Udumbara

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Location of Kuninda relative to other groups: the Audumbaras, the Vemakas, the Vrishnis, the Yaudheyas, the Pauravas and the Arjunayanas

Udumbara (उदुम्बर) was name of a country and city mentioned by Panini and as people in Mahabharata (II.48.12). Udumbara is also name of fig tree (Ficus glomerata) mentioned in Mahabharata (XIII.4.27) and Mahavansa.

Variants of name

Mention by Panini

Udumbara (उदुंबर) is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [1]


Udumbaravati (उदुंबरावती) is a term mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [2]


Audumbaraka (औदुंबरक) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [3]


Audumbarayana (औदुंबरायण) is mentioned by Panini in Ashtadhyayi. [4]

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 15 and Mahavansa/Chapter 23 mention udumbara.

History

V. S. Agrawala[5] mentions Vishayas known to Panini which includes - Udumbara (उदुम्बर), under Rajanyadi (राजन्यादि) (IV.2.53).


V. S. Agrawala[6] writes that Ashtadhyayi of Panini mentions janapada Sālvāvayava (साल्वावयन) - Several members were grouped in this confederacy which include, 1. Udumbara, 2. Tilakhala, 3. Madrakāra, 4. Yugandhara, 5. Bhūliṅga, 6. Śaradaṇḍa


V. S. Agrawala[7] writes that the Udumbara (उदुम्बर) territory is fixed by the find spots of their coins in the Kangra Valley, between Ravi River and Beas, and at Pathankot in Gurdaspur at its mouth. Udumbarāvati might be tributary river flowing through Udumbara country on which the town of the same name was situated.


Tej Ram Sharma[8] writes that The Candravrtti on Candra [9] informs us that Udumbara, Tilakhala, Madrakara, Yugandhara, Bhulinga and Saradanda, are the divisions of Shalva (or Salva).


K.P. Jayaswal[10] mentions Later Gupta Period (c. 570 A.D.-590 A.D.) before the rise of Sasanka:

There was a civil war amongst them, greedy for the kingdom (708-709). It ended by the installation of S., the youngster who became a mere symbol. The Brahmin leaders who had done this became disunited amongst themselves. Reaching the province of Magadha in the city called Udumbara the leading Brahmin crowned two boys. Then he retired to the East, and arriving in the province of Gauda they (? one of them ?) become (s) rivalless (710-712). The two boy chiefs were killed by the wicked one in Kalinga, and owing to his bad guide he committed many murders : he killed all those Gaudas who had been honoured by the kings who had fostered the civil war (713-714).

Comments

This fills up the period of the f Separatist Gaudas' of s-25 above. The account is somewhat confused. It is not clear whether the chief Brahmin Minister went to Gauda and punished the Gaudas who had taken part in the family feud, of whether one of the two boys called balamukhyan (?) evidently only one is meant from several adjectives did this. This feud and oppression of Bengal led to the rise of Sasanka (see next section).

The civil strife seems to have arisen between S.(Maha-Sena Gupta?) and some other claimant. Maha Sena Gupta's time is a generation before Harshavardhana (606 A.D.) and Sasanka (c. 590 A.D.).

Udumbara, must have been a town in South Bihar, probably it is Dumraon in the Shahabad district.


Sandhya Jain[11] writes that Audumbara (औदुम्बर) was an important ancient tribe, mentioned in the tribute list (II.48.12). Bauddha texts say they dwelled on the highway from Magadha to Kashmira in east Kangra district.


In The early history period Chamba region is believed to be inhabited by certain Kolian tribes, which were later, subjugated by the Khasas. The Khasas too after a time came under the sway of Audumbaras (2nd century B.C.). The Audumbaras had republican form of government and worshiped Shiva as their principal deity.

The Mahabharata mentions the Janapadas in Himachal Pradesh such as Kuluta (Kullu), Trigarta (Kangra), Kulinda (Shimla hills and Sirmaur), Yugandhara (Bilaspur and Nalagarh), Gabdika (Chamba) and Audumbara (Pathankot).

उदुंबर

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[12] ने लेख किया है ...उदुंबर (AS, p.96) पंजाब के पठानकोट क्षेत्र को कहा जाता है जिसका संदर्भ मूल सर्वास्तिवादी विनय में भी है।

In Mahabharata

Audumbara (औदुम्बर) in Mahabharata (II.48.12)

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 48 describes Kings who presented tributes to Yudhishthira. Audumbara (औदुम्बरा) is mentioned in verse (II.48.12).[13] ...."The Kayavyas, the Daradas, the Darvas, the Suras, the Vaiamakas, the Audumbaras, the Durvibhagas, the Kumaras, the Paradas along with the Vahlikas,..."

Visit by Xuanzang in 641 AD

Alexander Cunningham[14] writes that Xuanzang mentions province named O-tien-po-chi-lo, which M. Julien renders as Adhyavakila, or Atyanvakela, but for which no Sanskrit equivalent is offered either by himself or by M Vivien de St. Martin. I think, however, that it may be intended for Audumbatira, or Audumbara, which Professor Lassen gives as the name of the people of Kachh. They are the Odomboerae of Pliny [15], but there is no trace of this name at the present day.

External links

References

  1. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.213
  2. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p. 42, 56
  3. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.16
  4. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.354
  5. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.499
  6. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.56
  7. V. S. Agrawala: India as Known to Panini, 1953, p.56
  8. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Tribes,p.143
  9. चंद्रव्याकरण 11,4,103: उदुम्बरास्तिलखला मद्रकारा युगन्धरा । भूलिंगा शरदण्डाश्च साल्वावयव संज्ञिता: ।। Buddha Prakash connects Yugandhara with modern Jagadhari in Punjab: Buddha Prakash, Political and Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, p. 110.
  10. An Imperial History Of India/Gauda and Magadha Provincial History,p.49
  11. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004 , p.129
  12. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.96
  13. कायव्या दरदा दार्वाः शूरा वैयमकास तदा, औदुम्बरा दुर्विभागाः पारदा बाह्लिकैः सह (II.48.12)
  14. The Ancient Geography of India/Western India,pp. 302-303
  15. 1 Hist. Nat., vi. 23.

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