- 1 Origin
- 2 History
- 3 Tungjina in Rajatarangini
- 4 Tungga in Rajatarangini
- 5 Tang dynasty of China
- 6 चीन में तांगवंश के जाट राजाओं का शासन
- 7 In Mahabharata
- 8 Distribution in Punjab
- 9 Notable persons
- 10 External links
- 11 References
Tung clan people emigrated from Delhi and founded village Tung (Amritsar) about the beginning of 18th century. He joined Ramgarhia misl under Jassa Singh. Gurmukh Singh Tung was a Punjab Chief of Tung-Jat Clan. Their ancestor Sahib Singh received Tung village in Jagir from his Chief. He died in 1804 and his only son Fatah Singh died preceding year. Fatah Singh's three sons remained with Jodh Sing, the Ramgarhia Sirdar till 1816 when the Maharaja seized the confederacy. They joined his services. Gurmukh Singh and Nidhan Singh each received command of 100 horsemen. After the capture of Multan in 1818 when both brothers were present they received grant of their ancestral village Tung. Gurmukh Singh was commandant in Ramgarhia brigade and served at Multan, Mankera, Tirah, Kashmir and Peshawar. He also fought in the Satlaj campaign of 1845-46 when his brother Nidhan Singh was killed. Under the Durbar he was employed in the Manjha as assistant to Gumani Lal and Lal Singh Talwandi, and afterward sent to Sovarian under Diwan Hakim Rai. 
Tungjina in Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini tells that in the history of Kashmir, the King Jalauka was succeeded by his son Tungjina, who shared the administration with his queen. This king and queen graced the world as the Ganges and the Crescent beautify the hair of Shiva. They governed well the country inhabited by people of the several castes and beautiful as the bow of Indra borne on two clouds. They built a city
[p.27]: named Katika, and raised a temple to Mahadeva Tungeshvara. They also planted trees in the burning plains of Marava. " In their reign lived Chandraka a partial incarnation of Vayasa the great poet. He invented a sort of dance. A severe calamity visited the kingdom in this reign, as if to test the noble hearts of the sovereigns. In the season of autumn, in the month of Bhadra, a sudden and heavy frost blighted the sali grain that was then ripening, and the consequence was a severe famine which threatened the destruction of the people. Natural feelings were smothered, nor shame nor pride nor nobility was then remembered. Every one became mad with hunger, nor cared for his wife or son or father, but devoured what he could get, unmindful of the solicitations of his wife or child, son or father weak and famished with hunger. Men were reduced to bare skeletons disgusting to the sight ; they abused and fought with one another for food, and oppressed with hunger they cast their eyes on every direction eager to satisfy their appetite by destroying every living thing. At this time of distress, the king and the queen showed the greatest humanity; they invited the people to their palace and fed them ; they imported rice, from other countries, defraying the expenses from their own treasury, as well as from those of their ministers ; and fed the people day and night. Every one was taken care of whether residing in houses, or wandering in woods or streets or in the burning ghat. One night when the king found that his treasures were spent,
[p.28]: and there was no rice, he was much grieved and said to his queen : " Surely queen ! for some sins of ours this great calamity has befallen our people." Wo is me before whose eyes these people are dying of hunger ; and since I cannot save these our helpless subjects, what is the use of my living? In consequence of much anxious care and attention there has been no mortality as yet But now that the earth is reduced to poverty and deprived all glory, no means are left to deliver the people from this great calamity. It seems that the end of the world is nigh; the mountain passes are blocked up with snow, and there is no way left for people to go out of the country ; and they are doomed to die here. See how the men, the heroic, the wise and the learned have been reduced. How in our days of prosperity, splendour smiled on every side, and now it is gone. Let me perish in the flames since I see no means to relieve my subjects, and I am unable to see them die. Happy are those kings who seeing their subjects as their sons, at ease, can pass their nights in peace." Thus saying, the tender-hearted king fell on his bed, and covering his face with cloth began to weep profusely. There was no wind, and the lamp burnt steadily with a long flame. The queen saw him in that condition and thus consoled him : " How the misfortune of your subjects has turned your sense that you lose your patience and behave like vulgar men ! If the evil be inevitable, no one can avert it. But failure reflects no discredit on the great. Women
[p.29]: should love their husbands, ministers should remain faithful, and the king should protect his subjects without deviating his attention to any other affair. Arise O king ! my words are never spoken in vain, your subjects' distress is over." When the queen had finished her noble speech, dead pigeons dropped in every house and the people lived on them. The king saw this and relinquished his intention of committing suicide. But lothed to destroy animal life the queen contrived to prevent the supply of these birds. In the meantime the sky cleared up and the famine disappeared.
