region since the time of their creation. But such writers ignore the most important fact that flora and fauna are not permanent and are ever changing. Impelled by the exigencies of climate, food, shelter and sudden physical changes not only man and animals, but even plants moved from one place to another in the Glacial, Interglacial and Post-glacial epochs. Logically, with such circumstances in view, if one mistakes an interim home of a migratory tribe or a people for their original home, it will historically be very incorrect. Moreover, in the Post-glacial present epoch the flora and fauna has, by and large, been the same from Ganga to Volga. It will, hence, be very difficult with our dependence on merely flora and fauna as tools to ascertain when and where a particular tribe or people had their first origin.
Still others prefer archaeology to linguistic and ethnological evidence. Undoubtedly, this science proves or disproves linguistic and literary testimony. But Carbon dating (C-14), its chief weapon, is not always and everywhere infallible in determining antiquity of artifacts. In calculating data possible error of judgment and the operation of subjectivity are said to be its major snags yet to be surmounted. Common elements, similarities and parallels are often noticeable in artifacts excavated at different and distant sites in a country or in different countries that are contiguous or are situated far away. These similarities may either be
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the result of independent or simultaneous growth or of the movement of ideas, peoples and goods from one place to another resulting from commercial contacts at a particular time. With the present state of our knowledge archaeology and craniology, with all their limitations, are considered the only infallible sciences to say the final word about the antiquity, place of birth of a culture and its authors. But, to place reliance only on their findings, particularly when there is a lack of unanimity among their interpreters, will be very hazardous. It becomes all the more risky if an expert in utter disregard of the genuine findings, sticks to his own conclusions and considers them as the most reliable. It is, there fore, suggested that inter-disciplinary and multidirectional approach may yield better results in the study of such a problem.
We must, therefore, know the flora and fauna of a country in the earliest period of our present epoch, besides its geology, geography and ecology that influence its demography, its tribe, and peoples with their rudimentary taxonomy, their religion and mythology, their means of communication and transport, their language and literature, their occupations and pastimes, their food and drinks, their dress and ornaments, their tools and weapons, their mutual and external relations, their manners and customs, their trade and commerce, their social and political organisation, and their institutions and government, before it becomes possible for us to locate, with some certainty, the place where a particular people had once lived before they migrated to or were isolated in some other land. With all these points in view scholars such as Muir, A.C. Das, S. Srikanta Sastri, M.L. Bhargava, Rahul Sankritayana, and Kailashnath Dwivedi made an in depth study of the oldest source books of the Aryans i.e. the Rigveda and Avesta, and arrived at the conclusion that their internal evidence, especially geographic, unmistakably point to the situation of the original home of the Aryans in the Sapta Sindhu, which is, interestingly, also named as Sapta Saindhava country in R.V. (8,24,27). Unfortunately, the truth of this identification, borne out by the inherent evidence of the Rig Veda itself, is hardly palatable, with a few exceptions, to the western scholars for reasons best known to them even though they also admit these two holy books, especially the Rigveda, to be the oldest scripture of the Aryans to whom they, too, proudly claim to belong. At the most Meyer, Max Muller and a few others concede their origin "some where in the east
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(Max Muller) or precisely speaking the Pamir region (Meyer) which A.C. Das, as we have already shown, includes in Sapta Sindhu (Zend Avesta- Hapta Hendu) country.
Antiquity of the Aryans and Sapta Sindhu
What about the antiquity of the Aryans as well as their home, the Sapta Sindhu? Though the Rigveda is silent in this connection, yet the writers, who support the Sapta Sindhu as the original home of Aryans, strongly favour with their reliance on the study of its internal geological, geographical (social, political and economic) evidence, on the existence of civilized man in the region in Pleistocene age and consider "Panjab as the oldest life-producing land in the whole of the Indian continent". The composition of the Rigvedic hymns is generally believed to have covered a very long period and to have been completed by about 7500 BC., but the limit of its completion, to a majority of the Western scholars and their Indian disciples is about 1500 BC. Be that as it may, in addition to a good number of historians, modern rishis like Aurobindo Ghosh, Ramatiratha, Vivekanand, Rama Krishna Pramhansa and Dayanand Sarasvati, have strengthened our faith that the Vedas are eternal and apauruseya or "creations of the Creator himself". Swayed by a popular adage that "a Prophet is seldom honoured in his own country", we may disbelieve our own prophets. Perhaps we would place more reliance on one named Laabi bin Akhtaab bin Turfaa bin Al Abad, a Semitic poet from Middle East, who wrote in one of his poems 2400 years before Hazrat Mohmmad that God revealed true knowledge in the form of four Vedas, Rik, Atharva, Saam & Yajur to his prophets in Bharat (Appendix-4). If the Aryans did not come to India from outside and were the original inhabitants of the Sapta Sindhu, how do we explain the similarities between them and the peoples of far off lands? The natural and logical, the inevitable, conclusion is that they did not migrate to India but emigrated to all these far off lands.
The pertinent questions before us are: why, when and where did these primeval Aryans migrate first? For answers, a perusal of the geographical conditions and mutual relations of the tribes and people of Sapta Sindhu of Rigvedic period is very necessary. The geographical boundaries of the "oldest life producing country" called Sapta-Sindhu, surrounded by seas in its east, south and west, have already been outlined after A.C. Das in the beginning of this section. Fortunately, these boundaries are more or less confirmed by maps of Asia & Europe
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between 35000 & 25000 years ago & between 15000 & 12000 years ago, given by H.G. Wells in his famous book "The Outline of History' (pp. 95: 141). This confirmation does not seem to be a mere fortuitous coincidence but a historical fact. As the name suggest, Sapta Sindhu is a land of seven rivers, the life-lines of the country. All the important rivers are described from east to west in the celebrated Nadistuti hymn (X, 75) of the Rig Veda and in the Venidad, the sacred book of the Zoroastnans also.
In addition to showing the rivers of Rigvedic period in a map, Dr. Kailashnath Dwivedi, having impartially examined and scientifically re-assessed all possibly native and foreign sources, has also recently done a commendable job by representing other details of Sapta Saindhva country in seven maps. The area and geographical boundaries, climate, natural and artificial vegetation; flora and fauna, and mineral wealth; natural configuration, rivers, seas and lakes; economic resources and means of livelihood, demographic details of Aryan and non-Aryan tribes, besides their battle-fields and respective political Jurisdictions, are, as evidenced in the Veda, so vividly sketched in these maps that even a layman can easily understand them (cf. Rigvedic Bhugole, Maps on pp. 25, 43, 91, 115, 161, 183,233,274).
The settlements of Rig Vedic tribes
Since our immediate concern is the migrations of Aryans/Scythians/Jats from Sapta Sindhu, a study of the settlements of Rig Vedic tribes, the areas of their occupation and their mutual relations is essential. Beginning from the east to west, as the hymns testify and as Dwivedi's maps (Ibid, pp. 233,274) clearly indicate, Shimyus, Yakshus, Ajas, Shigrus and Sivas (not given in the map, but they are located in the Kankhal and Risikesh region) abound between short-coursed Ganga and Yamuna which joined the Aryavrata (eastern) sea near modern Haridwar and Indraprastha respectively. That they were considered non-Aryan has now been disproved. They have been identified with the Jats in the previous chapter. Panis or Parnis, the commercial people denounced in the Rigveda, were a branch of the Dahae or Dasas and lived on the Western coast of the Eastern sea (Aryavrata-Sea). Ancient Parniprastha (modern Panipat) must have been their chief harbour.
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Between Jamuna and Drishadvati were the Purus, Kurus (Kurusharvan) and Bharatas in the northern and the Srinjayas in the middle with Matsyas and Chedis in the Southern parts contiguous with Sarasvata Sea. The Drishadvati & Sarasvati doab was occupied by "Tritsus whereas- the Bharatas and Tritsus were in possession between Sarasvati & Sutudri (Sutluj), while in its extreme south western parts connected with the Pravata sea (modern Parbatsar) the Panis held thieir sway. Between Sutudri & Vipasa lived the Rusmas, in the north eastern parts (Sub-montaine) of the last two doabs were the Vetsus and the Kikatas, and beyond them the Pisachas. The Bharatas dominated the whole land between Sutudri and Parushni. The doab of Parushni and Asikni (Ravi and Chinab-Rechna Doab) housed the Rakshasas in their mountainous catchment areas. Then downstream lived the Druhyus and Anus & last of all the Yadus in the south-western parts of the Rechna Doab. Between the Asikni (Asi or Asikas are not mentioned) and Vitasas & Dasyus in the northern mountains, then Vaikarnas and Yatis in the sub-montainous part & the Turvasus up to the confluence of the above rivers.
Between the Vitasta & Sindhu were settled in the upper reaches of the Sindhu the Dasyus, Dasas & downstream the Shivas (Sivis), Krivis & Vrichivantas (who belonged to Parasikas). In the north-western Frontiers (including Pamir, Afghanistan & Baluchistan) starting from north to south we find Arjikas at the top, then Gandharvas (Gandharas), Alinas in the west of the Gandharas, then Bhabanas and the Pakthas to the west of the Alinas,then Vishanins (Vrshas and last of ail the Panis along both banks of lower Indus up to its delta on the coast of Pravata (Western) sea. All these tribes were also Aryans and are identified with Jats in the preceding chapter.
In addition to the above tribes, Shri O.P. Bhardwaj locates two more tribes named Mujavats (Munjavats) and Mahavrisas, the former occupying 'the lower part of the narrowing doab of the Rigvedic rivers Saraswati & Drsadvati extending down to their confluence, and the latter lying beyond Vinasana', the place where Saraswati is said to have disappeared (Bhardwaj, 1986, pp. 203-66). The Munjavats, according to him, derived their name from 'munja' (Saccarum munja), a kind of grass which grew in abundance in that region. The Mahavrsas are probably represented by the tribe of the Visanins. Almost all the earlier
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writers located these people in the lands of the Gandhara & Balhikas in the north. Mr. Bhardwaj, in our opinion, is the first scholar who successfully discounted their findings and correctly placed the two tribes.
As mentioned elsewhere, the wrests of deciduous trees including-teak, Saka or Saagwaan (Tectona grandis) covered the sub-Sivalak tarai and eastern parts of Sapta Sindhu. The tribes living in this region were also known as Sakas after the prominence of teak tree in those forests (just as Munjavatas were known because of "munja" growing in their area). Some times it is alleged that the Rigveda is innocent of the Sakas and Teak woods. But argumentum ex silentio can be interpreted both ways. Bahu or Bahuka of Rigedic times was killed by Sakas at Ayodhya, which we have traced in Sapta Sindhu. His son, Sagar, wreaked vengeance on Sakas, Parthas, etc. and banished them to the north-west. Where from did these people after all come at that time? Prithu, the progenitor of Parthas, a branch of Sakas, had his seat at Prithudaka (modern Pehowa) in Haryana. To crown all, the only recension of the Rig Veda, available to us at present, is that which was composed by Sakalas or Sakayanas who were none else but Sakas. In site of these facts, the Sakas are considered of foreign origin, whereas they are represented in ancient Indian literature as descendents of Narishyant, Sagar's contemporaneous Iksvaku, ruler of Vaishali, which, too, is located by us in Sapta Sindhu. The Rig Veda is the product of the Aryans of this very area and yet the Saka composers of the only recension of Rig Veda aValiable at present, who were, by all standards, an important & indistinct section of the Aryans, have, surprisingly, been dubbed as foreigners in their very cradle.
Life and culture of the Rigvedic tribes
Now, let us peep into the political, social, economic and religious life of the Rig-vedic tribes with a view to find possible evidence to support the Westward migrations of Aryans from Sapta Sindhu. The Vedic literature (Richaas) bear ample testimony that except the Tritsus, Srinjayas & Bharatas who were by themselves protagonists of monarchy, the Panchajna or Panchajatah, i.e. Yadus, Tarvasus, Druhyus, Anus & Purus along with all other tribes alluded to (as Asura & Vratya), were republican. They did not have caste system, property was common to the whole tribe the members of which were free to follow any occupation and also to change it at will. The head of the tribe was its
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priest as well as leader in war. The Purus (Asuras of R.V. VII.5, 4, XV. XII. 34 & Sat. Brah. VI. 5. 1. 14) also called Pauravas or Pururavas, became known for the unprecedented growth in their population which occupied more & more habitable and fertile territories. Their prior predominant over lordship and expansion not only endangered the importance of the priestly class, but also became an unbearable thorn in the side of their patrons 'Yajyamanas' the Tritsus & Bharatas, the champions of hereditary monarchy. The Pauravas were 'abrahmanic' & nonconformists. They practised widow-marriage which was disliked by Deva-worshipper. They also disapproved cross-cousin marriage, a favourite custom of the Devas (Chattopadhyaya, 1970,54). The Satapatha Brahmana repeatedly states that the Asuras and Devas were of common stock but fought each other for supremacy (Ibid. 6f).
That the rivers of Sapta Sindhu have been frequently changing their courses since Rig Vedic period is a well established fact. Experience shows that changes in the courses of rivers often became disastrous bones of contention between nations. In all probability, the Parushni (i.e. Ravi, the mercurial river even today) flowed through the territory of the Bharatas. The Paurava tribes such as Yadus, Turvasus, Anus, Druhyus, Sivis (Sibis or Sivas), etc. in the west of Ravi (Parushni) wanted to divert it towards their country which gave a senous cause to the Bharatas to resort to arms against the Pauravas. Money makes the mare go, but the very wealth of the Panis became a fatal noose for them. The Bharatas under one pretext or the other, mostly the lame ones, considered the Panis as their enemies and fleeced them. These changes (which Kosambi regards as trumped up) pertained to stealing of cows by the Panis (Parnis), the merchant class of Dasas (Dahae Sakas) and the Purus. The Bharatas detested them, further, because they followed a religious cult different from the official Vedic religion (Bharadwaj, 1986, p. 258). The eastern Panis, like Bribu and his followers, who gratified them without any demur and satisfied their insatiable demands for cows and wealth without any murmur, were raised to the pinnacles of glory in the Vedic lore and literature, and those, (living in south western Sapta Sindhu), who refused and resisted were not only killed and banished but were also denigrated and denounced with all sorts of detestable epithets. The very virtues of their profession were represented as their veritable vices in popular estimation. More surprising is the fact that wealth and cattle seized or paid as ransom by the
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vanquished to the Bharatas are garbed as gifts in the Daan Stuti hymns of the Rig Veda to mislead posterity. We are at our wit's end to understand why Panis were neither described as inimical towards the republican tribes nor is there a reference to the latter's fight against the Panis in the Rig Veda, if they were really as black as they are painted in Rig veda and subsequent literature. It is only the monarchical tribes, their kings and priests, who exploited by fair means and foul the hapless Panis to finance their campaigns against the republican people. "Weakness, truly, is often the booty of the stronger".
More devastating than the belligerency of the Bharatas over the different political set-up of the republican tribes including the Panis and the aggressive economic exploitation of the latter was the Bharata's acute religious dogmatism and fundamentalism which for long bedevilled the whole of the Sapta Saindhava country. "Religious contention actually became the devil's harvest". The Bharatas and the Pauravas wrote for their respective religions, "wrangled for it, fought for it, died for it, and were separated and exiled for it; anything but lived lor ii". The rivalry between Rudra (Pasupati) and Vishnu for supremacy, the Siva-Daxa conflict and the Deva-Asura war, are all Pointers in this direction. The Bharatas sacrificed bulls & oxen to propitiate their gods and goddesses. Their kings, especially Diodasa Atithigava, entertained their guests, kith & kin with beef of the best of kine. "Indra boasts of eating bulls. Beef was considered as the best kind of food for the Brahmans (Sat. Brah. 111. 1.2.21, xi. 7.13). Yajnavalkya was Very fond of beef. Brhadranyaka of the Yujurveda frankly advocated eating of beef' (cf. Chattopadhyaya, 1970; 54) even though the cow was aghnya in the Rig Veda (VIII. 101.15-16). Such sacrifices and entertainments were intolerable to the Panis and other republican Asura and Vratya tribes who depended, besides irrigation, on draught & milch cattle for the success of their various occupations. These people were Sun-worshippers like their leader Visvamitra. They abhorred the alleged invocation of various female deities (R.V.,X, 110) and offering of human sacrifices by the Bhrigu's descendents (Ibid.10.q.by Waddell, 1925, 60), who blindly espoused the cause of the Bharatas. All these differences soured the milk of their cordiality for ever.
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Things had come to such an alarming pass that retrieval was no more than a dream and internecine war became imminent and inevitable. Ultimately, Diodasa Atithigava routed Yayati's alleged descendents, the Purus, Yadus and Turvasus on the one hand and the Dasas (led by Sambaran), Panis, etc. on the other. His descendent, Sudas was led to victory by his priest Visvamitra on the Vipasa and the Sutudri. Sudas replaced Visvamitra by Vasishtha, obviously because of religious differences described above. This change escalated the forces of destruction which had already loomed large in the "fertile Sapta Sindhu". The long and bitter rivalry that ensued due to inept and inopportune action of Sudas against Visvamitra added insult to injury and consequently fueled the flames. By dint of his dual capacity as a leader of the republican tribes and also as the priest of Sudas, Visvamitra could have used by himself his good offices or could have been instrumental by the powers that were to sue for peace between them. But fate decided otherwise. When the two priests, tormented by rivalry, revengefully knotted their locks, (vowed) against each other, the plight of the belligerent parties for whom they officiated, can well be imagined. The new alliance of the Bharatas and the Bhargavas (Vasishthas) their newly favoured priests, gave a fillip to the Bharatas. The shifting of loyalties by the Yadus, Turvasus (cf. R.V. 1,36,18) and their malernal uncle's (Ushnas Shukra's) sons (infra) in favour of the Bharatas was a further shot in their arm. They later on followed the Bharatas as the sun-flower does the sun.
On the other side, the revengeful Visvamitra led the federation of ten Kings, viz. the Anus, Druhyus, Purus (Yayatas), Alinas, Pakthas, Bhalanas, Sivas, Vishanins, Dasas, Vrichivans against Sudas. But little did he realise that revenge is always reckless and ruinous. It keeps the wounds green. The Dasarajna yuddha took place on the Parushni (Ravi) and victory favoured the Bharatas. The Anu's & Druhyu's kings were drowned and Puruktsa was killed. Sudas fought another fierce battle on the Jamuna against the Ajas, Sigrus, Yakshus, Vetsus, Sivas & Matsyas, who had united under king Bheda, and defeated them I with great slaughter. Loot and arson, capture and enslaving, massacre & annihilation, fleeing & banishing followed in the wake of these wars. If the Rig Vedic tribes, the so-called "civilized" Aryans, were so wicked in spite of their professions of religion, what they would have been'
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Besides Diodasa Atithigava & Sudas of the Bharatas, Daivavat & Prastoka of the Srinjayas were also celebrated as victorious over the Turvasus & Vrichivanas (or Vrishas). Prior to them all Sagar, the son of Bahu of Ayodhya, is said to have not only avenged his father's murder by the Sakas, Parthas (Haihayas, the horse people) but also to have stopped their march on Ayodhya, & to have vanquished them. It is said that on the advice of Vasishtha, his priest, he spared their life, but imposed various types of penalties, as we have already shown, on them and banished them to far-off north-western countries. Parasurama is boasted of by Brahmans to have annihilated the Kshatriyas (Haihays etc.) twenty-one times. The hollowness of this Brahaminical myth has already been exposed in extentio in the first chapter. Over & above our rejection of this myth as a pia fraus devised by the priestly class, we wish to bring home to the reader its later condemnation by an eminent epigraphist. Dr. S.M. Punekar. He suspects that Parasurama's twenty-one attempts at annihilating the Kshatriyas with his only weapon, the axe, is no more than "destroying the seals of kings preserved in libraries, so as to wipe out the 'name' of Kshatriyas from the earth (Mohanjodaro Seals,1984 p.65).
As we have already pointed out, the victorious kings and their armies , in ancient and medieval times, either entirely finished their defeated enemies or deported them lock, stock & barrel to far off lands where from they might not again be a source of trouble. In addition, many of the unfortunate vanquished, in order to escape persecution by the tyrant victors, fled the field and sought refuge in countries which,they considered safe. As we know, Australia is, to a large extent, inhabited by convicted deportees from England, while the Americas are populated by those who suffered during the European protracted religious struggles and also by fortune seekers. Something very similar must have happened to the Aryan emigrants dubbed as Asuras, Dasas, Dasyus, Pisachas, Rakshasas and other tribes who were given these opprobrious epithets, Migrations of the defeated and the dissenters similarly took place from Sapta Sindhu in Rig Vedic times, mainly in the north westerly direction at first as far as habitable lands and least were available, for, expansion in the east and south was not possible because of the Gangetic and Rajputana seas, which though, might have afforded sea-routes to the migrant sea-faring tribes living on the coasts.
