Tukhara

From Jatland Wiki
(Redirected from Tocharian)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The Kingdom of Tukhara in 700 AD

Tukhara (तुखार) was the name of one of Tribes which finds frequent mention in Mahabharata. Tukhara or Tushara was the ancient name of Chinese Turkistan or Sinkiang. [1]

Variants

Jat Gotras from Tukhara

  • Tushar (तुषार) Tukhar (तुखार) Tusiar (तुसियर) Tusir (तुसीर) Tushir (तुशीर) gotra of Jats originated from Tushara (तुषार) janapada mentioned in Mahabharata. This place is now in Gilgit. There was Tusharagiri mountain also. [3]
  • Tokshi (तोक्षी) Toxi (तोक्षी) Tochhi (तोछी) Tokhi (तोक्षी) is gotra of Jats. The name Tukhara itself survives in the name of the Tokhi caste found in the North- West.[4]

History

Tukharistan (तुखारिस्तान) or Tokharistan or Bactria (from Old Persian Bāxtriš; Bactrian: Baktra; Persian/Pashto: باختر Bākhtar; Chinese: 大夏 Dàxià; Sanskrit: बाह्लीक Bahilka) is the ancient name of a historical region located south of the Amu Darya and west of Gandhara. Tukharistan means the land of Tukharas. Tukhara (तुखार) was one of The Mahabharata Tribes frequently mentioned in Mahabharata. (See - Tukharistan)

In Mahabharata

Tukhara (तुखार) in Mahabharata (II.47.26),(III.48.21),(III.174.12),(VI.10.66),(VIII.51.18),

Tushara in Mahabharata (VI.10.66)


Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 mentions the Kings who brought tributes to Yudhishthira. Tukhara (तुखार) is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.47.26).[5]. It says that when Yudhishthira performed his rajasuya yajna, the Kanka, the Sakas and the Tukharas brought to Indraprashtha, their horses as gifts to the Pandava king. [6]


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 48 describes Rajasuya sacrifice of Yudhisthira attended by the chiefs of many islands and countries. Tukhara (तुखार) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.48.21). [7].... It mentions Tukhars with the Harahunas and Chinas and Tukharas and the Sindhavas and the Jagudas and the Ramathas and the Mundas and the inhabitants of the kingdom of women and the Tanganas.


Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 174 mentions Pandvas journey in twelfth year of their sojourn in forests having arrived reach Saraswati River. Tukhara (तुखार) is mentioned in Mahabharata (III.174.12).[8].... Then all those warriors having in due course happily lived at Badari for one month, proceeded towards the realm of Suvahu, king of the Kiratas, by following the same track by which they had come.And crossing the difficult Himalayan regions, and the countries of China, Tukhara, Darada and all the climes of Kulinda, rich in heaps of jewels, those warlike men reached the capital of Suvahu.....


Karna Parva/Mahabharata Book VIII Chapter 51 mentions them fighting Mahabharata War on seventeenth day. Tukhara (तुखार) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VIII.51.18). [9]....Tikhara are fighting for Kurus along with Tusharas, the Yavanas, the Khasas, the Darvabhisaras, the Daradas, the Sakas, the Kamathas, the Ramathas, the Tanganas the Andhrakas, the Pulindas, the Kiratas of fierce prowess,....


Bhisma Parva, Mahabharata/Book VI Chapter 10 describes geography and provinces of Bharatavarsha. Tukhara (तुखार) is mentioned in Mahabharata (VI.10.66).[10]

In Puranas

The Vayu Purana (47, 44) and the Matsya Purana, (121, 45) mention that:

सान्ध्रान् स्तुखारान् लम्पकान् पह्लवान् दरदान् छकान्
अताञ्जनापदाञ्चक्षु प्लावयन्ती गतोदधिम्