The queen gave the villages of Katimusha and Ramusha to Brahmanas. The king died after a reign of thirty-six years, and his queen, unable to bear the affliction, perished by burning herself. The place where she died is called Vakkashtatavi. There a place of rest for travellers was erected, and many weary wanderers from various countries are fed even to this day. They died without issue. God did not favor them with a son, but what can commemorate them better than their own acts. The sweet sugar-cane bears no fruit, but no fruits could be sweeter. Some say that the queen perished in the flames, because she thought that the famine wets brought in by her sins.
Tungga in Rajatarangini
Rajatarangini writes that In a village named Vaddivasaparnotasa there was born one named Vāna of the tribe of Khasha. He had a son named Tungga, who tended buffaloes. This man with his five brothers came to Kashmira, and entered the service of the minister for war and peace; and was employed to carry letters. He once brought a letter to the queen Didda (958 - 1003 AD), she saw him, and fell in love with him.
[p.165]: Tungga, to whom the queen became every day more and more attached, at last superseded all, and became the chief minister. The old ministers made peace with Tungga and his five brothers, in order to conceal their attempt to effect a revolution in the kingdom. They consulted with the inhabitants of Kashmira, and called in the son of the queen's brother, the spirited Vigraharaja, who again brought in some Brahmanas to perform certain ceremonies for the success of their effort. The Brahmanas advised the murder of Tungga, and the
[p.166]: oppressed people began to seek for Tungga in order to kill him. Didda (958 - 1003 AD) shut up Tungga in a room, and waited for few days apprehending an attack. She bribed Sumanomattaka and other Brahmanas with her gold. The intended attack, being thus bought off Vigraharaja was obliged to retire. Tungga was once more safe in his place and killed Kardamaraja and others who had attempted rebellion. Sulakkana son of Rakka, and other chief ministers were either exiled or allowed remain in the court according as Tungga and his partisans were angry or pleased with them. Vigraharaja again began secretly to engage the Brahmanas to his party. But Tungga came upon them and captured the Brahmanas who were bribed. One Aditya, a favorite of Vigraharaja attempted to fly, but was caught by the soldiers and killed. Vatsaraja, a follower of Vigraharaja was flying, but was wounded and captured. Tungga bound Sumanomattaka and other Brahmanas, and sent them to prison.
On the death of Phalguna, the king of Rajapuri became very insolent, which led to an attack on him by the ministers of Kashmira. In the battle which ensued with Prithvipala, commander of the Rajapuri forces, many were destroyed on either side. Two of the ministers of Kashmira Shipātaka and Hansaraja perished. But Tungga with his brothers suddenly entered the city by another way, and set it on fire. The Rajapuri army well as Prithvipala and their king were defeated, and the king
[p.167]: now humbled consented to pay tribute to Tungga ; be that Tungga recovered the money which was spent in the war. Returning to the capital of Kashmira, the powerful Tungga accepted the lordship of Kampana and destroyed the villages of the Damaras.
Rajatarangini further tells that [p.169]:King Kshamapati was very brave and powerful. After the death of the queen, another attempt was made to destroy Tungga. But it failed, and his enemies lived to see his increasing glory. At this time Chandrākara died ; he was a great warrior, and worthy of being a minister. He was known to the king. At this time also died the heroic sons of Punyākara in the village of Bhimatikā; and as there were none worthy of the post of minister, the king reluctantly favored the party of Tungga. The late queen, at the time of her death, had bestowed wealth on Tungga and his people, so that they might not quarrel with the king. The king was incapable of work even for the transaction of his duties and entrusted the administration to Tungga, and led a life of pleasure. What more shall I say of the king's meanness ! He compromised his glory by making alliance with an unworthy family. For he gave his daughter Lothikā to Prema the headman of the Didda temple, because Prema was a powerful man and might help him in his danger. So instead of marrying his daughter to a prince, he married her to a beggar Brāhrnana.