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Dr. Kailashnath Dwivedi (Rigvedic Bhugole, Map No.7, p. 232) has sketched the battle-fields and migrations. One battle field extends from the upper reaches of the Jamuna along the southern slopes and Tarai region of the Himalayas (Sivalak) up to the upper parts of the Indus. The second stretched from the sources of the Satluj & Ravi along the banks of Beas and Ravi down to the Panchnada and extended in south east up to the mouth of the Sarasvati. The third field, where the last battle was fought, comprised the banks of the Jamuna & the divide of Jamuna and the Drishadvati from their sources down to the Rajputana Sea coast except the territories occupied by the Chedis and the Matsyas. Bribu, the leader of the Panis of eastern Sapta Sindhu, purchased peace by paying a huge tribute to their enemies, the Bharatas. With the situation of these battle-fields in view it is easy for us to determine, with a fair amount of certainty, the directions in which the vanquished tribes tried to escape under duress or were chased by the armies of the victorious Bharata Kings. As Dwivedi believes, the Deva-worshippers (Bharatas) severely dealt with the non-believers, the Dasas and Dasyus etc. They are wrongly considered as non-Aryans by some later writers simply because they were described so by the victorious section of the Aryans on account of their religious and cultural differences.
From the first battle-field some of the Aryans, vanquished in the war, might have surrendered or may have been captured and enslaved by the Bharatas. Many of them described by the conqueror (Bharatas) as Vritras, Mlechhas, Mrdhvachak, a-Yajnikas and a-Brahmanic Dasas, Dasyus, evidently evacuated their fortresses (Ayaspuras), and to save their man power, escaped, (as the Russians did at the time of attacks on them by Napoleon and Hitler), through jungles and snow-clad hills unfamiliar to their enemies, to still higher reaches of Meru (Pamir) and the Oxus valley, which is believed to have derived its name from the Yakshus who occupied it after the last battle of 'ten Kings'. Since they hailed from Saka (teak) forests of Tarai, they later on became known as Sakas or Scyths. As already stated, Kephart confirms mass movements, from 14000 to 8000 B.C. from upper reaches of the Indus to the fertile lands around lake Balkhash & Oxus valley, which region they named as Gete or Jit or later Jata. some of the Saka tribes are said to have one to Canada, U.S.A. & Latin America via Alaska & by Sea route also (infra). The probability cannot, however, be ruled out that
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some of the defeated tribes repaired for refuge with their kindred but equally hostile (and anti-Bharatas) tribes that occupied the Western plains of the Sapta Sindhu. From Gete also the Scyths (Sakas) went as far west as Caspian Sea & Anatolia during that period, & then up to Western Europe by 5000 B.C. (Keane, Loc. cit).
The treatment meted out by the Bharatas to the Purus, Anus, Druhyus, Turvasus, Yadus and their allies from north western Sapta Sindhu was even worse. As many as 66666 of them were drowned in the Parushni and many of the rest were chased beyond the Indus. Similarly the fate of the Sivas (Sivis), Yakshus, Sigrus and Panis after the last battle on the Jamuna. On the basis of recent researches, scholars, more or less, agree now that the names like Balkhas, Yakshu or Chaksha (Oxus), Sakastan, Scythia, Sivistan, Dahistan, Anav, Caspian (Caspi), Black Sea (Krishana Sagar), Armenia, Phoenicia, Judea, Chaldia, Syria, Zagros, Airyana, Iran, Baltic, Sweden & even Germany bespeak of the footprints of the Aryan migrants from Sapta Sindhu in remote times.
Several discoveries confirm the view that the people known as "Bull people" in ancient Europe and as "Bull worshipper" in Mesopotamia were Rigvedic tribes who emigrated to those lands after the Dasarajna wars via north Pontus and Middle East. Among these are the discoveries of the remains of domesticated Zebu cattle of Indian origin, barley (yava from Yavayavati?) and wheat, the original cereals of Sapta Sindhu and staple food of Rig Vedic people, in the Belt Caves near Caspian Sea by Gordon Childe and Carlton S. Coon, dating 8160 B.C.; the discovery of a statue of Rig Vedic rishi and a temple, dating 7300 BC, at Nevali Cori in Anatolia (Asia Minor or Turkey) by Dr. Heuptmann; the discovery of agricultural implements in Western Germany, Sweden and Jutland, attributed to Suevis (Sivis) and Juts, dating 4th and 3rd millennium B.C., highlighted by Prof. Graham Clarke and the discovery of motifs of Indian bull in various forms, brought to surface by Bedrich Hrozny, Bridget and Raymond Allchin besides Pierbe Amiet etc. at various sites in Mesopotamia, dating 4th and 3rd millennium B.C. (details infra).
If anyone doubts the veracity of these reports, we may draw his attention to the archaeological finds at Mehargarh in Baluchistan in the South Western part of Sapta Sindhu of the Rig Vedic times. This will remove all doubts. The antiquity of the Mehargarh site goes as far
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back as 8566 B.C., which precedes that of Belt caves by more than half a millennium and that of Nevali Cori in Anatolia by more than a millennium. The archaeological evidence proves beyond doubt that Mehargarh was a settlement of sedentary agriculturists, with Scythic element in them. The spade of Messrs Allchins has brought to surface, granaries of wheat, barley, cotton, irrigational facilities, disposal of surplus, class divisions, drought and milch cattle such as cow, ox, buffalo, goat & sheep at that time. We also know from the Rig Veda that Visanins, Bhallanas (Ballans), Vrshas, Sivis & Panis were the people who inhabited and ruled over the fertile Kachi plains of Mehargarh in Balochistan at that remote period of time.
Large scale migrations
The surmise may not be baseless that these very tribes were the a authors of this civilization, and after their defeat and banishment by the Bharatas, they carried these food grains, the cattle and cu1ture to rich fields round Caspian Sea & Anatolia. Coon, in fact, recognizes the cereals & the cattle of the Caspian caves as of Indian affinity & origin. These people also suffered at the hands of unkind nature. More devastating than their political & religious rivalry was the cumulative effect of ecological change on the population of the region in later time. Tectonic disturbances led to the destruction of dams & channels, drying or flooding them, and they affected the economy of Indus valley. It was almost completely shattered by recession of monsoons towards the east (a process that is still going on), deforestation for fodder, food & fuel; loss of fertility of agricultural fields & farms and denudation of leas and meadows by over-utilization & grazing, coupled with gradually progressive and disastrous desiccation of the whole country from about fourth to second millennium B.C. Such was, in fact, the scenario, brought about by man and nature in the south-western, parts of the Sapta Saindhava country, which led to peaceful, aggressive or forced migrations in all directions, but mainly towards north-west and Middle East. To these facts may be added a few more as follows:
Rigveda (VII, 100, 4; VIII, 68, 12f;X,84,1 and X, 118, 8f) leads us to believe that Ur/Uru & Kish/Kshiti in Mesopotamia were colonised by Vedic Indians. What Mr. O.P. Bharadwaj says about ancient migrations of Vedic people to Middle. Eastern countries seems conclusive. According to him, " ... the prominent scholars like Rev. H ..
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Heras, Poisson, Hall, Haddon, Pirenne, & Crowley, to name only a few here, share the view that large-scale movements of people took place from India towards the Midd1e East in pre-historic & proto-historic times. A.R. Mironov regards the ruling class of the Kassites, Hyksos, Mittanis & Hittites of the Near East in the second Millennium B.C. as Indian & E. Meyer also takes the so-called Indo-Europeans of Mittani as especially Indian, although on their way to the east.... According to Haddon, the first invasion of Mesopotamia by Indians took place Soon after 4000 B.C.& Barton also admits the Indus Valley origin of the Sumerians" (Bharadwaj, 1986, pp. 223f).
The discovery of various motifs of the humped bull, similar to the one represented on the Harappan seals, at about a dozen ancient sites in the land of "Fertile Crescent", the veneration attached to its horns on the heads of kings and gods as symbols of strength and its worship since time immemorial in Middle East (Land of Twin Rivers or Mesopotamia) are the solid proofs relied upon and advanced by Bharadwaj (ibid. 223) in support of the migrations of Vedic tribes to those countries. It may not be impertinent to observe en passant that Zagros, Taurus, Jadda or Judea, Phoenicia, Phyrigia, Euphrates & Byzantine are the Hellenised and Romanised names of the Vedic tribes such as Sigru, Turvasu, Yadu, Pani, Bhrgu, Bharatis & Visanin, who were especially marked by their horn-shaped helmets, as already referred to by us. All these people were bull worshippers. In all probability, these very people migrated to Middle East after the drying up of the South-Western (Paravata) sea, or were driven out of Sapta Sindhu by their victorious enemies, the Bharatas, who followed the distasteful practice of bull sacrifice to their gods and goddesses and served beef to entertain their guests and kith and kin.
Theories about original home of Aryans
Some writers are bewildered when faced with an array of conflicting evidence and consider it; if not impossible, at least difficult to arrive at right conclusions reading the en masse movements of the Aryans. There is no reason, however, to feel lost in such self-created maze of blind alleys and grope in vain for a ray of light, for the facts, when collated, point the way clearly and unambiguously. A number of scholars have recognised and acknowledged the inevitable conclusion.
Thus Adelung1,the father of comparative philology, placed in 1806 the cradle of mankind in the valley of Kashmir which he identified with "paradise".
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Similarly, Charaka2 an ancient Indian Physician, and Maharishi Dayanand3 consider Tribishtap (Tibet) as the original home of the Aryan race. Calvin Kephart4, that way, has not exaggerated in any way when he holds Kashmir and Tibet as "the most sacred places of the Indo-Aryans" and points to the movements of these Indo-Aryans from the upper reaches of the Indus to the region known as "Gete" after them in the Oxus Valley. This very region was also called Airyana Vaejo.
Another important source, which probably did not receive the attention it richly deserves, is the Bactrian document, called Dabistan5 (found in Kashmir and brought to Europe by W.Jones) which furnishes us with the 'namealogy' of kings the first of whom reigned in Bactria 5600 years before Alexander's expedition to India (i.e. 6886 years before 1990). Mill6 claims that these Bactrian kings were Hinous (Indo-Aryans) and this is now universally admitted. To my mind, the name of the document must have been a victim of a faulty transliteration of Dahistan to Dabistan. Bactria was known as Dahistan for a pretty long time after the Dahae Massgetae (Dahiya Maha Jats), who were its ru1ers and were of the Saka stock. They were the people who, as we have stated above, migrated from the upper reaches of the Indus (Sapta Sindhu) and Western Tibet in about 8000 B.C. under pressure of the Mongols from the east & north of Mansrovar lake and also of the Bharatas from the south. They stayed In Bactria for nearly three thousand years. It is also interesting to note that these people were very fond of recording and preserving their genealogies which, except for those given in the document under review, are lost in the hoary past.
Towards the close of the last century Sanskrit and Zend became known to European scholars. Max Muller7, a conspicuous authority among the Western Sanskrit scholars, was impressed by a close similarity between the languages, religions and mythologies of the Indo-Aryans and the Indo-Iranians, the only exception being the worship or denigration of each other's gods. So, he concluded that "the latter were, undoubtedly, a colony from northern India and the Schism took place when they migrated towards Persia", possibly under the leadership of Zarathushtra "who" according to Aristotle & Xanthos8 lived more than 6000 years before Plato. Zarathustra's floruit is stated to be from 7129 to.7052 B.C.9 Parsi scholars of India, who follow his religion, mostly agree with Aristotle10. Some Western critics, obsessed with the glories
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of their imperialistic past, dismiss these Claims as mere tradition, as if tradition is no genuine source of information. The authority of the scholars of the caliber and integrity of Max Muller and Aristotle conceded by them to be the "Father" of many sciences, should not be dismissed as unworthy of belief and serious consideration, for, it robs their own learned ancestors of the truth they had so assiduously brought to light. This is an instance of sheer argumentum ad Baculum of some occidentalists.
Himalayan region -
After Max Muller, in 1922 Pargiter11,Who made an exegetic study of the Puranas and the Epics, which also echo the ancient tradition of the Vedas; wrote that "all ancient belief and veneration were directed to the mid- Himalayan region, the only original sacred land, where from the Ailas descended in the Indo-Gangetic plains and not to the north-west as their home." He further avers that "the list of rivers in the Rigveda (X, 75) is in regular order from the east to the west, and this agrees better with the course of the Aila expansion towards and their outflow beyond the north-west". Had the Rig Vedic Aryans come from the north-west, the order of the rivers must have been stated in the reverse order in the Rig Veda.en
Westward migrations of the Indo-Aryans
About three decades later, interestingly, very similar views, though more in tune with Max Muller, were expressed by Robert Shafer12 who, as he himself admits, "remained for so many years delusioned without question with the immigration of the Aryans into India from the West", but his sepsis was aroused when he made an in depth comparative study of the ethnic, linguistic and geographical data available in the Rig-Veda and the Venidad. He emphatically remarked that "the theory of the eastward migration of the Aryans has blinded some previous investigators to the most ancient evidence left by both the Iranians and the Indo-Aryans."
He further asserts, "the Venidad (Fragrad 1) and the famous river hymn in the Rig-Veda (X.75) both name the rivers from east to west. The theory of their eastward migration does not make sense; for, according to that theory the Iranians stopped at the Indus and the Indo-Aryans in the Punjab", If so, the Iranians in situ cannot be expected to be familiar with the easterly rivers of the Indo-Gangetic plains, but, surprisingly enough they were at that time. To further strengthen his contention he says that "for every people where they are is the centre
en - इमं मे गङगे यमुने सरस्वति शुतुद्रि सतेमं सचता परुष्ण्या | असिक्न्या मरुद्व्र्धे वितस्तयार्जीकीये शर्णुह्यासुषोमया || (RV 10.75.5)
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of the universe and from there they radiate out. If you were living in Calcutta and wish to tell your child about the great rivers of the world, would you begin with the Amur or the Mississipi and finally get to the Ganges? Of course not. The only way, therefore, in which the order of the rivers in the Venidad and the river hymn of the Rig Veda makes sense is, as history shows, the order of rivers the Indo-Iranians passed in their westward migration".
Westward migrations of the Indo-Aryans - The westward migrations of the Indo-Aryans and Indo-Iranians from the surrounding areas of the Pamir plateau (Sumeru) as averred by Dr. B.K. Ghosh13, are also vehemently supported by Edward Meyer, Oldenberg, Keith, Johannes Friedrick and Wilhelm Brandenstien. Scholars like Jacob, Jensen and Strutevant consider them, especially Aryans of Mittani as "Indians pure & simple". The Indian origin of the Aryans has been cogently advocated by a number of other scholars also. Ganganath Jha14 proves Brahmarishidesa as their original home, whereas D.S. Triveda15 suggests their officina gentium in the region of the river Devika in Multan (Moolsthan) and L.D. Kalla16 supports the claims of Kashmir and the Himalayan region as their urheimat. Dr. H.K. Ghosh has interestingly summed up various arguments advanced by these scholars. All in all, I feel tempted to reproduce an argument which, being based on the evidence of the Rig Veda itself, is valued as unimpeachable oy us. "The geographical data of the Rig Veda, as analysed in Ch. XIII by Dr. A.D. Pusalker, clearly shows that the Punjab and the neighbouring regions constituted the home of the people who composed these hymns. There is no good ground for the belief that they or their ancestors lived in any other country17 "except in Sapta-Sindhu which is regarded by the Vedic aryans as devakrita-Yoni or devaniritadesa, and her people are held in high esteem by Waddell18, who describes them as "worshipful Vahiti-Gana Deva Ganita".
But, unfortunately, some of the western scholars and, still more pitiably, some of their Indian followers, in spite of the aforesaid unimpeachable evidence, adhere to the irrational and hackneyed theory that the Aryans came to India from the west. They thwart the evidence of the river hymn (X, 75) of the Rig Veda with the plea that its tenth mandal is a later interpolation in the text. But surprisingly
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enough, no critic has so far come forward to tell us about the interpolators the time and place of interpolation. The purpose of interpolation, too, still remains inexplicable. However, we raise our finger in protest against them and will continue to do as long as the antiquity of each Mandal, or that of the Rig Veda as a whole, is not determined and unanimously established by scholars.
Even if we concede the critics' plea, we seek to know from them how they account for the same order of the Indian rivers found in the Venidad (Fragard 1). Do they also consider Fragard 1 similarly a later interpolation in the Venidad? To my mind, they have no plausible answers. The Venidad is not a school text book relaying such information to Iranian children. It is in fact, the Holy Scripture of the schismatic Indo-Iranians. Serious religious differences, which culminated in the final and permanent schism, spear-headed19 by Sukracharya or Ushnas-Sukra, priest of Vrshaparvan,had developed earlier between them and the Indo-Aryans. Hence it is least expected of the former to have introduced at a later stage the Rig Vedic order of Indian rivers as given in its hymn. X. 75 and have retained it in their Holy book in spite of their permanent separation on grounds of religious animosity. Experience shows that in case of such schisms parties never copy the account of the adversary, but vehemently repudiate or reverse them.
The only possible explanation for the westward rather than eastward order of the Indian rivers in their scripture We can, offer is that they were, undoubtedly, the original Aryans of India and had to traverse all these rivers in their natural or forced movements towards the north western countries with their holy books before this fmal schism took place in the country known as Airyano Vaejo "over the question of the importance to be ascribed to the oblation and sacrifice offered to Mazda or Medha20 in the time of Zarathustra" (7129-7052 B.C.).
Who were the people to separate themselves permanently from the parental stock? Who were responsible for that separation? Why did the schism take place at all? These are pertinent problems that call for further explanation. The answers are not far and difficult to seek. In brief, they were said to be, as noted earlier, the reputed descendents of Yayati and their allies, defeated by the Bharatas in the Dasharajna
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wars fought because of political and religious differences. A bird's eye view of the whole affair is given below. It may, first of all be noted that Sukracharya21, the priest of Vrshaparvan, king of Vrishas (descendents of Visanins), is supposed to have spear-headed the Schism and supplied the so-called Asuras (Ahuras) with mental powers. Significantly, the only Sukracharya, alluded to in the Vedic lore and literature of that period, was none else but Ushnas-Sukra22, the great Bhargava rishi, priest of the so-called Daitya-Danava-Asura emperor, Vrshparvan. Devayani, the daughter of Ushnas-Sukra and Sharmishtha, the princess of Vrshparvan, where co-wives of emperor yayati, who, according to Kedar23, reigned in 7102 B.C. Ushnas-Sukra and Vrshparvan, powerful as they were, exercised profound influence on their joint son-in-law, Yayati, to espouse their cause against the Deva-worshippers (Bharatas). Likewise, the petticoat pressure of the co-wives, as has always been the notorious case in matters of state and religion, must have been no less exacting. By virtue of his authority, Sukra also had reverential influence over the Daityas, Danavas, Asuras and the Dasas or Dahae, and was also intimately connected with them.
Several eminent leaders headed their eponymous aboriginal Aryan tribes. They were Sambaran24, a Paurava king, Sushna, and Vritra, generally associated with the Panis, a commercial tribe of the Dahae Massagetae (Sakas); Pipru, Dhuni and Chumuri (Kimmerians or Cimmeri) also a Saka people; Namuchi, Arbuda (Abu) and Vala (Bala), associated with the Panis as the watchmen of their cows; Vriichivans and Varasikas (Asika-Sakas) of Hariyupia, identified with harappa. All of them were also denigrated as Asuras of the Sapta Sindhu. They confederated under the leadership of Visvamitra and Sambaran to fight against their contemporary, Divodasa Atithigava25, i.e. slayer of kine, (otherwise "aghnya" in R.V., VIII. 101. 15f), who led the forces of the Deva-worshippers (Bharatas) on the Ravi. A joint front was put up under king Bheda to fight Sudas, "the defender of Faith" on the Jamuna. It consisted of the five descendent tribes, i.e. the Yadavas, Turvasus, Druhyus, Anavas and Pauravas, respectively from Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anu and Puru, (all said to be sons of Yayati); the Pakthas, Bhallanas, Vishanins, Alinas and Sivas, the Aryan tribes of western frontier; and the Ajas, Sigrus, Yakshus and Matsyas, (who, too, were stigmatised as Asuras in the Rig Veda).
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The bone of contention, as described earlier, between the Bharatas and the followers of Sukra and Yayati was the bull sacrifice to gods and killing of kine for the guests by the Bharatas besides the diversion of the Parushni (Ravi) waters. All these people, deadly hostile as they were to the orthodox Bharatas, condemned in the bitterest terms the latter's orgiastic festivities at which they (Bharatas) inebriated with soma, offered, bloody sacrifices to their gods and were extinguishing amidst shouts of revelry, the life of the innocent kine and bulls26, This leads us to conclude that they must have adopted agriculture before 8000 B.C. as their profession and so they could ill afford the loss of their milch and draught cattle, the mainstay of their occupation, besides the waters of the Ravi, their life line.
Consequently their hostilities ended up in destructive wars which continued for generations. They had throughout to suffer immeasurable misery and massacre by the adherents of bull sacrificers, whose forces are said to have been led by Abhyavartin Chayaman. Later on, Bahu (Killed by Haihayas), Sagar, Diodas and Sudas, assisted by the Vashisthas, deemed it, "as champions of orthodox faith". their sacred duty to chastise the protestants and despatched many of them lock, stock and barrel to the northern and western lands, for, the present Gangetic valley, Deccan plateau and Rajputana were submerged under sea at that time. Since these tribes fought for the protection of their bulls and cows they became, as noted above, famous Bull people in Mesopotamia and European countries27 after they were driven out of Sapta Sindhu.
Certain other but allied factors, detrimental to the antagonists, may also be mentioned here. Devayani and Sharmistha, Yayati's co-wives, quarreled over the importance of the role of their respective fathers. As was the wont, they made a hell, of their own as well as of their husband's life by their unending abusive harangues full of invectives. All this was bound not only to incite but also to precipitate the bitterness between the two sets of their sons (Yadu & Turvasu by Devayani, & Druhyu, Anu & Puru by Sharmishtha) to rob them of their filial relation. As ill luck would have it, two of the five tribes, namely, the Yadavas and Turvasus, who followed Indra cult (R.V., 11.1.30, 1.4,10,3)28 betrayed the common cause, joined the Bharatas and fought tooth and nail, against the Dhunis, Chumuris as well as against their
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own cognates, the Druhyus, Anavas and Pauravas. Thus, they became instrumental in either the destruction or the banishment of many of the latter.
