Titlagarh is located at 20.3°N 83.15°E. It has an average elevation of 215 metres. It was once considered the Hottest place in India (Leaving aside the Thar desert).
V. S. Agrawala writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini refers to Taitila-Kadru (तितिल-कद्रु) (IV.2.42). Taitila country is known for horses. These horses came from Uttarakuru (north of Pamir in Central Asia). Taitila-Kadru is same as Tittirakalmāsha (तित्तिरिकल्माष) of Sabhaparva (II.28.6,19) (II.47.4). Taitila is synonymous with Kalinga , which may be identified with Titilgarh, south of Sambalpur in Orissa.
During the time of Grammarian Panini (5th Century B.C), a territory named Taitila Janapada flourished to the west of Kalinga and that territory has been associated by historians with the modern town of Titlagarh in Balangir district. Taitala Janapada was famous for trade in some commodities described by the Grammarian as "Kadru" the meaning of which may be either horse or cotton fabrics.
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