[p.170]: Brahmana ministers, was like the union of violent wind and fire. This the king came to know and felt greatly insulted thereby. They then attempted to destroy the king. Sajja and others were requested by the Brahmanas to join the conspiracy for the overthrow of the king, and they agreed to it. But when the magical operation was near its completion. The king gained them over by a large bounty, and the conspiracy was divulged. The Brahmanas lied in fear to the house of Rajakalasha who had instigated the act. Rajakalasha, whose wiles were now discovered, fought with obstinacy. But the Brahmanas fled by a secret way, and Rajakalasha was overcome. The seven ministers, sons of Shridhara then maintained the struggle but fell also. After their death, Rajakalasha was defeated by Sugandhisiha Tungga's brother and was brought bound by order of Tungga. On his way along the Skanda road, his guards made him dance, wounded and disarmed as he was. Another minister named Bhutikalasha. (partisan of Raja-kalasha) was also defeated and he fled with his son to Suramatha. He was not captured out of pity and went away broken hearted and accompanied by his son to some other country. Thus the rebellion at Parihasapura benefited Tungga. When Gunadeva had appeased the anger of the king, Bhutikalasha returned to the country after performing his bath in the Ganges. He obtained a post in the palace and was afterward, secretly employed by the king to assassinate
[p.171]: Tungga. But the secret oozed out, and Tungga came to know of it, and Bhutikalasha with his son was again sent to exile by the king. At this time died Mayyāmattaka son of Chandrākara, who was just rising to prosperity. And Prema who was the king's son-in-law, and had done some good to the country died then ; as also Gangga and other favorites of the king. Only Tungga and his brothers survived. Thus perished all of whom Tungga had been afraid. He was like a tree on the side of a liver, from whose base the earth is washed away by the waves and which therefore threatens to fall; but the waves bring back the soil and make its base firm again.
He entrusted the management of the king's household to his wicked assistant in exclusion of the virtuous and the high minded. He deprived the Brahmanas and the helpless and the king's dependants of their livelihood. Even the hardhearted men those who carry the dead &c, feed their own kith and kin, but this man killed his own relations. It was in the month of Chaitra that Tungga took this man into his favor, and in A'shara Sugandhisiha, Tungga's brother died. He was a great help to his brother and by his death Tungga thought himself deprived of the debt member of his body.
Trilochanapala asked for help:
[p.172]: Trilochanapala (ruled c.1010-22) the Shahi having asked for help against his enemy, the king of Kashmira sent Tungga to his country in the month of Mārgashirsha. He was accompanied by a large and powerful army with feudatory chiefs and ministers and Rajpoots. The Shahi welcomed them to his country, and advanced to meet them ; and they spent five or six days in pleasure and congratulation. Shahi saw their want of discipline and told them that since they did not mean to fight with the Turushkas, they might remain at ease at the flank of a hill. But Tungga did not accept this good advice and he as well as his army was anxious for the battle. The Kashmirians crossed the river Tonshi, and destroyed the detachment of soldiers sent Hammira to reconnoiter. But though the Kashmiriaus were eager for the fight, the wise Shahi repeatedly advised them to take shelter behind the rock, but Tungga disregarded the advice, for all advice is vain, when one is doomed to destruction. The General of the Turks was well versed in the tactics of war and brought out his army early in the morning. On this the army of Tungga immediately dispersed, but the troops of the Shahi fought for a while. When these latter fled, three persons were still seen in the field, gallantly fighting against the cavalry of the enemy. They were Jayāsinlri (?), Shrivardhana and Vibhramārka the Damara. And there too was the valiant Trilochanapala, whose valor passes description and who, though Overwhelmed by unequal numbers remained unconquered.