To add misery to their misfortune, the sons of their ancestral priest, Sukra, who were also the priests of the so-called Danavas and Asuras etc., deserted29 their cause because of the entreaties of the Bharatas. This added fresh fuel to fire against the former. What the emboldened Bharatas could now have done against the Pauravas, who always led the antagonistic forces, can well be imagined. We must observe that the Yadu & Turvasu's folk were protected by Indra when invoked by Diodasa Atithigava, and destroyed ninety-nine cities of Sambaran (Chattopadhyaya, 1970; 19). It may not be merely a fortuitous happening but a calculated manoeuvre, which is commonly resorted to in wars to weaken the enemy. They were protected, for they had to be repaid for their fidelity to the Bharatas
King Bedha was killed and Sambaran30 had for fear of his 'civilized barbarian' enemies, to hide himself in a fort in Sindh for forty years. Ninety nine of the Asura's iron forts were conquered and destroyed. The hundredth31 was made fit for the residence of 'Divodasa Atithigava' and Indra protected him in his sacrifice. Thousands of the so-called Asuras were either mercilessly butchered or were forced into their watery graves in the Jamuna, Satudri, Prusini, Asikini and Sind during the Dasharajna wars. The wretched few, who escaped death, were chased as infidels by Sudas beyond the Indus river.
The long-drawn-out wars between the two Aryan groups have been grotesquely painted in the Vedic and post-Vedic literature. Shorn of this mystifying curtain of legends and mythology, they evidently illustrate that, more than any thing else, religious antagonism between these two Aryan groups was the only important & immediate cause of the wars which at long last resulted in the permanent schism between the two, that is, between the orthodox Deva-worshippers, who did not budge even an inch from offering bloody sacrifice, especially of the bulls, to their gods on the one hand and, on the other hand, the unorthodox schismatic Aryans (the alleged sons or followers of Yayati, also called Yayatas). These later Were subsequently remarked to be a "a colony from north India". Ultimately, they evolved the Zoroastrian religion according to the teachings of Zarathustra, who can probably
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be said to be the first 'Martin Luther' in human history. He and his followers were compelled to leave their original home for good. The spiritual leaders of the new religion as well as its harbingers were apotheosized as deities from heaven and were appellated as Yaztas32, an honourable title because they belonged to the Yayatas and were worthy of worship. These very people must be the esteemed and worshipful "Vahiti gana deva ganita" of Waddell. Several facts establish, beyond doubt, the fact of the migrations of the followers of Zarathustra from India, via Aryana Vaejo, due, as pointed out, to their serious religious differences with the Deva-wroshippers (Bharatas). Among these facts the following stand out clearly included among the Iranians in the Avesta, which also mentions, were Purus (Pourus), that the people gave33 a grand reception to Zarathustra and his followers inIran and that they came from central Asian steppes (Aryano Bijo). The rift was permanent. Truly, milk once turned sour, cannot regain its mildness. The crack in the glass is irreparable.
Westward migrations of Jats
The Jats are Aryan and Scythian who were dissident Aryans. Consequently, Jats, as a part of Scythians, were closely associated with them in all their movements and migrations as well as with the Volkerwanderung of the Aryans, within and without their cradle, the Sapta-Sindhu. Some of them might have gone out in search of leas and meadows for their cattle and kine, but a majority of them seem to have left their mother-land as victims of the internecine wars caused by religious intolerance. History testifies that whenever there occurred, social or political upheavals, (whether due to the Dasharajna wars in the Rig Vedic period or the Epic wars followed by Digvijayas or consequent upon the death and decay of the Mehargarh and Harappan civilizations), they not only sent shock waves to the neighbouring countries but they also pushed up large-scale migrations. Some of these migrants were those vanquished in wars. Others were the peaceful people uprooted by increasing desiccation of the Indus valley. These migrants created tumultuous commotion and confusion where ever they went to in the central Asian countries, the Fertile Crescent and even further west. More information about the migrations of these Aryans of the Sapta Sindhu, who are generally dubbed as Scythians or Sakas (the forefathers of the Jats), are given in the sequel.
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We may pause to point out that our erstwhile political masters from across the Seas and their Indian admirers have been constantly hammering the theory that Aryans, Scythians and the Jats were foreigners who came to India from the north-west. Then our "new friends" the Russian scholars, with the exception of a few, vigorously followed suit and harped on the same tune. The idea of Aryan intrusion in to India from outside has been repeated in the history text books of every class since our childhood so that we have come to believe this theory as gospel truth though it does not stand the scrutiny of history. We worshipped the foreign scholars for long at the cost of our own savarts. Truly goes the saying, "ghar kaa jogi jogna, baahar kaa jogi siddh ",Our investigations in the sequel, however, point diametrically oppose theory of Aryan, Scythians (dissident Aryans) and Jats belonging to India and migrating out of it to the north west. Earlier the discovery of the Harappan Culture sealed the lips of those who did not consider Indian culture older than 1500 B.C. or so. Now the excavations at Mehargarh in Balochistan Pakistan) should, in our view, silence those who advocate Saka or Aryan migrations from the west. This new evidence, we hold, establishes indubitably the honourable antiquity of the Aryans or Scythians and their descendents, the Jats.
The internecine wars of the Aryans in Sapta Sindhu, we had shown, had pushed up migrations of the Iksvakus and Sakas, etc. to the Gangetic valley after Bhagiratha. Subsequently, the Sakas etc. were forced by Sagar to move across the Indus river. Consequently , the region up to Ural mountains was called Sakastan. "Archaeology firmly establishes Saka connections not only with Sakastan, Sakhalot near Dargai in the N.W.F.P."34 but also with other places even up to Scandanavia. The Scythic (Saka) element in the ornaments discovered at Mehargarh35 near Quetta in the Kachi plains takes the Saka association with and occupation of Balochistan by them as far back from about 8566 B.C. down to 2400 B.C. The Iksvakus are said to have been in possession of the Swat.(Suvastu) valley, which is considered by PL Bhargava36 as their original home. The first37 encounter of these Aryans (Bharatas) as noted earlier was with the Dahae (Dasyus or Dasas or Tasas) , an importan branch of the Sakas , in the upper reaches of the Indus38 wherefrom they perforce migrated to the Oxus (Jaksa or Yaksu or Aksu or Chaksu) valley and gave their ethnic name Jete39 (Jit, Jat) to the new home of their adoption in about 8000 B.C. The
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archaeological "link40 of Aq Kupruk and Mehargarh with Southern Tajikistan, north-western Afghanistan and Amu Darya," and "the strong Murgabo-Bactrian character41 to the material which dominates the assemblages from the Southern cemetery of Mehargarh" strongly suggest the mixture of the Scythians with the local population and 'convincingly point to the contemporary movements and migrations of the Sakas in that region.
We shall presently see that an examination of the material culture an conflicts of the Rigvedic Aryans in the Sapta Sindhu, as evidenced by the text, is entirely compatible with what we know from arc archeological evidence from the Russian steppes regarding very remote colonization there by the Sakas. The Deva-Asura war or the Dasarajna battles are well known. The struggle was twofold42 - one against the so-called nomadic Sakas & Dahae (Dasas & Dasyus) etc. and the other against the civilized agricultural tribes like the Yadus, Turvasus, Druhyus, Anus and Purus the Panchajata (whose social organization and grouping is represented by the Jats in the Indian sub-continent today) and Buryats (Burjats or Bura Jats) living in the Steppes on the Dena river Russia43.
The Sakas and others, mentioned above, were non-conformists who strongly protested against the religion of the orthodox. "It is hard to live in Rome and fight with the Pope." The dissenters, notwithhstanding all the sinews of war at their command, could not hold out for long. They faced defeat after defeat and were at last compelled to leave their strong holds in the Sapta Sindhu. "They could not disperse eastwards before the time of Trin-Vindu or southwards on account of the existence of impassable seas, nor northwards into Central Asia, for the very same reason". The only direction in which they could and did disperse was westward44, through Bactriana to Western Turkistan and through Afghanistan and Baluchistan to Iran45 and further west. Moreover, the drying up of the marshes of the receding central and northern Asian sea which is survived now only by the lake Balkhas, the Aral Sea, the Caspian sea and the Black sea, afforded fresh alluvial fields for cultivation and pastures for their cattle. The fear of their foes in the Sapta Sindhu seems to have been only,One of the reasons (though the major one) for their migrations. Their desire for fertile lands might
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The colonization of the Anau or Anav region in the north-east of the Caspian sea as well as of the eastern and western Scythia, (as the names suggest), is unmistakably reminiscent of the settlement of the Anus and Sakas and Dahae (Dasas of the Rigveda) there in the remote past. There is no great improbability in the surmise that Siberia owes its name to Sibi Aryas and Mangolia to Mann and Golia or Gulia, the two Aryan tribes, followers of Agastya Man or Mandharia, who is known in ancient Indian literature as an Aryan coloniser of far-flung countries in the north and south of ancient India. The name was, however, changed into Mongolia, after its occupation by Mongols. Similarly, we feel that Manchuria was originated from Mann Suryas & Armenia from Arya Manns. We also know from the testimony of Kephart46 that the Caspian sea owes its name to Caspi, a tribe of the Indian Sakas. Pococke47, too, maintains that the Greek appellation of river Euphrates (Eu = good, Phrates = Bharatis) betrays the name of the Bharatians who settled in that valley. They had, as noted before, emigrated there from Sapta Sindhu, where they are said48 to be living on the banks of the Saraswati river along the lower course up to its mouth during Rig Vedic period.
Further evidence of their westward migrations is provided by the discovery of the remains of wheat and domesticated cattle near the Caspian sea. Cultivation of wheat is, according to Vanilov, a Russian scholar, an original crop of the Punjab49. It is, on the other hand, commonly associated with the Rigvedic Asuras (Dahae) of Anau50 in 8000 B.C. The earliest cultivation of wheat is attributed by V. Gordon Childe51 to the Tasians (Dahians or Saka Dahae) and the faunal remains52 of animals like dogs, buffalo and zebu, unearthed at Anau, strike Gordon Childe as having strong Indian connections. Coon's excavation53 at Ghar-i-Kamar-band or Belt caves & Hotu cave near Caspian sea indicate the practice of agriculture and domestication of animals in 8160 B.C. by neolithic people who had "come from some where else". This evidence cannot be dismissed as mere wool gathering. It effectively substantiates our premises. Coon, Duerst, Childe, Pallis and Pumpelly, according to K.P. Chattopadhyaya's54 account of their
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findings, emphatically suggest that the Anau people from Caspian and Cave areas migrated and contributed to the Jericho, Jarimo (Mesopotamia) and Indian cultures. Unfortunately, they stop at that. They have not tried to determine wherefrom the Anau (Anus or Anavas) folk initially came to inhabit Caspian and Cave areas or what happened to them before that.
Punjab region - the original home of Aryans
We must bear in mind that earlier than Anau and Ghar-i-Kamarband, the local population of Aq Kupruk and Mehargarh (Pakistan) including Indo-Aryan or Scythic (Saka) elements, cultivated , wheat, barley and cotton and had achieved full domestication of cattle by 8566 B.C., as attested by L. Dupree and Shaffer. However, migrations of Aryans under pressure of the Turks and Mongols in about 14000 B.C.,8000 B.c., 4300 B.c., 2300 B.C. and 1700 B.C. from the lower and upper reaches of the Indus to the West and South are alluded to by Calvin Kephart55. The catacomb grave culture, streamlined by Klejn (infra) and that of Mehargarh etc., highlighted by Dupree and Shaffer as well as that of Ghar-i-Kamarband or Belt caves can also he fairly assigned to these migrants. The migrations of Iksvakus, Sakas, Sivas, Yaksus, etc. took place when the Russian steppes and Europe were 'wrapped in wintry sleep'. Klejn and other archaeologists unfortunately do not seem to have taken these earlier migrations into consideration.
In view of the latest and the newest "Light on the most ancient East" given above we can only remark that Coon, Childe, Pallis etc. have put the cart before the horse. Fresh knowledge, in fact, refutes the conclusions of such archaeologists. As already noted, wheat, according to Vanilov, a Russian scholar, is an original crop of Punjab, and we have shown that it is commonly associated with Rig Vedic Asuras (Dasas or Dahae, Anus or Anaus or Anavas). Vanilov holds that Punjab was the original home of the Aryans, and that the Iranians, Greeks, Romans. Germans and the English are their descendents56. He also holds that wheat originated in the Punjab. These two facts, if admitted, knock the bottom out of any contention that Aryans came to India from Southern Russia. Vanilov's premises lead to the inevitable conclusion that cultivation of wheat and introduction of the domesticated Indian animals in the Caspian region were contributed by the Indo-Aryan migrants who, as we have already shown, migrated to southern Russian steppes much earlier than 8000 B.C. from Panjab,
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Our claim is further substantiated by unimpeachable evidence from another two latest archaeological sources. A controversy57 that racked the brain of scholars like Brandenstein, Gimbutas, Sauer, Issac and Ho as to where the centres of domestication of especially pigs and zebu cattle took place first, was silenced by Issae58, who, on the strength of the oldest archaeological evidence belonging to 7th millennium B.C. from the Near East, namely, Cayonu in Anatolia, asserts that domestication of pigs originated from Anatolia and the zebu cattle from India at a remote date. As mentioned elsewhere the custom of milk-drinking was introduced by Nordic-Getaei in western countries probably as far back as 8000 B.C. This strengthens Issac's claim. Similarly, the evidence of Nevali Cori (Turkey) is still more revealing and strongly vindicates our stand. Dr. B.G.Sidharth59 informs us on the authority a highly developed civilization at Nevali Cori dating back to to 8th mil1ennium B.C. i.e. 7300 B.C.), that the discovery and study of a temple and a limestone head of a Vedic priest, complete with a clean shaven head and the Characteristic tuft of hair and pigtail, obviously proves that either the Rig-Vedic seers were the elite Anatolian class or had contact with them. This evidence affords a solid ground to Dr. Sidharth to fix 7300 B.C. as the date of Rig-Veda.
Curiosity inspired Dr. Siddharth to visit personally the recently excavated site of Nevali Cori near Ataturk Dam in Turkey. According to him, "The oldest known civilization of Nevali Cori has close similarities With the Rig Vedic civilization. Its cleverly Planned massive structures almost compete in magnificence with the structures of the Assyrians who lived thousands of years later. These structures, including huge carved pillars, sculpted figures, circular walls built with stone bricks, a huge hall (probably a temple) and smaller room-like structures with stone seats (which could be study or meeting chamber), had been erected on the ruins of the earlier structures. Its authors could well have belonged to the earliest Vedic civilization, or represented a civilization which shared an active influence with the Rigvedic civiliization. This claim is based on the fact that the excavated site had a
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definite Sanskritic influence which could be traced to 2000 B.C. ... Even new names of many of the towns in the region have a Sanskritic sound. The region today is the homeland of the Kurds who are of Indo-European origin. The Kurdish language contains many Sanskrit words and their old religion was Zoroastrian which was close to the Rig Vedic civilization. They were agriculturists. They had a type of dice game and used lamps at a time when others were primitive nomads. They followed the tradition of building a temple on the ruins of another, a practice in Nevali Cori, that exists in India even now" (The Statesman, New Delhi, July 16,1992, "Nevali Cori Excavations Reveal Rig Vedic Traits". p. 6, cols. 1-3)
Dr Colin Renfrew60 talks of agricultural activity in Anatolia before the end of Ice Age, and Calvin Kephart61 interestingly finds the Pre-Sumerian Gutis (and Utis, identified with the Jats), disseminating knowledge of agriculture in those lands, especially relating to cultivation of wheat, the original cereal crop, according to Vanilov, (supra) of the Punjab (Sapta-Sindhu) , were-from it was introduced through upper reaches of the Indus to Afghanistan and North Iran, and to Baluchistan, South Iran,and and Mesopotamia through its lower reaches. This movement of wheat must ave inspired Dr. Daniel Zohary, who62 credits Afghanistan and north Iran where bread wheats are thought to have originated from a hybrid of emmer (Triticum Dicoccum) and 'goat-face grass' (Aegilops Squarrosa). Like many others, the above mentioned scholars, except Vanilov, advocate the migrations of the Indo-Aryans from west to east, but their thesis is conclusively refuted by the findings of Kephart and the archaeological evidence of Mehargarh (8566 B.C.) in Baluchistan.
The fact that wheat and certain cattle were carried to the west from Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) leads to the next important question - who were the carriers of this culture to those countries? It may, without any hesitation, be suggested that, in addition to the Dasas (Dahae), the carriers of these were the Yaudheyas. Dr. Buddha Prakash63 contends on the authority of Frye and Adontz, that Yaudheyas, (the descendents of Trin and Nrga), along with the Maciyas (Matsyas or Machhiyas?), Parsas an Assagartas figured in an ancient Volkerwanderun and finally settled in Anatolia. They reached Anatolia through northern Iran (Luristan) where they were known as Yautiya. Those who reached
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Anatolia through Armenia and Transcaucasia were simply called Uti or Utene in Greek. T.J. Kedar,64 like others, does not admit India as the home of Aryans and contradicts himself when he locates Indo-Aryan tribe like Sivas or Sivis, Manns, Yakshus (Jakshus or Jakhus or Jakhars), Purus, Kurus and Sigrus (Sigrohas) etc. in Armenia and Anatolia in 7102 B.C., the age of Emperor Yayati. One of this stitements is obviously false. In view of the latest findings, the first part of his assertion, namely, that the original home of Aryans was not India, falls to the ground. The fact that some Jat tribes, who held sway for a time in some parts of the Bombay presidency, came from Allopo65 (in Turkey proves beyond doubt that the Jats had already settled there in the past. The possibility is not remote that they were the descendents of people brought to lime-light by Buddha Prakash, for we knew It for sure that the Jats and Rajputs are the progeny of Yaudheyas who were also known to racial historians as Johiyas.
Excavations at Aq Kupruk and Mehargarh emphatically indicate an earlier culture than that of Anau, Nevali Cori and Namazlgrah. While discussing the chronology of the earlier periods of the Greater Indus as seen from Mehargarh (Pakistan), Jean Francois Jarrige66 says, on the authority of L. Dupree67, "In that respect, the work conducted by Dupree in north-eastern Afghanistan (Balkh) is significant. At ,Aq Kupruk he has found evidence of an epipalaeolithic assemblage with microlithic components dated according to C-14 to 14665 B.C. This settlement has been assigned an earlier time bracket of 20,000 - 15,000 B.C. by Ball and Gardin (1982: 38), quoted by Purushottam Singh (1991: 122). To J.G.Shaffer68 full domestication of cattle at Mehargarh by local people, including Scythians, cultivation of wheat, barley, cotton, and stocking them in granaries (excavated), which presuppose irrigation system and social stratification, took place between 8566 BC and 6960 B.C. He ascribes the class divisions, settled life, higher civilization and presence of Scythic clement in the local population (confirmed by Dupree in that very area) to the same period. On the face of it, this earlier evidence conclusively negates the assertions of the archaeologists who favour migrations from Anau etc. towards India. The error is understandable, for the evidence now cited by us,being of recent origin was not available to them.
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Coon and Sewell seem "to hack the bough on which they aare sitting". Their assertion that the animal remains from Anau and the Belt caves demonstrate strong affinity with Indian water buffalo, zebu and dog contradicts their assertion that the authors of this culture (Tasas or Dasas or Dahae-Sakas) "came from somewhere else", for a culture and its carriers cannot be thus divorced without strong evidence to the contrary. Coon's "somewhere else", therefore, can be nowhere else except northern Sapta Sindhu. The pastures and meadows of Anau, Askabad, Namazgah, Turang Tepe, Shah Tepe and Hissar Tepe could not have received the domesticated cattle from India without their owners, for cattle do not travel on their own to seek domestication. As the tradition goes, where ever the Jats migrated, they invariably took their cattle, especially their buffalo and the pot smoking69 habit of the ancient ancestors, the Scythians, with them. Interestingly, buffalo was ab initio a domesticated companion of the Rigvedic Aryans70. If these are an indication of their movements, we can with confidence conclude that the Sakas in prehistoric times and their descendents, the Jats in historic period, as already noted, undoubtedly migrated from the Sapta Sindhu to as far away as Mesopotamia, the Caspian sea and further west when Russia and Europe were wrapped in wintry sleep. Mr. Atal Singh Khokhar71 gives a detailed account of the life and political struggle of the Jats who also settled down and ruled over these countries during the 9th and 8th centuries B.C.
