|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
The river was called Jajykon by Ptolemy in the 2nd century AD. This name has a Turkic origin and is currently official in Kazakhstan and in the Bashkir language. In later European texts it is sometimes mentioned as Rhymnus fluvius and in the Russian chronicle of 1140 as Yaik. The river was renamed Ural in the Russian language in 1775, by Catherine II of Russia.
In the 13th century, it became a stronghold of the Golden Horde. It was destroyed in 1395 by the army of Timur but then rebuilt to become the capital of Nogai Horde in the 15–16th centuries. It was finally reduced to a village in 1580 by the Ural Cossacks.
Jat History connections
- Hukum Singh Panwar writes that The internecine wars of the Aryans in Sapta Sindhu, we had shown, had pushed up migrations of the Iksvakus and Sakas, etc. to the Gangetic valley after Bhagiratha. Subsequently, the Sakas etc. were forced by Sagar to move across the Indus river. Consequently , the region up to Ural mountains was called Sakastan. "Archaeology firmly establishes Saka connections not only with Sakastan, Sakhalot near Dargai in the N.W.F.P."34 but also with other places even up to Scandanavia.
- Yu. Kulakovsky. "Chapter 2. The map of European Sarmatia" (in Russian).
- Philippus Ferrarius, Michel-Antoine Baudrand (1738). Novum lexicon geographicum: in quo universi orbis, urbes, regiones ... flumina novis & antiquis nominibus appellata, suisque distantiis descripta recensetur (in Latin). p. 109.
- B.A. Rybakov (1972). Русские летописцы и автор Слова о полку Игореве (in Russian). Nauka. Paul Brummell (2008). Bradt Kazakhstan. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 316. ISBN 1-84162-234-6.
- 800 km on Ural River (in Russian)
- Paul Brummell (2008). Bradt Kazakhstan. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 316. ISBN 1-84162-234-6.
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries
- The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants, p.240-241