[p.173]: His body bled, and he looked, like Mahadeva wrapt in the flames of the last fire with which the world is to be destroyed. After facing his numerous foes clad in mail, he at last retreated, and the enemy overran a large tract of the country. Hammira though victorious in the field felt himself ill at ease on witnessing the super-human heroism of Trilochanapala. The Shahi took shelter in Hāstika and made great efforts to retrieve his fortune. Thus have I briefly narrated the fall and extinction of the line of Shahi, and now the very existence of his kingdom of which I have spoken in the history of Shangkaravarmma , had become an object of doubt. Fate accomplishes what appears improbable even in dream, and what cannot even be conceived. Tungga returned to his country, but the king of Kashmira as forbearing as he was devoid ambition, was not angry with him for his cowardly flight in the battle. Still Tungga was very much grieved. His son Kandarpasinha was proud of his wealth and his heroism and lived in a kingly style which gave his father much annoyance.
Vigraharaja the king's brother privately wrote to the king advising him to kill Tungga. But the king remembered the last injunction of the late queen, and for a long time remained unsettled. Urged, however, by repeated letters he at last said to the carriers of the epistles that he seldom saw Tungga alone with his son, and if he was found alone the deed might be attempted. "For if you make an attempt on his life when he is not
[p.174]: alone, he will be able to destroy us. So wait till there be an opportunity." The messengers remembered the advice of the king, and tried to find Tungga alone. Within six months from this time the king sent for Tungga, and though he had dreamt an evil dream, still he went out of his house alone with his son. Tungga entered the king's court, and there remained in his presence for a short time, after which he went into the council chamber with five or six servants. He was fallowed by Pava, Sharka and others, who without saying anything to the king began to strike Tungga with their weapons. Sinharatha, born of the line of Mahāratha was the minister of king Shangkaravarmma, and was the most dutiful of Tungga's attendants. Though without arms, still he tried to save Tungga by throwing himself over him. But Tungga was killed at the first blow, and the king was rejoiced. The wicked Kangka and Partha the son of the court Brahrnana Dharmma an enemy of Tungga, were present on the spot. They placed their fingers on their lips, in fear, (perhaps to signify thereby that they would not interfere in the least) and threw down their arms to save themselves. Changga and the other ministers who were also present, though friendly to Tungga and armed, stood still in fear like women. The king cut off the heads of Tungga and his son and threw them outside the palace in order to encourage his own men and dishearten the followers of Tungga so that they might not in ignorance of their master's fate still
[p.175]: -hold out, or set fire to the palace. The servants saw their master's head and fled, very few showed any zeal for their master. One only named Bhujangga son of a Brahmana feudatory chief entered the chamber and pursued the king from room to room. He broke open the doors and killed twenty warriors in the king's court. There died the treasurer Trailokyaraja and the hero Abhinava son of the nurse of Kapyamatta. In the court-yard lay the dead bodies of thirty Ekanggas, followers of Tungga, Padmaraja who remained unhurt in the fray, went to some shrine to assuage his grief for the death of his master. Others though they did not venture to fight, were killed by the king's partisans, Chandrakhya who considered himself a warrior, Arjjuna and Delāchakra the Damara, though they threw down their arms, were killed by the king's party.
Tungga died on the twelfth day after the new moon in the month of Ashara. His house and property were plundered by the king. After the death of Tungga and his son, who were not rebels, the wily people gained ascendancy in the palace. Naga the brother of Tungga who had abused the ears of the king with evil council, and was in fact the cause of the destruction of his brother and brother's son, and was ill spoken of by men, was now made lord of Kampana by the king. Kshemā wife of Kandarpa-sinha, Tungga's son, lived in criminal intimacy with Naga. After four days and when the tumult had ceased, Thintha a chaste wife of Kandarpasinha, and daughter
[p.176]: of Shahi burnt herself in the fire. Mangkhana wife of, Tungga fled with the celebrated Vichitrasinha, and Bra-trisinha, sons of Kandarpasinha and with their mother Mamma; and passed her days at Rajapuri.