It is very interesting to surmise that the word Tepe or Tipi is a distortion of Tapa or Tappa, an Indian term 72 , which even now denotes a habitat. Moreover, Schellenburg's73 discovery, that Anau people used to mix the casts of wheat and barley with clay for making thick pots, is very relevant to our subject. Clay, treated like this has been in use since time immemorial in north western India for plastering the outer sides of the walls of kacha houses in the villages. The Sakas and Anus or Anavas must have introduced this technique to Anau and employed it to manufacture their pots, for they knew it very well, that unless the adhesive wheat and barley casts are mixed with the left-over loose sands of receding central Asian sea, compact pots, that can remain so, cannot be made out of it.
en:Wiki Editor Note - Ṭāpī (टापी) is a Rajasthani word which means a temporary hut (झोंपड़ी). Laxman Burdak 02:57, 14 January 2010 (UTC)
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Further evidence, unequivocally convincing evidence,indicates prima facie that the Sakas of the original Vaisali (in Sapta Sindhu) not only founded the homonyms cities in Bihar and Burma in the east but they also gave the name of their ancestral capital to their newly acquired settlements in the west up to the Urals in Russia. There are as many as nine 74 place names viz. Vesely, Veselyy, etc. in Kazakhastan, Ukraine, Stalingrad, Rostova and the Urals, which, without any shadow of doubt, betray the name of Vaisali of the ancient Sapta Sindhu. I have, however, not been able to study au fond the archaeological excavations conducted behind the erstwhile "Iron Curtain", but on the basis of whatever meagre evidence I could lay my hands on, I must say that it does support our claims.
Findings of Russian linguists
Some Russian linguists and philologists, viz. Bobojan Gafurov, Guseva, Orlova, etc. have formulated the theory that the Russian Steppe and the Forest Steppe Belt of Eastern Europe (Orlova, north of Asia Minor) formed, in 3000 B.C., the original home where from the Indo-Iranian and/ or Aryan sub-family came to India in the second half of the second millennium B.C. In support of this theory they listed a large number of the commonest words from Sanskrit, Persian, Tajik and Slavonic languages. These words, in spite of their slight phonetic variations have a marked similarity (cf. Vibhakar & Aggarwal; 1989:16-56, 194-97,206-12). This basis is too narrow to support such a radical hypothesis. Linguistic affinities, no doubt, help to establish racial identifications, but ethnologists give little weight to language as the sole acid test of a race. Further, such similarities fail to determine the direction and time of linguistic proliferation if unsupported by archaeological evidence.
Guseva draws our attention to kinship between ancient pantheon of the Aryans and the deities of Slavonic-Russian and Slavonic-Baltic paganism, and to the affinity between Aryan & Slavonic languages. These to her, are the result of long-standing contacts between the "ancestors of the two. To cite a few examples from her armoury, she derives the very word Veda from Slavonic root Ved or Vid, which means knowledge or authority; Bhaga, the Rigvedic god of blessings & riches, is, to her, a variant of Russian, Bog. Russian Nebesa is Sanskrit Nabhas (skies) and the ancient Slavonic god, Savrog, is Sansknt Svarga. Vayu or Vata, the Vedic god of wind, derived from its
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Sanskrit root Va is Russian veter (wind). God Rudra is Russian pagan god, Rod (destroyer) and Varuna is the mightiest ancient Russian god, Perun.
The only comment that we can offer about this literary evidence presented by her in support of her thesis is that such linguistics affinities fail woefully short of conclusive evidence and can 'ensure success only to her own satisfaction. In our view, her effort is as futile as to "churn out butter from water". She does not take into account the much earlier migrations from Sapta Sindhu of Aryans who introduced their culture in the region stipulated by her as their original home. The similarities pointed out by her are conceded, but the matter does not end here. First, why did the names of their gods and other words, utilised by her as tools to build and defend her hypothesis, get phonetically changed? What is more, why did they become totally extinct in the very home of their origin whereas they have survived in their original forms in India despite all vicissitudes since Rig Vedic times? Before we assess similar claims of Orlova etc., we deem it necessary to scrutinize Klejn, another ardent votary of this theory, whose plank is mainly archaeological evidence.
The evidence gathered below from Vesalyi and other grave complexes brought to light by Klejn is no less significant and relevant to our inquiry. The catacomb method of internment of the dead in the North-Pontic graves 75, as he argues, is the same as recommended in the Rigveda76. The "paired graves containing male and female skeletons evidently lie in poses of sexual contact"77 and probably indicate an earlier practice of Sati (burying the willing widow with her husband') which was abolished by later Rigvedic Aryans78 and "the diksa ritual which included real coitus not long before death"79, a custom observed in a modified form by the northern Indo-European kinsmen of the Indo-Aryans and followed80 as such by the Volga nobles till 10th century A.D., are the proofs, brought to surface by the indefatigable efforts of archaeologists like KJejn and others. These facts indisputably demonstrate the contribution of the Rigvedic Aryans to the culture of that region in the hoary past. The evidence further gathered by Klein is even more remarkable in this respect.
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There is evidence from the cemeteries of Swat81 of the burial of horses. There is also evidence from the North Pontus graves lower Don basin, Vesalyi (Vaisali) barrow 3, grave 5,)82 of the performance of the Asvammedha ritual or of an Asvamedha sacrificial offer as well as of a ram83 to a dead man. This was a common practice with the Iksvakus in India. These remarkable similarities suggest, beyond doubt, the existence of interaction between the Iksvakus and the people of the Pontus. Such an interaction is corroborated by several other practices. Amon anceint Indians there was the practice of embalming the dead body especially the skull, hands and feet, with sandalwood paste or vermilion or turmeric powder or myrtle paste. A Similar practice is discernible in the Pontus graves. Klejn84 thought the paste in the Pontus graves to be red-ochre or such other paint powder, but he seems to be mistaken. Further, the designs of Indian Rangoli85 (or Alplna or Atta) are visible on the floors of the Pontus graves, and so are Swastika marks on the painted potsherds. All these facts, taken together, convincingly confirm a powerful interaction between the ancient people of India and North Pontus. This interaction could be explained both ways by migration to or from India. All additional evidence, marshaled by us earlier and elsewhere, show that the migrations were from India, and not vice-versa.
Laufer informs us that the dyestuffs like indigo, a favourite colour of Aryans, safllower, henna, turmeric (and possibly vermilion and red ochre, colours made from them) are of Indian origin86, but Klejn does not seem to have taken this significant fact into consideration in his conclusions. Klejn agrees that the use of red ochre, is an indication of the home and radiation of the Aryans in 4th-3rd millenium B.C. The use of red ochre in burials, traces of red ochre coloured textile visible on the bones, and presence of its cakes are to be fround at Mehargarh87 in greater Sindhu (Indus) Kachi pains of Baluchistan (Pakistan, earlier a part of India), in 8th millennium B.C. Similar practices, equally discernible in the North-Pontic pit and catacomb graves date three to four millennium later. The time factor proves conclusively, and unmistakably, that these practices originated in the Sindh Valley and much later, were carried to the north-Pontic region.
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Clear evidence of the existence of several artifacts, [viz. Vajra, (a kind of club or weapon of the Sivis and the Sakas also) battle axes and hammers of stone, bronze aras (awls), knuckle bones and sets of dice, pressing stones and clay funnel for filtering "soma", censers and to crown all, the Vedic Vedi and the Trefoil-shaped four-sided clay altars in the North-Pontic, Pontic Caspian, Ukranian and Fore-Caucasian catacomb cultures from the 4th to 2nd millennium B.C.]89 represent unmistakably the imprints of Indian culture in the colonisation of the Russian steppes during that period by the Aryan (Sakas) from India. Trefoil-shaped embroidery and Swastika were already favourite with the Harappans.
All these and several additional facts inspired Klejn to postulate that the North Pontus, Caucasia etc. might be the original cradle of the Aryans who migrated to the Asian countries from the Pontus-Caspian Steppes via the Near East90. Among the facts that he cites to establish his thesis may be noted the following: The eco of Rig Vedic culture in the content-finds from the catacomb graves, the occurrence of the distorted forms of Vajra in some Baltic languages; the description of the killing by Indra of Danu and Vrtra, identified by Klejn91with river Dnieper (ancient Danpr) and the stones through which it snakes down as well as his identification92 of the Pisachas, the demonic peopre, -with the Caucasian Psessoi of the Greek authors and of the Dasas of the Indo-Aryans with the Tasas or Tasians(meaning alien in Mansi) of the Ugric tribes. He presents no evidence, however, to rule out the alternative and equally possible is the possibility that the migration may have been in the exactly reverse direction, that is, from India to North Pontus and Caucasia.
Klejn's thesis that South Russia was the original home of the Aryans is effectively refuted by K.N. Shastri93 when he remarks that "the latest of the ochre-graves are dated to about 12th century B.C.; and if these were the people who subsequently played the role of Indo-Iranians and Indo-Aryans then how is it that their traces are not found south of the Russian border land? In Iran no ochre-graves or Kurgans with their characteristic contents have come to light pointing the southward progress. If the Kassites who founded their kingdom in Mesopotamia in the 19th century B.C. were the vanguard of the IndO-Europeans, by which route did they reach Mesopotamia and
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where did they disappear after a century or so? If they came to India via Iran,there must be some corroboratory archaeological evidence to support it, but there is not an iota of it."
K N Shastri remarks further that the people buried in a huge Kurgan (barrow) near Maikap in the Kuban valley in South Russia were tall, dolichocephalic, with rather low forehead and pronounced supra-orbital ridges'. This evidence strongly suggests that those people must be Sakas, the fore-fathers of the Nordics as well of the Jats who are also marked exactly by the same physical features. In the light of evidence cited above, it seems that Klejn has vainly tried to "reverse the flow of the Volga", for all evidence points to migrations from India to south Russia, and not vice-versa, as we have already shown.
Klejn's claim that south Russia was the cradle of the Aryans who came to India via Middle East runs into another absurdity, namely, that he ancient Aryan culture are found today in south Russia, their supposed original home. Why did the features of that culture disappear from what Klejn regards to be the homeland of Aryans whereas Aryan culture still exists in India? We must remember that a culture despite all vicissitudes in its life, does not vanish in toto in its birthplace. The explanation is that South Russia was the interim home where the Aryans en route to farther European countries temporarily camped while some of them might have settled there permanently. What is most probable is that Klejn was swayed in his conclusions by the casual imprints and vestiges left by these Aryans in the region of his explorations when they were on their way to Europe from India. Interim home or adoption of another country as second home cannot be equated with the original one.
As for the identification of Dana and Vrtra with the river Daniepr and the stones through which it passes as well as that of the the Pisachas with the Caucasian Psessoi and of the Dasas with the alien Tasas, Klejn's views appear to be farfetched and his conclusions hasty in spite of the literary and archaeological evidence he cites. We know it for certain from the Rigveda itself that Vrtra, also called Ahi94, son of Danu95, was a human being96, and his tribe or followers, the enemies of the Aryans97, were spread over from the Saraswati river to Iran98 and the Dniepr (Danapr) of Klejn. As the Aryans from the Sapta Sindhu
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continued establishing their colonies in the West, they went on vanquishing the Vrtras. First of all, (as Vrtraghni99, an appellation of the Sarasvati, suggests), they were wiped off from this region, then from the confluence of the Vipasa and Sutudri100, next from the Indus Valley101 and finally, as already noted, from the Daniepr.
The Pisachas and the Daha, Danas or Danavas' concentrations are also found primarily in the north-western parts of the Sapta Sindhu . The former are identified with the Pashai Kafirs of Afghanistan103 and the latter with the Dahae or Tahai of Dahistan or Tahisia or Tahitia or Tahia104 (Bactria). Many peculiarities oft the Pisacha language are still traceable in the Khasa languages of Western Himalayas as far as Kumaon, in the Lehnda dialects of Western Punjab, in Panjabi and Sindhi105 as well as in Sanskrit literature, particularly in the dramas 106. This proves beyond doubt that the Pisachas originally belonged to north eastern and western Sapta Sindhu and not to Caucasia as conjectured by Klejn. He admits that the Tasas (Dasas of the Rigveda or Dahas of the Iranians or the Dahae of the Greeks) were "aliens" in the Caspian and Caucasian regions. This contradicts his own assertions because that implies that they were migrants, confirming our thesis (that these groups migrated from Sapta Sindhu to those regions) rather than his thesis (that these regions were the original home of the Aryans). As for the Danas or Danavas, they were from Danistan in northern Afghanistan 107. Who could have imagined that these people from the barbarous land of Afghanistan would have left their indelible vestiges in the names of certain Eurasian rivers in the past? Yet so it was.
Klejn argues that the variants of the Sanskrit word 'Vajra' (Indra's weapon) in the Finnish-Urgic languages means that the original home of the Aryans was the Ugric region. This is arguing in a circle. All that it means is that the variants in the two languages for Vajra indicate interaction. The do not, per se, indicate which of the two is 'the "original" and which one is the "corrupt" form, nor do they indicate who migrated where. Unsupported, these variations may be interpreted both ways. The additional evidence marshalled by us shows conclusively that the term 'Vajra' travelled from Sapta Sindhu to the Ugric and Finic countries. The Indian Aryan's (Saka's) language, no doubt, underwent certain changes, both phonetic and grammatical in their new home, i.e.
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the Baltic countries, as the natives of these lands had difficulty in pronouncing unaccustomed sounds and of learning the niceties of Sanskrit language. The Balts naturally pronounced Vajra as Vaecer, Vasar, and Uzera. This is very vividly corroborated by J.B.Levins. He says "The listening to unfamiliar foreign sounds, we try to relate what we hear to possible surface forms in our language"108 in matters of allophonic alterations. The Sakas (Scythian Getae) took the 'Word 'Vajra' to the Balts and the Balts mispronounced it.The Vajra was the favourite weapon of the Sivis, Asikas or Risikas, etc. in Sapta Sindhu, and they carried it to Europe also. The observation of Tacitus109 that these people, who made a name as agriculturists and resemble the German Suebis (Sivis or Sibis) in their customs and dress, used swords rarely and clubs (Vajra) frequently, is no less relevant. In view of the evidence cited above by us, the thesis built by Klejn collapses like the proverbial house of cards.
We may also examine the recent opinions of some more Russian academicians on the original home of the Indo-Europeans. Relying on purly linguistic evidence from the Achean Greek in the west, Lavian in the south, Hittite in the centre, Mittani in the east, and Palaic in the north of Asia Minor, S. Orlova110 asserts that "the ancestral home of the Indo-Europeans was situated not in Central Europe or along the northern Black Sea coast, but in the north of Asia Minor (to the south of Transcaucasia, and to the north of Central Mesopotamia)". The speakers of these languages lived as neighbours before the 4th millennium B.C. when they probably spoke one common Indo-European language. To strengthen her thesis, she111 uses literary evidence collected by T.V. Gamkrelidze, V.V. Pvanov & N.I Vavilov relating to flora and fauna of that region. She112 also derived support from similar evidence relating to material culture brought to light by A.O. Mnatsakanyan, O.M. Djaparidze & other Russian archaeologists. The sum and substance of her theory is that the Indo-Europeans radiated in all directions from Asia Minor.
Orlova113 mainly draws in her defence on a well-known philologist and linguist, R. Jacobson, who reiterates that "the rythms of certain genres of Slavonic folklore poetry continue the general Indo-European reconstructed meters which compare the almost archaic forms of Greek poetry and the meters of the ancient Indian
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songs of the Rigveda. She also harnesses the evidence of the use chariot, mentioned in nearly all Indo-European myths, its discovery in Mycenean Greece and at places formerly occupied by Scythians and Germans. To further reinforce her view she114 quotes Gordon Childe according to whom the most ancient chariots and their images date to 4th millennium BC. in northern Mesopotamia where from they spree in Eurasia115. She also considers the social structure of the Hittite & Mittani, etc., which resembled in type the priestly societies of ancient western Asia and which consisted of three classes, namely Priests (white), Warriors (red) and Artisans (light blue), as the probable precursors of the similar Indo-European societies of later times in various countries
Oriova's thesis is basically similar to those of other Russian scholars, whose assertions have already been carefully re-assessed and rejected as untenable. The only departure that Orlova has made is that she has shifted the original cradle of the Indo-Europeans more toward ihe south-east (Asia Minor). Since the basic approach underlying the thesis has already been examined at great length, no further comment is necessary; and yet we would like to go into her theory to establish our thesis still more conclusively. We need reiterate what we have already established, namely, that waves after waves of the Indo-Aryan tribes migrated from Sapta Sindhu between 5000 B.C. to 3500 B.C. to North-western & Middle Eastern countries. We may add to what we said earlier: namely, that the Hiti (K + Hitti) or Hittite (K + Hittite - Romanised), the Gothic people (Getae or Jats), were synonymous with Khati Indo-Aryans of the Sapta Sindhu (Multan or ancient Moolsthan)116 . One of their kins was famous as lord of the ganas of the, Vahika-desa, i.e., Punjab (Khati Vira Sri Vahiti Gana Deva-Ganita) These people (Khattiyo in Pali, Khaiti or Kheta or Khatri or Chati or Chhatri in Prakrit, Hit or Hiti in Hebrew, or Hittite in Syria and Turkish) migrated to the land of the Fertile Crecent in Treta Yuga under the dealership of Lava, son of Sri Rama of Ayodhya117 (Ajodhin). They established the Hindu empire, popularly known as the Kheta empire valley of Twin Rivers and Mediterranean countries where they ruled up to 1190 B.C.118 This interpretation explains whatever similarities the Russian and other scholars have noted but have erroneously interpreted
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It is worth mentioning here that the Hittite or Khatis en route to Mesopotamia via Iran maintained their old honourable royal titles of "Sri Hiti-Vira Ca Airan Ca Parameshwera" or "Hiti-Vira Ca Airana Ca Paradeshvara" (i.e. paramount lords of the Hiti and of the Paradas or Parthas in Airana (Iran) 119.
This empire remained sunk in oblivion till about a century ago. It is mainly through the decipherment of certain Assyrian inscriptions of Circa 1100 B.C, Assyrian tablets of C.1800 B.C. and the momentous discovery in 1909 by a German professor named Dr. Huhh Winkler120 of over 1000 Cuneiform tablets at Boghaz-Kui.,(Cappadocia) that our knowledge of and interest in the Kheta Emperors and their splendid Empire are revived.
Besides the Hittite, several other Aryan tribes penetrated peacefully into Middle East countries in Treta Yuga under the leadership of Kush, son of Rama Dashrathi, from Purshakhanda (Puruland in Sapta Sindhu) and founded various principalities there121. These are known as the Mittanis and the Hurrians. These names are obvious variations of Sapta Sindhu names. Thus the Hittite were the Khattis, the Kushites (Kushanas?), Kissites, Cassites or (in Greek Kosseans). The Mittanis are Mithranis or Mirdhas or Midhas. The Hurrians are Suryans or Surias or Suryas - (S often changes into H). The Suryas were the Rajanya families of the Iksvaku branch of the Purus. The Kassites ruled over the whole of Babylonia up to 1180 B.C.
As noted before, Hall, Hrozny, Gurney, Saggs & Woolley consider these people of Indian origin. Hall asserts that they were Aryans and their language, especially of the Mittanis was Sanskrit and they worshipped Indian gods The Mittani kings carry such names as Tushrutha, Arthashumra, and Arthatama.122 Their deities are named as Shuria (Sun), Maryatas and Simalia. Giles123 identifies their deities with Indian Vedic gods Surya, Marutas and Himalaya (Syrian Simalia = Iranian 'Zimalia = Vedic Himalaya = Queen of snow). These remarkable similarities establish their Indian origin and confirm Hall's assertion. A Mittani horse-trainer named Kikulli124 prepared in Circa 1400 B.C. a manual on the science of horse-training in colloquial Sanskrit for the kings of the Kheta (Khatti or Hittite) dynasty . He popularised the Indian science in the Middle East.
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These facts are highlighted by the Tell-el-Amarna diplomatic letters 125 which were fortunately discovered, in 1888, by a peasant woman at El Amarna in Egypt. These letters were exchanged, around 1400 B.C., between the kings of Egypt (Amenhetop III or Amenophis III and his son, Akhenaton or Icchenaton of the XVIIIth Dynasty) on the one hand and the Kings, princes and Governors of the Hittites, Mittani, Assyria, Babylonia and Palestine on the other. These letters give some more names which, too, are of Indo-Aryan origin and bear without any shadow of doubt the Indian Sanskritic stamp. As given by an eminent Indologist, the names are Artadhama Artsama, Sudharna, Dusarata or Tusarata, Prasastar, Rtasmara, Sangkshatri, Mathiraja, Viryasura, Purusha, Kshemasura, Satraja, Indrota, Subandhu and Satvasa. It may also be mentioned en passant that Neshthiki126 (glyphed as Nefertete or Nefertiti), (wondrously handsome, a paragon of beauty, with sharply cut Aryan features), sister of Mittani king, Dushratha or Tushratta, was married to the famous Pharaoh, Icchenatin or Akhneton of Egypt in 1420 B.C. Attention is also invited to the array of evidence, as already cited, by Mr. O.P. Bharadvaja to establish migrations from Sapta Sindhu to Mesopotamia.
In view of the above evidence, we have every reason to believe that the Aryan Rajanya families under leadership of Lava & Kush, sons of Rama Dashrathi, captured the hearts of the original population of the Mesopotamian countries and Asia Minor so effectively that these populations adopted the Aryan gods and goddesses, worshipped them as their own and solemnly invoked their blessings in times of danger and at other important ceremonial occasions. All this is amply borne out by the treaty of 1350 B.C. between the noble Hittite (Khatti) king, Suppiluliuma (meaning one with golden hair-Supilu, loma in Prakrita) or Shubhiluliuma (Spalula or Suvarana roma-hair) and the Mittani (Mida or Mirdha) king Mattiwaza or Mattiuaza (Mattivasa), son of king Dashratha or Tushratta, enshrined in the cuneiform tablets of Boghaz Koi127 (Turkey). The Vedic gods were exalted so much in the ethology and ethos of the contemporary society of Mesopotamia and Asia Minor that the Indian gods of the Vedic pantheon, named as Mi-it-ra (Mitra), U-ru-w-na )Varuna), In-da-ra (Indra) and Na-sa-at-ti-ia (Nasatya, the two Asvins), were called upon earnestly by both
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parties as witnesses to their historic treaty128. The original name of Boghaz Koi is, interestingly, Bhogaschaya129, i.e. shadow of Bhoga or Baga, a supreme deity of the Indo-Aryans.