Tusharas of Sanskirit texts and Rajatarangini, Tuhkhara or Tukhara of Mahabharata, or Ta-hus-lo of Hieun- Tsang or Tukhara or Tukharoi of Strabo or Tochari of Ptolemy with their different forms as Thogouroi in Kansu, Tokoraioi in north Imaos, Toghourio in Sogdiana & Tocharoi in Bactria; or Tagorae or Takoraici or Tagouraooi of Pliny, or Tokhari or Togari or Tojari in Central Asian Turfan and of the Ephtlalites or Thogarii of Parthians, or Thodkar or Thokar or Phodkar or Thogar of the Tibetan documents, or Tgwrk in Sogdiana, or Tacharik or Tocharaston of Armenia or Tochar of the Turks or Twchry or Twgry or Twgry of the Turkish, Manechian and Buddhist texts of Central Asia or Tusar or Taggar or Tokha or Toka or Tonk in Jatu or Haryanvi, or Tokharaya in Russian, belong to the Yueh-Chih Kushanas of the Sakas (Rohi Uighur, 1965: 28f). [11]

तुषार-तुखार

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[12] ने लेख किया है ...तुषार (AS, p.409): 'तुखार' अथवा चीनी तुर्किस्तान (सिंक्यांग) का प्राचीन भारतीय नाम था। महाभारत के अनुसार पाण्डव अर्जुन ने अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा के समय इसे जीत लिया था। दूसरी शती ई. पू. में यूचियों या ऋषिकों ने अपने मूल स्थान चीनी तुर्किस्तान से (जहाँ उनका वर्णन महाभारत में है) 'बल्ख' या 'वाह्लीक' की ओर प्रव्रजन किया था, क्योंकि उनको आक्रमणकारी हूणों ने वहाँ से आगे खदेड़ दिया था। कालांतर में यूचिकों की एक शाखा, कुषाणों ने भारत में आकर यहाँ अपना राज्य स्थापित किया। कनिष्क इसी शाखा का प्रसिद्ध तथा महानतम राजा था। महाभारत, सभापर्व 27, 25-26-27 के अनुसार ऋषिकों को अपनी दिग्विजय यात्रा में अर्जुन ने विजित किया था।

तुखारिस्तान

तुखारिस्तान - यह देश तुखार या तुषार वंशज जाट के नाम पर प्रसिद्ध था। इसकी स्थिति भारतवर्ष और ईरान के बीच में थी। सुग्ध, कम्बोज और बल्ख प्रदेश इसके अन्तर्गत थे। इस तुखारिस्तान देश की राजधानी तेरमिज थी। यह तुषारों का देश गिलगित तक था। इनके नाम पर तुषारगिरि पर्वत था जो मुस्लिमकाल में हिन्दुकुश के नाम से प्रसिद्ध हुआ। इन लोगों ने अपनी तुखारी भाषा भी प्रचलित की थी। (देखो तृतीय अध्याय, ऋषिक-तुषार-मलिक प्रकरण)।[13]

References

  1. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.409
  2. Hukum Singh Panwar:The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, page 324
  3. Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihas (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p. 253
  4. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions, p.166
  5. शकास तुखाराः कङ्काश च रॊमशाः शृङ्गिणॊ नराः, महागमान थूरगमान गणितान अर्बुदं हयान (II.47.26)
  6. Bhim Singh Dahiya : Jats the Ancient Rulers ( A clan study), 1980, Sterling Publishers New Delhi, p. 34 (Sanskrit-शकास्तुखारा कंकाश्च रोमशः श्रंगिणों नराः)
  7. हारहूणांश च चीनांश च तुखारान सैन्धवांस तदा, जागुडान रमठान मुण्डान सत्री राज्यान अद तङ्गणान (III.48.21)
  8. विहृत्य मासं सुखिनॊ बथर्यां; किरात राज्ञॊ विषयं सुबाहॊः, चीनांस तुखारान दरदान सथार्वान; थेशान कुणिन्थस्य च भूरि रत्नान (III.174.12)
  9. उग्राश च करूरकर्माणस तुखारा यवनाः खशाः, थार्वाभिसारा दरदा: शका रमठ तङ्गणाः (VIII.51.18)
  10. शूद्राभीराद दरदाः काश्मीराः पशुभिः सह, खशिकाश च तुखाराश च पल्लवा गिरिगह्वराः (VI.10.66)
  11. Hukum Singh Panwar:The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations, page 324
  12. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.409
  13. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter IV (Page 417)

Back to The Ancient Jats