Tang dynasty of China
Tang dynasty (618–907 AD) (pinyin: Táng Cháo; Wade–Giles: T'ang Ch'ao) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was founded by the Li family, who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. On June 18, 618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang. Li Yuan's family belonged to the northwest military aristocracy prevalent during the Sui dynasty
The dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty (690–705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. Wu Zetian (pinyin: Wǔ Zétiān) was the only female emperor of China in more than four millennia. Wu was her patronymic surname, which she retained, according to traditional Chinese practice, after marriage to Gaozong, of the Li family. Emperor Taizong gave her the name Mei (媚), meaning "pretty."
चीन में तांगवंश के जाट राजाओं का शासन
दलीप सिंह अहलावत के अनुसार तांगवंश के शासन का प्रारम्भ 618 ई० में हुआ था और इसका प्रथम राजा काओत्सु था जिसने खोतान देश को भी अपने अधीन कर लिया था। इस कारण से वहां के राजा चीन के साथ मैत्री-सम्बन्ध कायम रखने के उत्सुक रहते थे।
सातवीं शताब्दी के शुरु में विजितसंग्राम नामक राजा ने खोतन देश को तुर्कों की अधीनता से स्वतन्त्र करा लिया था। यह राजा खोतन के पुराने राजाओं (जाट) का वंशज था। इस राजा ने 632 ई० में अपना एक दूतमंडल चीन के तांग वंशज सम्राट् के दरबार में भेजा और तीन वर्ष बाद अपने पुत्र को भी चीन के दरबार में भेजा। 628 ई० में राजा, जो कि विजितसंग्राम का उत्तराधिकारी था, स्वयं चीन के राजदरबार में उपस्थित हुआ था। इस काल में चीन में तंगवंश के राजाओं का शासन था, जो अत्यन्त शक्तिशाली तथा महत्त्वाकांक्षी थे।
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-326
सातवीं सदी में तिब्बत में ‘स्रोङ्-गचन-पो’ नाम का शक्तिशाली राजा हुआ। उसने पड़ौस के अनेक राज्यों को जीत लिया। इसके उत्तराधिकारियों ने खोतन को भी तिब्बत की अधीनता में कर लिया। खोतन का अन्तिम राजा विजितवाहम था।
चीन के तांगवंशी राजाओं ने अपने शक्ति फिर से बढ़ाई और आठवीं सदी का अन्त होने से पूर्व ही मध्य एशिया के विविध प्रदेशों पर से तिब्बत के शासन का अन्त कर दिया।
....many skins of the Ranku deer worthy even of Brahmanas as tribute unto king Yudhishthira. And the tribes Vairamas, Paradas, Tungas, with the Kitavas who lived upon crops that depended on water from the sky or of the river and also they who were born in regions on the sea-shore, in woodlands, or countries on the other side of the ocean waited at the gate, being refused permission to enter, with goats and kine and asses and camels and vegetable, honey and blankets and jewels and gems of various kinds.
- ते वैरामाः पारथाश च वङ्गाश च कितवैः सह
- विविधं बलिम आथाय रत्नानि विविधानि च (II.47.10)
- अजाविकं गॊहिरण्यं खरॊष्ट्रं फलजं मधु
- कम्बलान विविधांश चैव थवारि तिष्ठन्ति वारिताः (II.47.11)
Distribution in Punjab
Villages in Gurdaspur district
Villages in Gurdaspur district
Villages in Hoshiarpur district
Villages in Sangrur district
Villages in Bathinda district
- Tungwali (see Map) is a village in Bathinda district in Punjab. Most Jats of this village and the nearby villages have the gotra Tung.
- Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. त-27
- History and study of the Jats/Chapter 10
- Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. त-8
- O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.43,s.n. 1136
- Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. 6
- O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.43,s.n. 1160
- Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p. 252
- The Punjab Chiefs by Sir Lepel H. Griffin (1865),p.466-67
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book II,pp.26-29
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VI,pp.164-167
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII,pp.169-
- Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of World-Systems Research 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076-156X
- जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-326,327
- मध्य एशिया तथा चीन में भारतीय संस्कृति, पृ० 94-95, लेखक सत्यकेतु विद्यालंकार।
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