Another sheet-anchor of Orlova's theory is mainly the litterary evidence of some Sanskrit words, e.g. medha (sacrifice), and Yuga (Yoke) which became current in certain proto-European languages130 of the Celts etc., who were in Asia Minor in 4th millennium B.C. This factual evidence, however, is misinterpreted by her, for the time-factor goes against her theory, as we have already noted. The Indo-Arya is as shown earlier, had colonised Anatolia and established the Vedic culture there (Nevali Cori) in 7300 B.C After them the Getae (5000 B.C.), the Panis or Punis or Phoenicians (3500 B.C.) and others went to Europe via Middle East, Asia Minor or Anatolia. The evidence utilized by Orlova to build her thesis, whether it pertains to philology and languages, flora and faun, social structure and material culture, in fact, represents the vestiges of the cultural legacy of the pastoral Indo-Aryan tribes who migrated to the western countries as far as Scandanavia. On their way out they had intermittent stay and settlements, temporary or permanent, in suitable climes and countries. Orlova does not seem to have taken into consideration this significant factor.
Orlova, further, relies for her theory on the prevalence of the chariot in the 4th millennium B.C in a very limited area, i.e., betwen Trans-Caucasia and lakes Van and Urmia. She also relies on Gordon Childe who believes that the spread of the chariot in Eurasia is connected with the migrations of the Indo-Europeans from their homeland in Northern Mesopotamia or adjoining areas in 4th millennium B.C. The recenl finds of chariots by Mnatsakanyan and Djaparidze, the Russian archaeologists, confirm Gordnn Childe's view. Orlova builds her theory on these facts.131 Her wrong interpretations from these premises flows from her ignorance of the antiquity of the Indian chariot. The earliest literary mention of chariot (racha) is in theRig Veda (VIII, 25,22) 132, which is believed to have been compiled mainly on the banks of the Saraswati river in Haryana, the eastern part of Sapta Sindhu; the Original home of the Indo-Aryans. On the basis of its internal evidence of various kinds, A.C Das133 asserts that the Rig Vedic hymns were Composed between 25000 B.C and 7500 B.C, the period reckoned by him after answering all objections raised by western scholars against
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this surmise in the first edition of his famous book "Rigvedic India" published in 1920. Piggot134 gives elaborate information about the diagrams of Rigvedic chariots. The Rig Vedic ratha antidates Gordon Childe's rathas by several millenniums, and so the ratha could have spread from India westwards, and not the other way round, as Orlova would have us believe.
The next mention of the ratha is to be found in the two great Indian Epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata (3102 B.C.). The verry name of King Dashratha indicates that he was-master of ten chariots. Over and above these references, the discovery by Carlleyle135 of the rock drawings and paintings of two chariots with four spoked wheels, one drawn by four horses and the other by two, on the walls of Morhans Pahar group of rock shelters in central India of Mesolithic and perhaps also the preceding upper PalaeoIithic period136, establishes the antiquity of Indian chariots, the domestication and training of horses in India beyond doubt. Another discovery of a two solid wheeled copper chariot, yoked with two sturdy oxen and with a driver standing on a hind seat, at Daimabad137, a Chalcolithic site in Maharashtra138 provides further evidence in this respect. It may en passant be observed here that chronologically the Ox precedes the horse in [[Asia and Europe.
By way of conclusions drawn from all this evidence, it is safe to I assert that the Indian chariots considerably predate 4th millennium B.C. to which Mesopotamian chariots and their images, discovered by Gordon Childe and others, belong.These Middle East chariots are, at best, contemporaneous with the ones mentioned .. This formidable array of evidence leads to the irresistible conclusions. Orlova fails to realise that what she records as permanent settlements were, in fact, the stop-over settlements of certain Indo-Aryan tribes in northern Mesopotamia on their way to further western lands.The vestiges these Aryans in transit left in the course of their onward march are taken by her to be features of a permanent home.
Last but certainly not least, G.M. Bongard-Levin is another Russian scholar who has devoted a full volume to trace the "Origin of Aryans", sub-titled as "From Scythia to India", in which he (1980:123) states that "the ancestral home of the Aryas" (was) 'only the regions of South-Eastern Europe-from the Dnieper to the Urals. It mav only
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be said in this connection that our refutation of the kind of arguments, viz. "the materials of linguists, history, archaeology, ethnography and folk-lore studies", advanced also by other Russian and European writers on the subject, is equally applicable to Levin and holds good in rejecting his thesis. He, too, seems to have mistaken the ancient interim home of the Aryans en route to Europe in the remote past from Sapta Sindhu, as their cradle.
Over and above other Russian Indologists, Levin, in order to support his thesis, also cites the evident existence of some Rig Vedic words, i.e. "Sharabha" an eight footed fantastic beast mightier than even lion), "Rhipa" (earth or mountain) and "Soma or Homa" (bhanga-Cannabis indica) in the ancient literature of certain European countries. Here, need call attention to how successfully Dr N.R. Waradpande (1989:50-58 recently strove to take the wind out of Levin's sails. We may only add that the myth of "Sharabha" may be as good as the modern myth of the "Himalayan Heti" (a legendary giant snow-man), who is said by explorers to speedily disappear at the sight of man as the "Sharabha" of Levin used to do. Further, many students of Vedic literature identify Soma with bhanga (hemp or cannabis). according to Waradpande (ibid., 53), the Avesta (the hoty book of Zoroastrians, the schismatic Aryans) uses word bhanga along with the word Hauma (Soma). If this is correct, then we have already shown that these people (Zoroastrians) were from northern India. In Latin, "Cannabis" is, interestingly, coupled with Indica, i.e., India (Deshpande and Hook, 1978: 89). To cap all, if this important word is any indicative of the migrations of Aryans or of their home, its Latin name (Cannabis indica) clinches, in our view, the issue once and for all that its very home is India (Sapta Sindhu) and its carriers were the Indo-Aryans from this very home.
Archaic Arabic literary evidences
The theories advanced by Klejn, Guseva, Orlova and others do not stand the scrutiny of scientific analysis. To the arguments advanced by us in refutation of their theories we may add, as a crowning piece, the unassailable literary testimony from an ancient trustworthy Middle Eastern contemporary source. We, refer to the poem, in archdic Arabic, written, as we have already shownn, by an Arabian poet named Laabee bin Akhtaab bin Turfaa bin Al Abd, who lived 2400 years before Hazrat Mohammad 139. The poet pays obeisant reverence to "blessed land
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of Hind" where "God revealed True knowledge to His prophets at the dawn of civilization in the shape of four Vedas, i.e. the Saam. Jajur (Yajur), Rik (Rig) and Atar (Atharva)". He respects the Vedas as repository of knowledge and praises 'their message of universal brotherhood and Salvation" (Cf - Appendix No.4). This means that four thousand years back, India was acknowledged as the source of knowledge in the heart of Middle East.
Interestingly, reading the poem between the lines vividly establishes some important facts pertinent to the subject of our inquiry without any shadow of doubt. These are:
1. The four Vedas are Divine Revelations (Ishwarya or apaurashaya). Laabee, a Semitic, is, to wit, a forerunner of Maharishi Dayanand, What Dayanand said in 19th century about the divine creation of the Vedas, Laabee, with the present state of our knowledge in this respect, was probably the foremost person to have declared in about 1800 B.C.
2. The birth place of the Vedas is India.
3. The Vedas were composed and compiled before 1800 B.C.
4. The Vedas are coeval with the dawn of civilization in India, the blessed land, where God revealed them to His prophets - (Agni, Vayu, Aditya and Angira as they are made known by Maharishi Dayanand).
Had the Indo-Aryans come to India via Middle East from Asia Minor and the adjoining areas, Laabee must have paid homage to those countries and their inhabitants in preference to India as the birthplace of the Vedas and the Indian prophets (seers and sages, composers and compilers) to whom God revealed true knowledge of the Vedas at the dawn of civilization, but he does not give this credit to the Indo-Europeans of Orlova, Klejn and others, This unimpeachable evidence may virtually be considered, as it is, sufficient to have given the quietus, once and for all, to those native as well as foreign propounders of and adherents to the theory that the Aryans came to India from the north-west. As for Orlova, it may only he said that her surmise is obviously as hollow as a drum.
Indo Aryans in Baltic region
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Lithuania and as Gots or Goths in Sweden141.It is also remarkable to note that Pontus" is greek version of Sanskrit Panth, which means route through Asia Minor followed by the Aryans from Asia (India) to Europe142. We now adduce further evidence to support of our thesis. Dr. Suniti Kumar Chatterji143 informs us that one branch of the Aryans or Indo-Iranians was the Iranian people known as the Sakas or Scythians who came to settle in central Asia as well as in the Southern part of Russia where they shared more or less a common of culture with their Slav and Bait kinsmen-they did not participate in the same advanced life and thought of their own brothers to the South, namely the Iranians and the Indians".
Interestingly, the most conclusive proofs come from the Baltic writers and poets themselves. Andreja Pumpurs, the Latvian poet, who composed the Latvian national epic of Lacptesis (Rasabatisa?), (based on old Latvian ballad, myths and legends) in 1888. Janis Rainis (1865-1929), the national poet of Latvia, and writers also from Lithuania, described in glowing terms how the culture and wisdom, and even the origin of the Balts was from far-away Asia in the east, from India itself (Baltisthan). The Latvian writer, Fr. Malbargis actually wrote in 1865 "that "the Latvians" (Lath, Lathars or Lats?) like the Russians and Germans came from the banks of Ganga144. Another Latvian writer in 1859 put forward the same view. "A wise people the Burtnieks" (Bhartians or Bharatas?), "according to the Latvian tradition, brought all wisdom and knowledge to Latvia from India".
In Latvian tradition, Videvuds (vidman or vidwaan) was a teacher of this profound wisdom. The old Lithuanian priestesses, the Vaidilutes, used to tend the sacred fire; part of the old Indo-European Balt religious rite, and this fire, as a modern Lithuanian poet asserts, "arrived in Lithuania from the banks of Ind.145 But, according to Prof. Ojurs Kratins146 "there was no priestly class among the ancient Latvians·". This was so, perhaps, because when these Latvians or Letts or Lats or Lathika = Rats, Raths, Rathikas = Ristikas or Rsikas (who were a branch of the Sakas/Scythians) were expelled by Sagar to far off western countries (supra), no Brahmans were allowed to accompany them.
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It is, however, extremely surprising that when the modern Baltic writers and poets themselves emphatically admit the immigration of their ancestors especially Scythians from India in the hoary past, in Russia, there chanced to enter into the head of archaeologists the idea of placing the cradle of the Aryans in the Russian Steppes though it should be obvious that they must have reached the Baltic countries via Russian Steppes. Further, archaeology, their chief weapon, is not always infallible as the interpretation of the excavated material may run the risk of subjectivity and C-14 technique, as is observed by Adris Bannerji147, cannot always be thought free from inaccuracies. Dr. A.C. Das148, rejects the Aryan home in Northern Europe or the Arctic regions as postulated by B.G. Tilak, or Central Asia, as believed by some others, and firmly believes it to 'be in Sapta Sindhu whence, waves after waves of nomadic Aryans in more or less savage conditions, migrated or were compelled to migrate towards the west".
It is extremely interesting to note that Dr. Marija Gimbutas149, a Lithuanian scholar, who has highlighted many affinities and parallels to show close cultural and linguistic relationships between the Balts (from Baltisthan) and the Vedic Aryans150, mentions, as quoted by Dr. Chatterji151, the names of the Baltic tribes and territories. These indisputably betray their Indian names and, especially, Jat names. The names she mentions (with their possible equivalent given in brackets) are: Latgala or Lettigallian (present-day Letts of Latvia) or ancient and modern Lets (Lathar Jats), Kursas or Curonians (Kurus), Sela or Selonicans (S=H, Hela Jats), Kulmas (G = K, Gulmas from Gulmarg, Kashmir), Pamede (P = B, Bamede or Bamian), Lubava (?), Pagude (Jagude or Jakhar Jats?), Sasna (Sse or Ssae, Scythian, Jats), Galinda (Kalinda?), Varme (Varmas, V=B, Barma or Barme or Birhmaan Jats), Notanga (?), Samba (Samba Jats), Sakalva or Skalva Sakas), Nadruva (Madras?),Barta (Bharta Jats), Suduva, also known as the Dainva (Danavas), and the Jotya (Jatva or Jats).
In this context, we also wish to draw the attention of our readers to a still more astonishing fact that the Balts, even after their separation thousands of years ago from Rig Vedic Aryans and in spite of their permanent settlement in the Baltic countries thousands of kilometers away from Sapta Sindhu, have not as yet dislodged the idea from their psyche that India is their motherland. Their modern poets still proudly
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pay homage to India as their sacred ancestral home. The famous poem of a Lithuanian poet, named Yacys Reimeris (1958), in which he pays reverential obeisance to India, is a clear proof of their migrations from India152 (Appendix No.5).
Now we come to German Goths, who are also supposed to be the descendents of Scythian Getae, who were, to Kep1art, the progenitors of the Nordics whom the Germans also proudly claim as their forefathers. Heeren153, a noted German historian, virtually confirms our stand when he asserts that "the Scythians, or Skolots, (who were none else but Indian Sakas) as they were called in their own language, had not always inhabited the tract extending from the Danube to the?Tanai or Don, but were reported by historical tradition preserved among themselves, to have come from the east." He says further, that "from the earliest times we have noticed periodical migrations of the Scythian Getae or Massagetae who populated the whole of the Western Europe from thence and who seem to have been, as it were, the magazine e of our race." "It may also be added, apropos of their westward 'movements that these people contributed 30 to 40 percent words of Sanskrit Origin to literary Russian, whereas the percentage in Lithuanian and Lettish is as high as 60 and also retain all the Sanskrit inflections, and strangely enough, the pitch and accent usually associated with our classical language, especially in the sonorous Vedic Chants" 154.
The parallels and similarities, nay, even the affinities between the folk culture of the ancient Balts, Swedes, Jats, Goths, Germans and Celts or Kelts (wandering fighters) and the ancient Indian Vedic tribes, so assiduously brought to light by scholars like Myles Dillon155 and S.K. Chatterji156 are so striking and astonishing that, more often than not, one is at one's wits end to determine vividly the direction of their Volkerwanderung. A host of Baltic writers (supra), vociferously attest their migrations in the remote past from India to Europe and bear out their kinship with the Vedic-tribes and their culture. Without repeating all that they have said, we only cull out from their findings what is pertinent to our present inquiry. The presence of two words, besides others, in their languages, i.e. widow & (devar, husband's younger brother) are of special interest to us. Widow written as 'wuduwa' or 'widwe' in Anglo-Saxon dialects, 'Vidua' in Latin, 'Widewe' in Middle
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English, Wudawe in French and Old English, and wituwa in old High German, Withwe in German, Videva in Russian and Baltic dialects and fedb (Yedv because f and b = v) in Celt and Old Irish languages157, all seem to be derived from vidhva in Sanskrit. Similarly, we find devar (levirate) as 'levir' in Latin, 'taacor' in Old English, & daer in Greek, derived from Sanskrit term devar, used in Rigveda also158.
It is remarkable that till 18th century, the Germans, like the Jats, were caste endogamous and tribe exogamous159. Further, German custom prohibited marriage within the seventh degree of consanguinity1l60. Since this similarity of custom points out an import cultural link between the Indian and German followers of the Sapinda rule III marriage, we deem it pertinent to reproduce the Sapinda rule of the original as quoted by Madsen. "The Sapinda rule has a European counterpart in the medieval Germanic custom of prohibiting marriage within the seventh degree of consanguinity. The rule as interpreted by the church created a very large and indistinct category of non marriageable persons and it proved too clumsy to follow in practice (Duby, i985; 35f)". Levi-Strauss (1969; 400, 415) also discards "four gotra rule" as extravagant and Sapinda exogamy often clumsy and difficult to interpret. The Germans obviously abandoned these rules probably because of these practical factors. The recommendations, in this respect, are given by Manu (111.4; V.60), Yajnavalkya (1.52), and Kamasutra (111.1.1) These have been proved by Garn's findings (1969-Human Races) to be of merit for producing better issues. Geneticists, too, have acclaimed them as most scientific in their International Conference in New Delhi (Hindustan Times, Dec. 14, 1983). Maharishi Dayanand had already suggested in 19th century that genetically the more the distant a marital relation is, the healthier will be its progeny. The Hindus, and especially the Jat, more or less, still follow these rules.
What is more important than the occurrence of the above quoted words in those languages and the marriage rules is the fact that the migrating Indian tribes practised widow-marriage after the fashion of the Rig Vedic Aryans, a custom still followed by their descendents, the Jats, in the Indian Sub-"continent. Truly, customs, like fossils, die hard.Still more revealing as well as startling is the fact that they have till today been looked down upon and singled out for ridicule by the orthodox
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because of the sincere observance of their hereditary, pristine and humanitarian custom. The opponents of this practice, however, have often accepted this practice whenever they found it advantageous and beneficial for themselves; they followed it even at the price of losing their status temporarily in their own caste and justified it with the example of the Jat 'biradari' their 'Yajyamans'. Equally distasteful was 1he attitude of the priestly class to their brethren who migrated to and settled down in European countries. With the advent of Christianity till the period of Reformation, the clergy-men, whether Catholic or Lutheran, condemned them for their folk lore and native customs as barbarous and heretical161.
Linguistic evidences -
In addition to the above evidence to strengthen our thesis, we pick up certain words from the archaic and classical languages of Europe, which are "genetically the daughter dialects" of Sanskrit and prakrat languages of the Indo-Aryans. The words are, Sal or Saal (living room in Jatu and old High German, Anglo-Saxon, old Celtic and French), Sammel162 (joint or shared in Jatu & OHG & A.S.) to milk is melk or ''miluh or miluk in OHG163 and mel or melna in Jatu, gurh (jaggery) in OHG is gur in Jatu, Schiera of OHG164 is Sheera of Jatu Kshir of Sanskrit is kheer in Jatu and Kyre (milk pudding) in OHG165. Such instances can be multiplied, but their further crowding is unnecessary, for, we believe that a single solid proof is more valuable than hundreds of baseless conjectures.
It may not be impertinent to observe here that, except the word Kshir, none of the above words enjoys its etymology or owes its derivation to Sanskrit. These words must then be from the Prakrit languages of the Rig Vedic people who were stigmatized as Dasas (Dahae Sakas). Asura, Mleccha, Danava and Pisacha, branded as "mridhravach" by the Deva-worshippers (Bharatas) who turned them out to the west after their defeats on the Yamuna, Studri, Vipasa, Parusni, Asikini and Sindhu rivers. These were the rural people who probably did not speak Sanskrit, the language of the elite. Though the linguistic affinities are not considered positive proofs of the migrations of peoples, yet it must be remembered that language has not entirely lost its validity as yet in tracing and c1assiying various races and even determining some time the direction they hail from their earlier to later home. Consequently, We may with confidence conclude that besides the introduction in
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Europe of the custom of widow marriage, a unique characteristic of the Jats and their, ancestors, coupled with the disdainful attitude of the priestly class against them and their custom in the two continents, the existence of the above peculiar words of Jatu glossary, (still extant in the dialects of the Indian Jat), in the archaic languages of Europe, establish beyond any shadow of doubt the migrations of the Jat tribes, from Sapta Sindhu to western countries in the past. Could ideas travel alone without their carriers to far off lands, especially during an age when there were no means of mass media as we now have?
As is evident from our ancient Sanskrit literature166 the women without whose presence no family 'yajna' was deemed to be complete, were not allowed to attend the 'Sabha' during the entire Vedic period. Bloomfield167 also confirms that women had not nothing to do with the 'Sabha'. Interestingly, we find that the Jats who claim as well are considered, and rightly so, by racial historians to be the true representatives, nay, descendents of the Aryan republican tribes, who observed this custom, have been following it to the present day without any deviation. As experience shows, the Jat women, especially educated ones, have come forward to become members of the State Assemblies or the, Lok Sabha without any hesitation. Otherwise, the observance of the pristine custom is so strongly sincere with them that howsoever hard you may try to persuade them, they would scarcely agree to go to the conventional Sabha-all (Chaupal) of the village where the village assembly sits and decides important matters concerning the village. Even in the gravest of the grave circumstances, an aggrieved woman, irrespective of caste or colour, birth or wealth, will not enter the Chaupal; she would, rather, sit at its foot to invite the attention of the Villagers for the redress of the wrong rendered unto her.
Surprisingly, the patriarchal society of the Vedic Aryans is dubbed for such an inferior position of their women, but the Jats take pride in preserving the parental custom. This very custom was followed by the Greeks and Romans168, the Germans (Sueoi or Suebi-Sivis or Sibis or Sivi Joths or Djoths) - Teutons, Angles and Saxons till their descendents secured "suffragette" in 1928 to carve out membership for the fair-sex in the British Parliament. The possibility, however, cannot be ruled out that the Saka Geta, Massagetae and Thysagetac, the ancestors of the Jats, must have carried this Vedic custom in addition
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to the introduction of Widow-marriage in those societies when they, as we have noted elsewhere, migrated to those countries when Europe was wrapped in her 'wintery sleep'.
Origin of Germany
To crown all, the very name Germany appears to be of Indian origin. Recently (1982) Mr. M.S. Jindal169, a jurist of Meerut, traced the origin of the Jats from Jutland and that of Germany from a Sanskrit word gramani. He170 contends that gramani in course of time was transformed into Garmani or Germani and finally into Germany. The first contention of the jurist, which carries coal to New Castle, stands disproved by our erstwhile inquiry whereas the second seems to contain some grains of truth. Gramani is a designation, used in India probably till the time of Harshavardhana.It signified171 "a nominated or elected headman of a 'grama' (village)" or "a 'Vira' i.e. a brave leader, who commanded a portion of the host in war" and "played an important role as one of the eight Rajakrtas172 in the entourage of the king during the Vedic and Post-Vedic age'. There is no gain-saying the fact that the Saka Getae, the progenitors of the Nordics, identified by ethnologists with the Goths of Germany and the Jats of Asia, migrated to Europe. Initially they concentrated in the Baltic and Scandanavian lands, and finally, in addition to these countries settled permanently in villages (gramas) in Gotland, Jutland, Germany & England. The hordes of these people must have been led by the brave leaders, known as gramani.
The process of "gramani" altering into Germany seems to have started with their movements towards the west. That Germany was written as Germani (very much akin to 'gramani' in Latin which is considered to be a daughter of Sanskrit, does lend credence to the assumption of the jurist. An ounce of genuine and germane evidence is in fact, more weighty than tons of empty speculations. There should be no valid objection to the derivation of Germany from Gramani in view of similar derivations that are widely accepted, for example, Bhrgus as Phrygians and Burgandians plus the areas of their settlements as Phrygia and Burgundy, the Halas of the rugged and barren mountains of Afghanistan as Helas or Helenese and their new home in Greece as Hella; the Gandharas of Gandhara (Kandhar) as Centaurs and their abode as Centauria; the Magadhanas as Macedonians and their new
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The symbol of Swastika
Further evidence of the migrations of the Indo-Aryans to Europe is provided by the adoption of the eastern filfot,i.e. Swastika of Indian origin175, a sacred symbol of the Rig Vedic Aryans, by, the Germans and others176 in Europe. It was, in comparison to other "European nations, retained till recent times only by the Germans, but only in its reverse177 form. This form of German Swastika seems to express their hostility to the ancient orthodox "papacy" and its "baptised" Kshatriya cohorts for fomenting dissensions among their common parental Indo-Aryan stock which often resulted in their internecine wars and banishment for good of the vanquished, the so-called unbelievers, to far off lands wherefrom they may not be a source of trouble in future. Had the people gone to the west of their own sweet will, the shape of the Swastika would never have been inverted by them. The Germans used this sacred symbol during world war II as a myth to unite their Nordic forces under the banner of the Nazi regime, but had to repudiate it under duress after their defeat in the war, Sporadic signs of its revival are, however, again visible after the re-unification of Germany to the consternation of other European nations. The reaction of the Zoroastrians and Muslims against the orthodox Indian Aryans is similarly represented by the former in some of their perversions.
The symbol of Swastika is still popular with the Indian Jats and other Hindus. It has become a regular part and parcel of the Indian folklore with the aryanisation of the country. We cap all this by citing an irrefutable proof of the movement of the Swastika to the west. The discovery of a "leaden figure of the goddess of earth-altar by Dr. Schliemann in the second city from the bottom of the six cities, built over one another, on the site of Troy (Trojans) ", (which according to Hewitt ,"exactly depicts the Hindu altar), made in the form of a woman with the Swastika mark on her body": the Swastika must, obviously, have travelled to Troy.
A striking citation from Will Durant, the eminent historian and philosopher, deserves, in this respect, serious consideration and is most appropriate here. Unlike some of the western vainglorious literati, he
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frankly admits that "India was the motherland of our race and Sanskrit the mother of European languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother, through the Arabs, of much of our Mathematics; mother, through Buddha, of ideals embodied in Christianity; mother, through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother India, in many ways, is the mother of us all"179. In fact, "nothing can be made out of nothing". It is not for nothing that Durant concedes in such laudatory language, this heritage from their Indian forefathers. This frank acknowledgment, as already noted, by Heeren and Will Durant, the doyens of the occidental galaxy of men of letters, of the debt that the West owes to India and their candid recognition of her legacy to them speaks volumes and is an unforgettable rich tribute to India and her sons who civilized the west in the past. Another intellectual giant, Karl Marxl80, whose philosophy created revolution in the entire world, pays similar homage to the genius of India when he asserts that "she was the source of their languages and religions" and "identifies the ancient German in the Jat", who notwithstanding their "natural languor astonished the British officers by their bravery". This is why Dr. D.P. Mukerji confidently remarks; "We have grown to believe that Europe has looked, is looking and will try in future to look at India with only hungry eyes181".
The introduction of some unique Indian customs and traditions besides the contribution, alluded to above, of words and phrases to the ancient European cultures and languages, especially Gothic, may be attributed by some, not to Jats but to some other migrants. This is countered by the assertion of no less an authority than the great German thinker Karl Marx, who identifies ancient "Germans with Jats, leading to the conclusion that Indian civilisation was carried to Germany by the ancestors of Jats in the hoary past. The old cultural legacy of the Goths (Jats) to western countries of Europe may well be compared with modern cultural legacy of the Britons to India and other countries they ruled over.
Theory of Jat origin from Yazatas
Coming back to the Yazatas, alluded to above: they, too, were, as their very name suggests, the people directly or indirectly related with Yayats (or, according to Heerenl82 the Jayats), the supposed descendents of Yajati. They were the people who upheld republicanism against monarchy. They were denounced in the Brahmanical literature
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as 'a-Yajnika', non-sacrificer, non-oblationist, 'a-Karnana', against animal food, and to crown all 'a-Brahmanic'. They were the descendents of the Aila Aryans (the Yayatas) With whom Brahmanism was originally not an institution183. They appeared as strong protestants on the scene with the emergence of the Brahmanical class and the imperial power of the Bharatas who enjoyed all the blessings and benedictions of the former.
In view of the propinquity between Yajata and Yazata, the respective hypocoristic (pet) names of the alleged descendens of Yayati and of the spiritual fore-runners and followers of Zarathushtra, it is convincingly plausible that the names were lectio difficilior for the either of the two. They were, in fact, one and the same people. The, Yazatas were undoubtedly those descendents or followers of Yayatas who had to migrate to Iran from the Sapta Sindhu at the time of the great Schism. Historians, who do not attach any great importance to the names are content to describe them merely as Schismatic Aryans.
It is eminently probable that the cumulative name, Yajata or Yazata, ensconces the semantic value of the term Jat. Philologically, since Y ana J are mutable, Yajata easily and undoubtedly becomes Jajata. If a word is prefixed with the same double consonant, the first the two consonants is eliminated in common parlance. Hence, Yayata will be naturally spoken as Yata or Jata and Yazata as Zata. In Prakrit these names are pronounced With hard 't'. This is exactly how the eminent sanskrit scholar, Shrinivasacharaya184 derives the word "Jat" frpm Yayati. Since these are the class names applied to represent certain section of the ancient Aryans, they are written in English with capital J, G & Z. It is extremely interesting to note that the ancient Arabs, the next door neighbours of the Indians and Iranians, knew them as Az-Zat and later knew the Indians simply as zat or Zath, who were, obviously, the Jats. The Arabic version is a logical diminution of Yazata.
There is an obvious and serious objection against this derivation since the Rig-Veda does not know the Panchajatah, i.e. Yadu, Turvasu, Druhyu, Anu and Puru as the-progeny of Yayatil85, they cannot be called Yayata, or for that matter, Jat. Yayati is said to have been fathered on them by Sauti Ugrasharval86 who interpolated the Yayati Upakhyana in the Adi Parva of the Mahabharata187. The objection is very valid: to meet it, we must trace out the progenitors of the people
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called Yayata. This may enable us to solve the riddle which smogs the origin of the Jats. According to Yaskacharya (Niruktam, 10,46) and Monier-Williams (Skt.- Eng. Dic. pp. 636,868), the Purus, whose number was very large, were also known as Pururavas or Pauravas after their eponymous leader, Pururava (Puru + rava), which means one who talks or roars a great deal. Through their matrimonial alliances with one of their branches (the Iksvakus, who dwelt in the Oxus valley), Yadus, the Purus, Turvasus, then Anus, and lastly Druhyus sprang up in that chronological order. These people were, ethnically, known as Panchajatah (R.C. Jain, 1970, p. 92).
The Rig-Veda, too, knows them as Panchajna. They had their respective leaders (gramani), Gana, Samiti and Sabha. In the event of internal and external emergency, they formed their union or federation (sangha), and by virtue of it, they were known by their group name, Panchajatah. The three constitutional terms, i.e. Panchajna, Panchakshitinam and Panchajatah, mentioned in the Rig-Veda, denote respectively, according to R.C. Jain, the political, territorial and racial designations of these people (Ibid. ch. iv, pp. 70-92). The historians, armed with Paninian phrase "jata jhata samghate" (जट झट संघाते) which connotes "union or federation, hold that the confederating members would naturally have become known as Jata.In short, it may be said that these very five races, the so-called Panchajna, became and were called Jata, precisely speaking Panchajatah in plural during the Rig-Vedic period. After these people were declared by Sauti Ugrasharva as the progeny of Yayati in the Mahabharata, they became "notorious" as Yayata after their pseudo-eponymous father. This cumulative name (Yayzta) degenerated in the course of time or was transformed, as we have seen above, into Jata or Jat by some inquisitive scholars interested in the subject.
According to Sauti Ugrasharwa's interpolations in the Mahabharata, the Panchajatah were the progeny of Yayati, or alternatively, they were perhaps the legitimate products of the Pururavas-Iksvakus' matrimonial alliance. One thing, however, is certain, namey, that whatever the truth about their origin, these Panchajatah form a single entity, which probably led Kudaryavtsev to declare their descendents, the Jats, as a distinct Aryan stock. All the five of them have now been universally acclaimed as Aryan/Nordics. Calvin
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Kephartl88 describes five branches of the Nordics in central Asia as Suebis (Sivis), Kimmerians (Chumuris), Getae (Jats or later Goths), Massagetae (maha Jats) and Sacae (Sakas or Scythians). These five branches fail to correspond exactly withy the five races represented in Panchajatah, but they are, undoubtedly, identifiable with their later descendents who migrated to central Asian Steppes like their forefathers, as we have mentioned above. Jatah as a name in plural was current in central Asia during the medieval age and it was especially used, as testified by history, by Changez Khan and Tamer Lane (Timur Ling) fOr the Jats of those countries. It reminds us not only of the Panchajatah but also of their later progeny highlighted by Kephart. But the most lamentable fact about them is that the orthodox writers contrived to cloud their origin.
In view of the above discussion we consider ourselves in a safe position to conclude with conviction that the five tribes i.e. Panchajatah of the Rig-Veda, with Sapta Sindhu as their original home, constitute the racial as well as the geographical "magazine" of the Jats. It should be remembered that the Yadus & Turvasus separated themselves from the Panchajatah and, along with their supposed maternal cousins and Uncles (Devayani's brothers and nephews),joined the Bharatas during the Dasarajna wars. They have maintained their separate identity as Yadus or Yadavas till to-day and are not called Jats.
Jata, son of Brahma, was the founder of the Jats
Unless we reject Brahma's son, Jata, as the progenitor of the Jats, it is difficult to discard the Paninian term Jata or Jhata, which historians have so steadily supported as the origin of the name Jat. This Brahma's son, named Jata, was probably 'Jata Sakayana, descendent of the Sakas (with whom Jats are identified), mentioned as a ritual authority in the Kath Sam (XX,11,7;V,1,281')189. He derives his patronym, according to Monier-Williamsl90, from Saka "gana". The surmise that he was the progenitor of the Jats, therefore, seems to be well established. All this notwithstanding, we have so far been able to find a more plausible and more positive proof and better claim than is enjoyed by "Yayata or Yajata or Jajata". This ethnic name, in its plurality, fulfils the implied and inherent import of Paninian term. The truth, perhaps, is that Jata, son of Brahma, was the founder of the Jat
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race and Yayati their earliest leader, though he is alleged in the Epic (Mahabharata) as the first forefather of the Druhyus, Anus (Anavas) and Pauravas, the ancestors of the Jats, as we have already shown.
As noted elsewhere, the names of some of the important indigenous tribes who confederated with the Yayatas in their struggle against the slayers of the kine for their guests and the bloody sacrificers of the bulls for their gods, are also identified among the gotras of the Jats. They are, surprisingly, even today as secular, pragmatic and unorthodox in their religious outlook as were their progenitors and maintain, with the same zeal and zest, the republican character in the political life of their khaaps (territory, kshetra) organisation as did their forefathers. They have been suffering for these ideals as much through later periods of history as they did in antiquity. The remote ancestors of the Jats had to grievously pay for their secular and republican outlook and character due to the unholy alliance of the orthodox and the imperial forces in pre-historic india, and their subsequent generations have continued to suffer for these very ideals ever since.
It is of considerable importance to find out whether Zarathushtra had any connection191 with the Yayatas or any other Indian tribe. He is said to have been a native of Media which owed its name to Medes who were known as Meds in archaic Iranian (Persian), as Mada or Madda in Prakrit192 and, as is well known, as Madra in Sanskrit. They were descendents of the Pauravas through Sivi Ausinara, with the Jartas as one of their sub-branches. Alongwith other tribes of the same stock of the Vahika-desa, they, too, have been painted very black in the Mahabharata. The reason for such a depiction by their wily adversaries, obviously enough, was their religious dissidence, which was intolerable to the dominant priesthood, and for which their ancestors had to pay very heavily in terms of men, money and material at the hands of the orthodox Bharatas. Zarathushtra's parents are said193 to have been noted Kimmerians (the Chumuris of the Rig-Vedic time) and were a sub-section of the Sakas. We may recollect here that the Mada, Chumuris, Sakas and Jartas, with whom the Jats are identified, had been the victims of the onslaughts of the Deva-worshipping Bharatas who hounded these defiant dissidents out of Sapta Sindhu to countries in the west of the Indus, persecuting them mercilessly as infidels.
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All the more interesting is the fact that the priestly class of the Medians, who were themselves an important branch of the Scythians, were known as Maga Brahmans. Magianism was an old Scythic religion, professed wherever the Kimmerians (Chumuris) settled194. A tradion among the Meds, who are said to have fought against the Jats (Yayatas) on the Indus, when the Magian books; the zend-Avestha, Venidad, etc., were composed, indicated that the race originally had migrated from a country, undoubtedly Gete195, surmised to have been near Sogdiana (Airyano Vaejo). As has been held by us earlier and has been confirmed by Max Muller, they came from north India under physical pressure of the Deva-worshippers.
It was at the Indus that the Jats were destined to face attacks of the Persians, Greeks, various tribes of the reactionary Scythians (Sakas), and the first onslaught by the anti-Hindu force i.e. that of the Muslims under command of Mohammad-bin-Kasim from the Middle East. We feel that the seeds of religious discord and dissensions, sown by our forefathers in prehistoric times, have sprouted through the ages and have borne the bitter fruit in our times in the form or religious and caste hostility which is playing havoc with our polity and eating into the vitals of our society. Truly, We bear the burden of their mistakes and reap the reward of their virtues".
Archaeology decisively negates the assertions of the antiquarians who employ merely literary testimony to date the time of the Rig Veda as not anterior to 1500 B.C. and for that matter, that of Zoroaster not earlier than 7th or 6th century B.C. Even if we accept the supposed period of Zoroaster, he can be reckoned as more or less a contemporary of Panini who belonged, as popular belief has it, to Gandhara country ,and was intimately familiar with the peoples and places as far away as the Oxus valley in the north and the Helmand and the Arghandab valleys contiguous with Iran in the west. It is surprising that in spite of this he observes complete silence over zoroaster and his peripatetic preachers whereas he196 does speak of the Yayatikas, the devotees proficient in the legends of Yayati (VI, 2, 103) many of whose descendents or followers were also, as noted above, the devout disciples and converts to Zoroastrianism. This leads us to assert that Zoroaster could not possibly have been; contemporary of Panini who could not have helped mentioning his coeval (Zoroaster) overtly or covertly. We, therefore, have every reason to assert that, as stated by Aristotle and Spencer, Zoroastor lived much earlier than Panini.
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We hope that the evidence marshalled by us above proves conclusively that the Aryans moved from their cradle of Sapta Sindhu sometime in 8000 B.C., to Airyano Vaejo; and also that they were driven out because of religious persecutions as well as differences in political outlook. We are aware, however, that only those with an open mind will be so convinced, for there are so many who will continue to swear "the goat has three legs" even though all the four of them are clearly visible.
Scythian origin of Jats
We may sum up the discussion on the Scythian origin of Jats by asserting like Dr. Sudhakar Chattopadhyaya that "I have consulted (almost) all the sources, Indian as well as foreign, and guarded myself against being led astray from the terra firma of solid facts by an eagerness for theorizing" anew. There is, as the exponents as well as the supposed revivalists of the theory suggest, considerableScythic element in the Jats. The opinion of the critics that the Scythians were a different stock distinguished by their brachycephaly from the Aryan (Nordics) is only a suggestio falsi. The Sakas (Scythians), who were de-brahamanised and expelled by Sagar, migrated and carried the name Jat as far away as the Baltic and Scandanavian countries where it was distorted as Gut or Gutton or Got according to local phonemes and pronunciations in the remoote past.
However, some of them, who were spared by Sagar through the mediation of his justus judex, Vasishtha, might have stayed behind in the Sapta Sindhu and lived in servitude. In the post-Vedic Indian literature, the whole lot of the Sakas, the descendents of Narishyantl97, was contemptuously remembered generally with the opprobrious epithets as Asuras, Rakshasas, Mlechhas, Danavas, Dasas, Dasyus, Pisachas and what not. Pusalker198 has very rightly observed,"Tere appear to have been three stages in the description of (these) hostile tribes in the Puranic accounts. Originally, these denoted human beings, but as they were generally the enemies of the Aryan (Bharatas), these names came to mean alien and hated, hostile or savage men. Later on, these names became terms of opprobrium and abuse which led to the attribution of evil character to these people. Even certain Aryan kings were termed Danavas or Asuras due to their evil character. Finally, these terms came to be associated with demoniac beings and were used synonymously with demons". A simple Jat has very aptly remarked that
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as "a dog can never digest butter", these people have ever been indigestible to the orthodox and "everything appears yellow to the Jaundiced eye"199 . These unnecessary taunting must be dismissed as the pot calling the kettle black".
These derogatory appellations and invectives need not call for serious consideration, for surely, we know that the belligerent armies do not shower flowers and laddoos but fling such foul and heavy abuses or each other. 'Sagar is said to have destroyed their laws of religion, changed their dress, made them shave half of their heads, deprived them of the Brahmans, the recitation of the Vedas and the exclamation Vasht (Vayu Pur., 88, 140-41) and led to their social and religious degradation", but even then, "they are described as highly civilized in the Puranas (Mat. Pur., 122, 13-34; Va. Pur., 49, 74-99). Embers are always embers even though covered with ash. Gold docs not change its colour for fear of flame. So far as changing their dress and making them shave half of their head are concerned, Caldwell rejects these as measures of punishment imposed on them by Sagar. He200 asserts that "What Sagar is represented as commanding the different races to do is merely what they had already been in the habit of doing and it is unnecessary to hold it to be historically true". The reader will find some other solid examples of the Saka migrations in the next chapter also.
Migration of Jats to the New World
Before closing this section, we may very well attempt an account of migrations of Asias and Indian including remote ancestors of Jat to the New World across the Pacific ocean, on the other side of the globe, in the Neolithic period. Of late, the view that the Americas were totally unknown to Asia and Europe, has been widely challenged, and ample evidence has come to view now pointing to several people of the Old World having made incursions to the Americas in remote antiquity. The Reader's Digest in its book "Strange Stories, Amazing Facts" (1990 : 216 ff) says that "few lands have been discovered as often as America. The Phoenicians, Irish, Vikings, Welsh and Chinese voyaged to the New World before Columbus (1492 A.D.). A sixth century legend has us believe that a Buddhist monk, Hoei Shin, found a continent called Fusang. Was it America? No one has answered the question". Among these, we believe, people from India were the most important migrants to these continents, having crossed to them and actually settled-there. We have a 'feeling that people dubbed indiscriminately as "Red
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Indians" are the descendents of Indian settlers as far back as the Neolithic period. By irony of fate those whom Columbus regarded, by mistake, as "Indians" were actually the descendents of ancient Indians.
These people, popularly called Indian, Bushmen and Cree in Canada and Indian or Red Indian or Amerinds in U.S.A., Mexico and Latin America, are described as aborigines of that continent, but this is historically untrue. They were, in fact, those whose ancestors migrated from India, a thesis supported by archaeology (Kephart, 1961, 103 12, H.G. Wells, 1961: 98. Hooton, 1965:647, 649. Deniker, 1988; 508-16. Wormington, 1957; 235t). As suggested by these writers, they migrated there from India via Tibet, China, Siberia, Baring Strait and Alasskan Isthmus and via Pacific Islands between eight and twelve thousand years ago, i.e. between about 8000 and 9000 B.C. This was a period of great trial and turmoil in their original home - the greater Sapta Sindhu central Asia, ma and Mongolia (supra). Their migrations were intermittent and occurred at irregular intervals. They spread up to Mexico 9883 +/- 350 years ago and up to Argentina and Chile 8639 +/- 450 years ago (Wissler, 1940; 8ff). They are also said by Carl Sauer, Crawford, Carter and Anderson (Chattopadhyaya, 1970: 56-73) to have reached pre-Inca Peru 4000-4500 years ago, i.e by 2500 to 2000 B.C. In other words, it may be stated that migrations continued up to 2000 B.C., a period that marks the beginning of the end of the Harappan culture. It may be observed that the time range of these large scale volkerwanderung, by and large, corresponds with the time span in which Rigvedic Dasharajna wars, the Great Schism, the Rama-Ravana war, the Mahabharata war and the disappearance of the Harappan culture took place leading to either voluntary or forced migrations and banishment from Sapta Sindhu of the vanquished (supra).
These are the people whom Botanists accredit with introducing coix, corn, cotton, gourd an mays zea(maize) of Indian origin (by Indus farmers) in South America in prehistoric times from Asia, and especially India by sea routes through pacific islands (Chattopadhyaya, ibid.). This fact has been indubitably confirmed by excavations at Nazca (Peru); Bat cave (new Mexico) and in the oasis of Chile (Chattopadhyaya, ibid.) besides excavations at Fell's cave shelter and Palli Alke cave near Chile - Argentina border (Wissler, Ibid.:8-12).It may also be noted that so ar as diffusion of plants is concerned, Vavilov, Crawford
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and Hutchinson (Chattopadhyaya, Ibid.: 65f) trace pre and proto-historic link between Asia and the New world, but more satisfying for us is the fact that Hutchinson stresses that 'Transpacific migrations were carried by people with direct contact with India".
That the Amerinds are of Asian origin is now largely accepted. I would call them 'unfortunate, lost and forgotten children of Sapta Sindhu, who suffered twice, first at the hands of their kith and kin in their very cradle and then in their new home where they were exploited mercilessly by the White emigrants from Europe. Their historians like Reginald Gladys Laubin (1957), Ella Elizabeth Clark (1985) and especially Clark Wissler (1940) have mentioned more than 200 tribes of the Amerinds in North America alone. They may be called the "Gypsies of the first great exodus" from Sapta Sindhu.
If you ask them, "who are you"?, spontaneous is the answer, ,"Indian". Which Indian? if you again ask them; they would promptly say, Red Indian". They seem to have entirely forgotten their racial and ethnic origins. Simbert, a great poMongolian in 1739 at Boston on the basis of his earlier familiarity with the Siberians when he was in theRussian Court (Wissler, 1940: 4). Others dittoed him without question. A.E. Jenk's examination of the skeleton of Minnessota man (female of 15) proclaims it to be "a primitive type of Homo-Sapiens of an early type of evolving Mongoloid suggesting American aborigines, especially the Eskimo, more than the present Asian Mongoloids" (Wormington, 1957: 234, q. Wissler, Ibid. 22). Indian woman (Hooton, Ibid). Measurements and other observations of the remains of "Midland Man- Texas (also a fema1e) testify her skull to be "relatively long and narrow, as were those of three skeletons found in Palli Aike cave in Chile" (Wormington). Th above evidence, though too meagre to establish conclusively the racial affinities of all the Indians spread over the length and breadth of the American continent, yet it suggests that they belonged to hetero-geneous peoples of Asia. My personal observation of these people in 1984 and 1991 at Mirabel, Shibougamau, Mistassini, Quebec, Toronto and Niagra Falls leads me to surmise that their physical features and frame reflect close resemblance with Sindhis, Kashmiris, Khasas, Sacas, Turks, Tibetan & Ladakhis.
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The observation method is, however, not always considered to be free from the stigma of subjectivity. But I may assure my readers that my identification of these people is based on my close company with and prior familiarity of their Indian counterpart prototypes during my tours of the north-western Himalayan states. Further, insufficient though the above quoted cranial evidence may be, it does support our findings through observation with a view to determine the probable ancestry of races. Deniker (1988: App. I, II & III) and E.A.Hooton (1965): 642-50) also made a detailed study of the comparative anthropometric and serological characters of the Amerinds including their morphological types and other races of the modern world, and concluded tentatively that the Amerinds point to their origins from Mongoloids, archaic Whites, Iranian, Sacae, Tatar, Turks, Mediterranean, Austroloids, Indo-Dravidians, etc. My observation is supported indirectly by them as well.
There is no gainsaying the fact that the original Indian (or say Asian) names of a large number of the Amerindians tribes, with whom the Europeans were mostly unfamiliar before 1492 (Columbus), underwent a change in their orthography and consequent pronunciation under the influence of the interplay of different phonemes of the Asian and European languages in post Columbus period. Consequently, it is well nigh impossible at present (especially in the absence of any written record maintained by the Amerinds), to trace out after a lapse of ten Millennia, who was who.
Interestingly, the familiar names included in the plethora of Ameridian appellations (as spelt out by Denikar, 1988: Ch. CIII and Wissler, Ibid, 64f, 68, 126,151,160,174,203,213,234) bear a remarkable similarity in sound with a large number of Indian names. Among these names with their probable Indian equivalent isonomic tribes given in brackets are the following: Huron (Huri or Hurian of the Ahuras or Asuras), Huevis (Suievis) Haida (Hada, Hooda), Sioux (Sivu or Sivas or Sibis), Chaynese (Chinese or Chinas), Dogrus (Dogras or Tugras), Dakotas (Dakauts), Shashe (Sse orSakas), Yumanas (Jamunas), Kansas (Kamsas), Kasakas (Kazaks), Khotaanese, Lassik (Lhasas), Kushas (Kushanas), Maiduas (Meds or Midhas or Madhas or Madras) Madeeira (Madra), Mono & Moaos (Mauna or Mann), Nahanes (Nahans), Pawnee (Pauni, Puni or Pani), Texas (Taxas or
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Nagas or Daxas, or Taxak or Takshak), Saca (Saka or Sacae or Scythian or Skyth or Scyth,) Tanae (Danae or Dana or Danav), Tahitian (Tahisian or Dahisian or Dahae or Dahi or Dahiya or Dasas or Dasyu), Tongas (Tungas), Tonkawa (Tonk or Takka or Tagar), Uti (Utiya or Yutiya or Yaudheyas), Yaklets (Yakuts or Jakhus or Yakshas), Ogalaha (OJhla or Ojha or Ojala), Yuchis (Yueh Chis), Zuni (Xuni or Hunas), Wakshan, Wakshus or Oxus or Wakkhan).
A majority of these tribes are to the Greek and Roman historians the branches of the Sacae-Getae (Scythians). It is natural that these initial discoverers and inhabitants of the New World, who had no records of their own, and who were completely segregated from the old world till 1492, have, during the long span of time of about 8500 years, completely forgotten their racial and geographical "magazine". Lapse of long time, as the psychologists invariably agree, is naturally one of the major causes of forgetfulness.
Who could imagine that one day Columbus, in his eagerness to discover the mythological land of delicious spices (India), would undertake the hazardous trans-Atlantic Voyage and instead land on the coast of the New World which he mistook for India and her inhabitants for Indians. These "Indians" received him with presents of their tobacco pipe and its green leaves as token of respect, friendship and peace. Columbus failed to discover India, but succeeded in discovering the long:forgotten, immigrants from India in their New Home which later came to be known as America after the name of the merchant friend of Columbus. Columbus did not discover America, he rediscovered it and, by a strange quirk of fate, dubbed its inhabitants as "Indians", which the world may now recognise as actually the discendents of Indians and not as those mistaken by him to be Indians. The world now regards them as the aborigines of the Americas; perhaps they will soon be recognized allover the world, as the immigrants from India to the Americas.
We surmise, further, that these tribes of North and South American Indians belonged, to the ancient Sakas or Sacae or Scythian people, since these were the people forced to leave their homeland in Sapta Sindhu and were driven out by the Bharatas in the Rigvedic period to far-off north-western lands. This surmise is supported by the similarity with Saka names (supra). The further migrations of
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these people from Asia and their settlement in the New World between 8 and 12 thousand years ago in North America. 9883 ± 350 years ago in Mexico and Central America, and 8639 ± 450 Years ago in South America, impels us to review the erstwhile estahlished opinion of historians regarding the antiquity of the frequently described Sakas or Sacae Getae or Scythians of the Old World.
The fact, that a number of Saka (Scythian) tribes migrated from Sapta Sindhu and central Asia to the New World between 8000 to 12000 years ago, indubitably establishes the truth that the Old World was their cradle at that time. But, unfortunately, the ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine writers, and the subsequent European and Indian historians who followed them, do not stipulate the antiquity of these people earlier than, at the most, 2500 B.C. To suspect, however, as a few scholars do, that so far as the antiquity of the Sakas (Sacae or Scythians) is concerned, the) might have been the victim of a 'conspiracy of silence' of the ancient chroniclers and their disciples, will be very unfair to them. All in all, we may say that these writers on the Scythians (Sakas or Sacae or Getae) did not have the benefit of the evidence which, consequent upon the latest researches in various sciences, is available to present students of the subject to determine the antiquity and migrations of these adventurous people. It is, perhaps, Waddell, followed by Calvin Kephart, Bridget Allchins, Siddhartha and Purushottam Singh who drew directly or indirectly our attention for the first time to the honourable antiquity of the Sakas or Getae and their migrations. Kephart even goes to the extent of saying that these people, after moving from higher reaches of the Indus river (Sapta Sindhu) to the fertile valley of the Oxus, gave their name Gete to it in circa 8000 B.C. and became the progenitors of the White (Nordic or Aryan) race.
Conversion to Christianity has brought about a sea change in the life of the Amerinds. Even then, several remarkable facts of their life and culture establish their resemblance with the life and culture of their remote ancestors, the ancient Asian Sakas (Scythians). They regard the family as the nucleus of their tribes, their social organisation, internecine rivalries, belief in the immortality and transmigration of soul and their funeral feasts are like those of the ancient Sakas. They, too, make noise to drive away evil spirits at the time of solar eclipse and practice charms as recommended in the Atharva Veda. They drive Trisula in the ground outside the village to act as good conductor of heat in the event of lightning. They, too, prefer dying on battlefield to natural death. They, too, remove the dying from the cot to lie on ground. Other resemblance are : burning of herbs and plants as incense to seek communication with spirits, the custom of polygamy, their hospitality to guests, protection to those seeking asylum even at the peril of their
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own life, their habit of steam-bath and pot or bowl smoking, their love for horse and buffalo, their dresses of fur and skin, their lust for gold and gold ornaments, their Tipi or Tepe. That Tipi or Tepe is of Indian origin from Tapa is fully explained under foot note no. 72 of this section.
Origin of the name America
Lastly, we come to the name America. Whether Fusang of the Chinese Buddhist monk, Hoei Shin (supra) was America still hangs indecisively between possibility and probability. Who gave this name to the New World necessitates further investigation. As is well known, the New World, America), Supposed to have been discovered, for the first time, by Columbus, is named not after him, but after a man, named Amerigo, at Italian. Columbus died unsung and unwept on May 20, 1506 after his fourth voyage to what, according to an to ancient Sanskrit term, may be named as "Paataal Lok". [According to Monier-Williams (Skt., Eng. Dic. p. 616) "Paataal Lok" was one of the seven continents]. To his last day, Columbus was smug in the mistaken belief that he had discovered a new route to India. It was his friend, Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian merchant-explorer, who, a year after Columbus died, discovered the fact that the land that Columbus had reached was not India.
The fact that America is named after him is one of the most amazing facts of history for this man belonged to a Scythian dynasty of the Ostrogoths who had commanded much respect in Italy since the time of Roman Emperor Domitian (A.D. 81-96). The first reported hero of the dynasty was Gaut who was followed in successive generations by Hulmul, Augis and Amal who gave his name to the dynasty" (Kephart, 1961: 473, f.n.49f, cf. C.C. Mierow, 1915: 72ff). Gaut, in fact, was the founder of the dynasty (Kephart, Ibid, 468) which descended from the Royal Scythians of the Getae (Goths or Jats) of Western Scythia in the hoary past and later on became known as the most eminent Amal or Amali dynasty in the Nordic history (Ibid. 521). "Amal-ric" symbolically means "all-conquering work, service or leadership." When the Ostrogoths over ran Italy, it became Amalrico (l = r,
C = k = g) which was shortened in the Italian patois (provincial] vulgar dialect) to Amerigo, as it appeared in the forename of the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, for whom this great hemisphere was named. It is truly an inspiring name, transmitted by two ancient per-
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formers of worthy deed" (Ibid., 473, fn. 49; Cf. also Calvin Kephart, "Origin of the name America" , in the Quartermaster Review, march April,1938.
This is how history some times plays its pranks on the earth, linking together a long hoary past of pre-historic man with a descendent of his almost 8000 years later. It was given to this scion of the ancient Sakas to give his own name to the land of his long-forgotten ancestors who had crossed the oceans to inhabit the land which was "rediscovered" several times, and finally named after a Saka who did not know that he was a Saka. The anathematised and extirpated primitive forefathers of the so-called "bovine and stolid" Saka Jats discovered the "Paataala" continent in Neolithic period and one of their European descendents gave his name to that continent in the Medieval period. What is more, the Asi or Asii another mighty tribe of the Sakas, had earlier given the continent of "Asia" their name (E. Pococke, 1972; 51). We may conclude with the remark that Father Time has manipulated history in such a way that both Asia and the seventh continent of "Paataal Lok" have been named after Scythian tribes. The drama of history has, as its backdrop, the Amerinds and as its front curtain, the continent of Asia, the dramatis personae being the aboriginal inhabitants of Sapta Sindhu.
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Notes and References
1. Taylor, op.cit., pp. 6-7.
2. Sharma, Shri Pandit Raghunandan. Vaidic Samappatli (Hindi). New Delhi-5. 1983, p. 192.
3. Saraswati, Swami Dayanand, Light of Truth, Delhi-36, 1978, p.219
4. Kephart, op.cit., p. 28, fn. 25.
5. Sharma, op.cit., p. 38, fr. Mill's His. of Ind., vol. II , pp. 237-38.
7. Science of language, Vo.II, 5th edn. p. 279; Chips from a (German Workshop,p.235.
8. Das, A.C.; Rigvedic India. p. 160, fn.1. According to him 'Xanthos of Lydia, a contemporary of Artaxerxes (465-424 B.C.), places Zoroaster 6000 years before the expedition of Xerxes. Aristotle makes him 6000 years before the death of Plato. This date, however, is not accepted by modern European scholars. Hertel makes him live about 660-583 B.C.If that were so, Artaxerxes, who lived in the 5th century B.C.; would not have fixed Zoroaster's time about 6000 years before the expedition of Xerxes, and Aristotle could not have calculated a similar date. Zoroaster's date, however, has not yet beeen definitely settled, though the date of the classical writers closely tallies with Vedic chronology (Vide Keith's The Religion and Philosophy of the Vedas and Upnishadas, Vo. II, Appendix A. pp. 614ff.1925. Dr. N.R. Warapande, Aryan Invasion- A Myth, Nagpur, 1989, pp. 192ff.
9. Spencer, H.S. : The Aryan Ecliptic Cycle, Poona-2, 1965;pp34,214
10. Sethna, K.D; Anc. Ind. in New Light. Aditya, 1989. New Deihi. p . 362.
11. Pargiter, op. cit., pp. 298, 302.
12. Ethnology of Anc.Ind., pp. 35-39.
13. The Vedic Age, 1965, BVB., Bombay. pp. 210, 218, fns. 28-32
14. Ibid., p. 220.
17. Ibid., p. 221 & fn. 5.
18. Op.cit., p. 107.
19. Kalyanaramana, op.cit.. p. 25. fn.
20. Ibid. Spencer op.cit.. p.10
21. Kalyanaramana. op.cit .. p. 265.
22. Pargiter, op.eit., pp. 187-8. 193-7,304-7.
23. Kedar. T.J.; Vedasthan. Nagpur, n.d. p. 2. According to a note on p. ii. ch IV of this book, it was submitted for reading in the 13th session of the A.I. Oriental Cong. held at Nagpur.
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24. Ibid . pp. 85-9
25. Camb.His.Ind .. vol.I. pp. 74,91. R.V., V. 29.8; VI. 17.ll;IX. 33.1. Mbht.Chaps. 146-47,205. Buffalo wasdoll1estic animal in ancient Sapta Sindhu and Rigvedic Aryans were fond of buffalo meat. Cf. Stuart Piggot, Prehistoric Ind., p. 260. Cow was already aghnya (RV. VIII. 101,15-16) and killing of buffalo lasso (X.57.6) was practised.
26. R V, X.68.3;VIII.2.12; 1.93.6; Cfalso K.P. Chattopadhyay.op.cit., p.54.Indra boasts of bull eating; Yajnvalkya was fond of beef (Cf. Sat. Bra., 188.8.131.52 & XI.7.13).
27. Pillai. V. Chockalingam; Loc. cit., pp.1742·58.
28. Kedar, op.cit .. p 92.
29. Pargiter. op.CII . P. 196.
30. Kedar. op. cit. p.86.
31. Ibid. p.87.
32. Spencer, op.cit. pp. 20,49,53-4,68-9,97-8, etc.
33. Budha Prakash, op.cit., p. 78.
34. Dr. Ahmad Hasan Dani informed me about this in his letter dated Oct.8, 1987. My thanks are due to him.
35. South Asian Archaeology, ed. Bridget Allchin, London, 1981. pp. 23-24,57.
36. Bhargava, P.L. JRAS No.1, 1976, pp. 64ff.
37. Ragozin, Zenaide A..; Vedic Ind., 2nd Ed., 1961, pp. 285f. Cf. also Meyer, Geshichte des Alterthums, Vol.I, pp. 94-116.
38. Dwivedi, Dr. Kailash Nath; Rigvedic Bhugole 1985, Kanpur, Cf. map opp. p. 233.
39. Kephart, op.cit., pp.222, 145, 116.
40. South Asian Archaeology, Ed. Bridget Allchin, London, 1987, p. 24.
41. Ibid. p. 58.
42. Das. op.cit., p. 147.
43. Chattopadhyaya, K.P.; Anc. Ind. Cul. Cont. and Mig., Calcutta, 1970, p. 4.
44. Das, A.C.; Rigvedic Ind., p. 122. Roy, .5.13.; Ear. Aryans of India, 1989, New Delhi, pp. 139f.
45. Ibid. p. 134 (within brackets mine).
46. Kephart, op.cit., pp. 279,522.
47. E. Pococke, op.cit., p. 45. He includes the Fertile Crescent in the Bharata or that time and calls the whole land mass from Ind. to Irak by the name of Greater Bharata.
48. Das, op.cit., pp.66, 114; Dwivedi, op.cit., q.v.
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49. Dr. Vanilov in the Pb. His. Conf. at Pbi. Univ., Patiala, reported in the Tribune dt. Dec. 2, 1983. He considers Panjab as the original home of the Aryans. Dr. Guy E. Pilgrim, who discovered teeth and parts of the jaw in the lower Shivalik Hills, informed the conference that the earliest man lived in the Chandigarh region 15 million years ago. Cf. Dr. Hari Ram Gupta's Presidential Address in 'Punjab, Past and present', 1983, Pbi. Univ., Patiala, pp. 5-12.
50. Explorations in Turkistan, ed. R Pumpelly, Washington, 1908, q. by K.P. Chattopadhyaya, The Anc. Ind. Cul. Contacts and Migrations, Cal., 1970, p.32.
51. New Light on the Most Anc. East, 4th ed., 1952.
52. Chattopadhyaya, op.cit., pp. 84-5; Cf. also Prof. U. Duerst, W.Koppers, L Jungblut, Anthropos, Band XXXVII-XI, 1942-45. W. Ross Cockrill, 'The Water Buffalo" in Scientific American, Dec., 1967, Vol. 217, No.6, Map on p. 123. Sigrid Westphal-Hellbusch and Heinz Westphal, Zur Geschichte Und Kultur der jat, Berlin, 1968, pp. 46-7.
53. Ibid., 34. Coon, Carlton S.; Seven Caves, 1957, pp. 201 ff.
54. Chattopadhyaya, op.cit., pp. 32-36.
55. Kephart, op.cit., 115, 229, 232.
56. The Tribune, dt. Dec. 2, 1983.
57. Deshpande & Hook, op.cit., pp. 125f.
58. Ibid., Cf also Issac, Erich; 1970, Geography of Docmestication, Foundations of Cultural Series,. Englewood aiffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall, pp. 32, 65. Gimbutas, Marija; 1970, 'Proto-Indo-European Culture: The Kurgan Culture during 5th, 4th & 3rd Millennium B.C:, in Cardona, Hoenigswald & Senn, p. 157. Alchin, F.R.; 1969a, "Early Domestic Animals in Ind. & Pak:, pp 318f; & 1969b, "Early Cultivated Plants in Ind. & Pak. "pp 323-30; both in Ucko & Dimbleby. Ho Pingti,1975, The Cradle of the East, the Uni. of Chicago Press, pp 103, 109 ff. Sauer, Carl O; 1952, Agricultural Origins & Dispersals, The American Geog. Society, Series two, Bowman Memorial Lectures, New York; pp. 31,37. Renfrew, J.M.; 1969, 'The Archa. Evi for the Domes of Plants", in Ucko and Dimbleby, ppl 149-72.
59. Dr.D.G. Sidharth, B.M. Birla Science Centre, Research Report, Aug., 1991, pp. 1-5. Cf. Ali Sami, Shiraz, Musavi Printing Office, Shiraz, 1958, p.12.
61. Kephart, op.cit., p. 244.
62. Deshpande & Hook, op.cit., p. 104. cf. also Zohary, Daniel; 1969, The Progenitors of Wheal & Barley in Relation to Domestication and Agricultural Dispersal in the Old world", in Ucko & Dimbleby, pp. 6lff. Mr. S.B. Roy informs that "Several Waves of Aryans (Drahyus, Turvasus & perhaps also the Anus) went westwards from Afghanistan and dominated west Asia and Persia; Alinas (RV. VIII, 18, Helinas or Helenes) went even upto Greece: The Halinas, as we have noted elsewhere, were none else but Hala Jats. Roy further continues, "These groups who went Westwards from Afghanistan are variously known in modern literature as the Persians (Parsu), Medians (Madas), Parthians (Prthus). Hykses (Yaksus), Mitanniansand Helenese (Alinas)
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etc." He thinks that the outward and westwards migrations from their nidus in Afghanistan started after the Great Schism between the Indo-Aryans and the Zarathustra (s)- (S.B. Roy, Ear. Aryans of Ind., 1989, Naurang, New Delhi. pp. 139f). These migrations must have carried the knowledge of wheat and barley cultivation with them. The Halas, Yaksus, Madas, Alinas and Anus are identified by us as Jats. but we do not agree with him about the time of the Schism, i.e. 1750 B.C., as reckoned by him.
63. Pol. & Sac Movts. in Anc. Pb. p. 105. Cf. R.N. Frye, Heritage of Persia. 1962. London, p. 50; N Adontz, Histoire d 'Armenia, les origines. p. 308). q. by Buddha Prakash. op.cit., p. 105.
64. Op.cit.. pp. 2. 211. 30. etc. etc.
65. Sherring, Rev M.D.; Hindu Tribes and Castes, Vol. II. 1974. Delhi-6.P. 241
66. Allchin. op. Cit. p 21
67. Ibid. See also L. Dupree. 'Prehistoric Research in Afghanistan (1956-66)' in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. 1972. No. 62. p. 4.
68. Allchin. op,cit., p. 23.
69. This reference is dropped for the time being. for. it calls for more research.
70. Westphall, op.cit.pp. 46f. Cf. Gregory L. Possehl. Harappan Civilization. N. Delhi. 1952, p 396.
71. "Prachin Yug (8th-7th Cen. B.C.) Paschim men Jat" in Suraj Sujaan. No. 6/18. March, 1992. pp. 5ff; Maharaja Surajmal Memorial Trust. New Delhi.
72. Some scholars doubt the Indian origin of the term Tapa or Tappa which means habitation. But I may inform them that in the Hindu Jat-belt of Haryana the term is used to denote the nuclear village (which is also called Tika village or Turban village) as well as the area occupied by villages descended from the nuclear one (Karnal Gaz. 1883-84, 100. This is why different gotra-wise tapas are found in Haryana. We come across terms like "tapa and Tapahsthala" in ancient Sanskrit literature (Monier-Williams,Skt. Eng. Dic. 436f)which mean penance and place where penance is practised. Various 'Sadhus' (renunciants) even do it at present in the presence of fire as witness for the attainment of supernatural power. Such places have always been venerated as sacred. Building of temples, 'Dharamshalas' and village (habitations) at such sacred spots has since long been a commonplace experience. When the Aryans migrated to north-western countries they carried this word with them. This fact is convincingly corroborated by Sulaiman Hayeem (Eng. Persian Dic. 1358H.,1306) who gives the meaning of 'Tap' as 'Jaaegaah' (birth-place) which faithfully betrays its Sanskrit connotation (Tapahsthala). Consequently, we have every reason to believe that the word Tepe prefixed with the names of certain ancient sites (Hisar, Siyalk, etc.) is a distorted form of 'Tapa' for, as we have explained in Chapter IX that vowel 'a' changes into 'e' 'i' under impact of the local phonemes in central Asian countries (Scythia). Just as Jat became Jet or Jit in Central Asia, 'Tapa' was transformed into Tepe or 'Tipe'.
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We have further confirmation of this from the languages and literature of those Asians. popularly called Indians,who inhabited the New World about ten thousand years ago and who are now known as Amerinds or Red Indians. They were the people, as we noted above mainly of Scythic origin, who, not only introduced certain Asian cereals, herbs and plants into the New World. (Which the American now boastfully claim to be their own native contribution or girts to the world) but also 'Tipi' or Tepe or Tepe or Tipe, as it is now called in those lands, from Asian countries which comprised ancientScythia (Sakastan) where it was simply called 'Tepe'. Scarcely do we come across a historian of the Amerinds who has ever missed the mention of 'Tipi' and failed to have acknowledged that these people and their Tipi are of Asian origin. So much so that Reginald and Gladys Laubin devoted a full volume (The Indian Tipi. 7th ed. B.B., new York, 1985) to its history, construction and use. Interestingly, they point out that "The Sioux word Tipi is formed of'ti'. meaning to dwell or live, and 'pi' meaning used for; thus, Tipi means 'used to live in' (Ibid. XIII) Just see, how faithfully this meaning compares with the meanings conveyed by Persian word 'Tap' & Sanskrit 'Tapa'.
The fact that 'Tipi' is a Sioux word is essentially relevant to the matter in hand. The Sioux, as we have already shown, were the Suevis. identical with Sivis or Sivas, the Sibois or Sivois of the Greek & Roman historians of Alexander, and Sione of the Scandanavans. They were an important section of the ancient Sakas (Scythians). They lived in the north-eastern and western parts of Sapta Sindhu in the Rigvedic period. They were defeated by the Bharatas (Sudas) in the Dasarajna wars and were exiled to far off countries for good. The last battle against them was fought on the banks of the Jamuna river where the word 'Tapa' has so far been frequently used. Interestingly enough, archaeology also supports our claim. Plate No. 16.3 pertaining to a rural proto-historic site, named Bhagwanpura,on the right bank of the Sarasvati river in the Kurkshetra district. excavated by Dr. J.P. Joshi and his team between 1975-77, depicts the settlement plan of the site, the antiquity of which goes as far back as 5460 B.C., and represents "Tipis" exactly of the type of Sioux Tipis of the Amerinds (Groegory L. Possehl,. 1982; 191-195). Ultimately, in view of the above discussion, I must say that Tepa or Thapa is of Indian origin and it underwent changes under influence of local phonemes into Tepe and Tipi or Tepee in the course of its journey from India to America through different climes and countries. I may hazard one more surmise on the origin of 'Ti', the root of the Sioux word 'Tipi'. It may be a variant of 'theh' of ancient Prakrit or 'Deh', of Dahae Scythia and Persian languages, for, both the words also connote habitation in the respective languages. T.& D. are mutually interchangeable. It may be observed that the Amerinds, covered their 'Tipis' with buffalo skin before canvas was used for the purpose.
Wiki Editor Note - Ṭāpī (टापी) is a Rajasthani word which means a temporary hut (झोंपड़ी).Laxman Burdak 02:54, 14 January 2010 (UTC)
73. Chattopadhyaya, op.cit., p.32.
74. Veselaya Gora 54.35 N. 58,00 E, in Ural; Veseli Novo (Ukraine) 47.22 N. 31.14 E; Veselye Terny (Ukraine) 48.05 N. 33.35 E; Veselye (Rostov) 47.06 N. 40.45E; Vesely (Stalingrad) 47.50 N. and 43.01 E; Vesely Kut (Ural) 63.25 N. and 53.05 E; Veseloye (Ukraine) 47.01 N. and 35.56 E; Veselyy Podoi (Kazakhastan) 53.34 N. and 65.58 E. Vide the Times Atlas of the World, Vol, II, ed. John Bartholomew, London. 1959.
75. Klejn L.; "The coming of Aryans: Who and whence"? in Bulletin of Deccan College Research Institute, Vol. 43, 1984, Pune, p. 63.
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76. RV.5.81.1 and 10.18.4 q by Klejn
78. Ibid. RV10.18.8-9
82. Ibid. within brackets mine
86. Laufer, Berthold; 1919, Sino-Iranica: "Chinese Contributions to the History and Civilization in Iran, with special reference to the History of cultivated Plants and Products"; Field Museum of Natural History, Publication, 210, Chicago, pp. 320f, 324, 338, 370; q. by Deshpande & Hook, op.cit., p. 17. (within brackets mine).
87. Jean-Francoi Jarrige, q. by Possehl, Gregory L; op.cit., pp. 79-84.
88. Cunningham, ASR, Vol,. II, 1983-84, pp. 40-51.
89. K1ejn. op.cit., p.64.
90. Ibid., p. 67.
91. Ibid., p. 66.
92. Ibid., p. 65.
93. Shastri, K.N.; New Light on the Indus Civilization, Vol. II, Delhi-6, 1965, p. 70.
94. RV. 184.108.40.206.
95. Ibid., 1.7.29; 2.1.118; 4.3.97.
96. Ibid., 220.127.116.11; 18.104.22.168; 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199; 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206.
97. Ibid., 220.127.116.11; 18.104.22.168; 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199; 188.8.131.52; 184.108.40.206; 220.127.116.11; 6.2.'1.13; 18.104.22.168; 22.214.171.124; 126.96.36.199; 188.8.131.52; 184.108.40.206; 220.127.116.11-11; 18.104.22.168; 22.214.171.124; etc.
98. Jain R.C.; Ethnology of Anc. Bharata, p. 41. Cf. Buddha Prakash, Vritra, ABORI Vol. 30, p. 200.
99. RV, 6.61.7. Das, AC.; op.cit., p. 54.
100. Jain, R.C., op.cit., p. 43. RY. 126.96.36.199.
101. Kosambi, op.cit., p. 79.
102. Roy, S.B.; Early Aryans of Ind., New Delhi, 1989, p. 134 and Map facing it.
103. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., p. 142.
104. Kephart, op.cit., pp. 211, 264. 266. 463, 522f, etc.
105. Greirson. q. toy RP. Chanda. Indo-Aryan Races, p.41.
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106. Kalyanaramana. op.cit., p. 142.
107. Bellew. A.W., Races of Afghanistan, Reprint, 1982, Delhi, p. 92.
108. Q by Peshpande & Hook, op.iict., p. 295.
109. Q by Chatterji, op.cit., p. 93.
110. Vihhakar, Jagdish: & Garg, Usha; Glimpses of Anc. Ind. Through Saveit Eyes, 1989. Sandeep. Delhi, pp. 206-212.
116. Waddell. op.cit., p. 107.
117. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., Ch.V.
119. Waddell, op.cit.. p. 107.
120. Das. AC: Rigvedic India. p. 280: Kalyanaramana: op.cit., p.162.
121. Kalyanaramana; op.cit., pp. 12, 214f.
122. Ibid., p. 208. Saggs, op.cit., p.78.
123. Giles, P.; CHI Vol.I. p. 67.
124. Kalyanaramana. op.cit.. pp. 178. 208f.
125. Ibid., pp. 161,207. Saggs, op.cit., p. 76.
126. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., pp 79f, 156, 207.
127. Ibid, pp. 12. 207f.: Das, AC.; op.cit., p. 280
128. Ibid. Buddha Prakash. Pol. & Soc. Movements in Anc. Pb., p. 30.
129. Kalyanaramana, op.cit.p. 158. Hall, H.R.; His. of Near East, p. 201.
130. Vibhakar & Garg. op.cit., p. 207.
131. Ibid., p. 210.
132. Rjrmuxanyaayne rajtam haryaane ratham yuktamsanaam sushaamani (RV.8.25.22); cf. also RV., 111,33 and X.60.
133. Das. op.cit .. p.21.
134. Piggot. op.cit., pp.273-81.
135. Allchin; Bridget & Raymond; The Rise of Civilization in Ind. & Pak., 1983. New Delhi. pp. 82f. fig. 4.12.
136. Ibid. p.94.
137. Ibid .. p. 2H81. Fig. 10.15
138. Ibid. pp. 95,281
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139. Vidyvaachaspali. Pt. Dhardmadeva; Vedon Kaa yathaartha Savroopa, V.S 2014, Gurukula Kaangari Visvidyalaya, Haridwar (U.P.), pp. 75f. He further informs that the poem was secured from a book titled Sirulukul (p. 118) in the collection of Asmia Malikush Shara, a great lover of tradition & poet laureate at the court of Haroon Rashid. He claims to have the book from Haji Hamza Shirazi & co., Booksellers, Bandar Road, Bombay and the said company procured it from the Barret Publishing company, Barret (Bairut?), Palestine. The Arabic, English and Hindi version of the poem in the book are his own attempts.
The name and date of the Poet Laureate as given in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, are Al-Asmai Abu Said Abd Al-Malik B.Kuruyb, 213 A.H. (828 AD.). The present author also got the poem translated from Arabic into English by following Jordanian & Quwaitian students of the Jat H.M. College, Rohtak, Haryana in 1978 and found that Pt. Dharamdeva's Translation is correct.
Sahib Jamel Hasan Al-Sami, Ahmad Othman Abdallah Ager, Mushal Mid Slem Mohammad Akel, Hasan Ahmed Salman Abu Hamsa, Sameer Farong Moh'd Abd-Al-Rahman Aqel, from Jordon; Abdel Majid Moh'd Shaker, Omer H.M.H. Qasem, Younes Husein Abdul Qader, from Kuwait (Admission Register, 1978-79, pp. 17-19).
140. Keane, AH.; Man, Past and Present, Camb. Press, 1920, pp. 506-09, q. by Chockalingam Pillai, 1935, pp. 752-58, Loc. cit.
141. Hewitt, op.cit., p. 481. Ency,. Brit., 9th ed., Vol. X, p. 847.
142. Kalyanaramana, op.cit., p. 217.
143. Chatterji, Dr. Suniti Kumar; Balts and Aryans, Ind. Inst. of Advanced Studies, Shimla, 1968, p. 19.
144. Ibid., p. 23.
145. Ibid., pp. 23f.
146. Ibid., pp. 79f.
147. Bannerji, Adris, Archae. His. of S.E. Rajasthan, Varanasi, 1970. p.71
148. Rigvedic Ind. p. 315, Cf. also Chs. X-XV.
149. Q. in The Balts and Aryans, London, 1968, pp. 23, 77-83, Map at plate.I for Balts.
150. Kephart, op.cit., ch. 11 (Sec. 5, e-i, See. 6 & 7).
151. op.cit., p.67. (Within brackets mine)
152. Chatterji, op.cit., pp. 164-67.
153. Heeren, A.H.L.; Anc. His. of W. Asia and Ind. Vol.II, Rep. Delhi. 1988, pp. 4-6.
154. Kalyanaramana, op.cit .. Vol.I. p. 242.
155. Celts and Aryans, 1975, Ind. Inst. of Adv. Stu., Simla.
156. Balts and Aryan" 1968, Ind. Inst. of Adv. Stu., Simla
157. Chamb. 20th Cen. Dic., 1949 Ed., pp. 524,1129; Webs. 7th Jew Coil. Dic. 1966 Ed., pp. 485, 1020; Myles Dillon,. op.cit., p. 10; Kalyanaramana, op.cit., p. 240. Chakrabcrty, Chandra; Cultural His. of Hindus, 1988, Deep and Deep. New Delhi, p. 282.
158. Ibid., Kalyanaramana,op.cit.,p. 240; Rv.l,12,4,7; X, 18,7f; X,40,2; AV.IX.5.27f.
159. Ketkar, Shridhar, V., His. of Caste in Ind., 1909, New York, p. 39. (within brackets mine). Duby, Georges, The Knight, the Lady, and and Priest, 1985. New York, pp. 35f; q. by Stig Toft Madsen, in Anthropos, 86, 1991, on p. 355, f.n.2.
160. Madsen, Stig Toft; "Clan, Kinship and Panchayat Justice among the Jats of Western Uttar Pradesh", in Anthropos. 86,1991,351-365; Cf p. 355. Ln. 2.
161. Chatterji, op.cit., p. 80.
162. Collins Gem, German Eng. Die., 1991, p. 211.
163. Chamb. Dic., op.cit., p. 572, Webs. Dic., op.cit., p.537.
164. Asiatic Res. VoUI pp. 33-38.
166. Ait.Brah., 111.24.7, Gopatha Brah. 11.3.22.
167. Jour,of Amer, orient,Soc., XIX,p.14
168. J.P Sharma, op.cit., p. 40
170. Ibid., pp.28f.
171. CHI, Vol.1, pp. 85. 438; Ghose, op.cit., pp. 71,86.
172. Ghose, op.cit.. p.96; Lunia, B.N; Evo. of Ind. Cul., Agra, 1970, p.65.
173. Chamber's 20th Cen. Eng. Dic., p. 383.
174. Pococke, Ind. In Greece, pp. 53,113, etc.
175. Hewitt. op.cit., pp. 18f, 220f.
176. Ibid., p. 221.
177. Jindal, op.cit., p.29. The Zoroasthians & Muslims also reversed certain customs & symbols of Indo-Aryans of the ancient times at a later stage.
178. Hewitt, op.cit., pp. 170f.
179. Durant, Will, "Our Oriental Heritage", q. by Kalyanaramana. op.cit. p.VIII
180. Marx Engels, First War of Ind. Independence, 1854-59. Moscow, 1978, p.33
181. Aronson. Dr. Alex; Europe Looks at India, Bombay. 194(). p.Forward
182. Heeren. A.H.L.; op.cit., Vol. II, Delhi, 1988, p. 162.
183. Pargiter. op.cit .. pp. 305·6.
184. Shrimadacharya Shrinivasacharya, Jat Itihas, Alfa Print Press, 34 A, Sarcar Lane. Calcutta. 7. n.d. p. 15.
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185. Kedar. op, cit . P.2 , In all, there had been three Yayatis in Indian history. One was an anciet king of Odra country 'modem Orissa', (Visvakosa, q. by R Siddhantashatree. 1978: 230). The second was Yayati, the son of Nahusa, son of Saavarni Manu (Sayanabhasya, R.V., VSM, IV,p.231; q. by Rahurkar, 1964: 226-7). He was probably contemporary of Nabhanedhistha according to Sarvanukarman, (Sayana, Ibid). Neither of these two Yayatis is described as related to the Panchajna or Panchajatah. The third Yayati, the great grandson of Pururavas, was the seer of IX.101.4-6 and is also referred to in 1.31.17 and X.63.1. He is also stated to be a son of Nahusa. There was another Nahusa, an Asura son of Prabha, daughter of Svarbhanu, and Viprachitti as his father (Harivansa, 1.3.91-96). If he had a son named Yayati, is anybody's guess.
It is only the Yayati, the great grandson of Pururavas, who is represented as father of the Panchajana or Panchajata in the Puranas (Visnu, V.O.1-2; Bhag., IX.18.1-33 and Mbt.,I, Chs.70-80). Pargiter (1972: 295, fn.4) is, surprisingly, inclined to admit that this relationship of Yayati and the five tribes (Pannachajana or Panachajata) is already suggested in R. V.,I.7.9; VI.14.4; 46.7; IX.65.23 and X.45.6. It appears that since Yayati as well as the eponymous heads of Yadus, Turvasus, Druhyus, Anus and Purus belonged to and sprang from matrimonial alliances between the Pururavas and Iksvakus, the Puranakritas saught a happy marriage of convenience in affining them with Yayati and their relationship may not be purely fictional.
187. Vaidya. C.V.; The Mahabharata (A criticism), 1904, Bombay, pp. 23,167.
188. Kephart. op.cit.. pp. 232. 250f.
189. Ghurye. G.S.; Two Brahmanical Institutions (Gotra & Charana), 1972, Bomhay. p.20.
190. Sanskrit Eng. Dic., p. 1061.
191. Kephart, op.cit., p. 213.
192. Deb, Harit Krishna; 'Mede and Madra' Jour. Roy. Asia. Soc. of Bengal, 1925,p. 205, q. by Buddha Prakash, op.cit., p. 108.
193. Kephart, op.cit., p. 213.
194. Ibid., p. 275.
196. Aggarwal, V.S.; Ind. Known to Panini, Varanasi-5, 1963, p. 305. Ashtadyayi, VI, 2, 103.
197. Some scholars (Thapliyal, Dr. Uma Prasad; Foreign Ele. in Anc. Ind. Soc. 1979, New Delhi, pp. 31,128) think that since the Sakas had to be assimilated with the Indian society, it was essential to connect them with some Indian ancestor. Consequently, they were represented as the descendents of Narishyant in the ancient Indian literature. If this is the case, they could be connected with some other ancestor also, why especially with Narishyant? The contention of such scholars is not adequately convicing and stands rejected. Why did the scholars not find some ancestors for so many other invading tribes amalgamated with the Indians?
198. The Vedic Age, p. 318.
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199. In the eyes of D.D Kosambi (cf. op .cit p.83. except the only genuine Aryan (rishi with known parentage), the other brahman rishis including Visvamitra & Agastya were mostly Jar-born whose fathers are not known.
200. Caldwell R.;"Observations on the Kudumi", Ind. Antiquary, Vol. IV, 1875,p.167.
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