Yuti

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Author: Laxman Burdak, IFS (R).
Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent

Yuti (यूती) or Uti (यूती) or Jat clan is found in Afghanistan.[1]According to James Legge, Fahian has mentioned Khotan as Yu-teen.[2][3] Yuti is a Chinese variant of Jat.[4] [5]

Origin

Variants

History

Behistun Inscription Line (68) reads - King Darius says: These are the men who were with me when I slew Gaumâta the Magian [maguš], who was called Smerdis [Bardiya]; then these men helped me as my followers:


According to Herodotus, during the reign of Darius I (522-486 BC), the Drangians were placed in the same district as the Utians, Thamanaeans, Mycians, Drangians, and those deported to the Persian Gulf.


In or about 200 BC serious internal strife occurred in Turkistan. Various tribes fought among themselves. Neung Nu, the Chinese historian writes that during these battles, a tribe known as Uti (Uchi) was winked out of the country.

The Ali, or Alizi, are reckoned at sixteen thousand families, and occupy much the same districts as their kinsfolk, the Aliko, above mentioned, their chief seat being on the plain of Zamindawar, to the west of the Helmand, between Bost and Chaknasur. With the Alizi are joined the Ud, or Udzi, reckoned at five thousand families ; they have settlements in Darawat, Nadall, Garmsil, Ma'ruf, etc. The name Ud may stand for Udi or for the Uti of Herodotus. [6]


Hukum Singh Panwar[7] writes:....Dr Colin Renfrew [8] talks of agricultural activity in Anatolia before the end of Ice Age, and Calvin Kephart[9] interestingly finds the Pre-Sumerian Gutis (and Utis, identified with the Jats), disseminating knowledge of agriculture in those lands, especially relating to cultivation of wheat, the original cereal crop, according to Vanilov, (supra) of the Punjab (Sapta-Sindhu) , were-from it was introduced through upper reaches of the Indus to Afghanistan and North Iran, and to Baluchistan, South Iran,and and Mesopotamia through its lower reaches. This movement of wheat must ave inspired Dr. Daniel Zohary, who[10] credits Afghanistan and north Iran where bread wheats are thought to have originated from a hybrid of emmer (Triticum Dicoccum) and 'goat-face grass' (Aegilops Squarrosa). Like many others, the above mentioned scholars, except Vanilov, advocate the migrations of the Indo-Aryans from west to east, but their thesis is conclusively refuted by the findings of Kephart and the archaeological evidence of Mehargarh (8566 B.C.) in Baluchistan.

The fact that wheat and certain cattle were carried to the west from Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) leads to the next important question - who were the carriers of this culture to those countries? It may, without any hesitation, be suggested that, in addition to the Dasas (Dahae), the carriers of these were the Yaudheyas. Dr. Buddha Prakash[11] contends on the authority of Frye and Adontz, that Yaudheyas, (the descendents of Trin and Nrga), along with the Maciyas (Matsyas or Machhiyas?), Parsas an Assagartas figured in an ancient Volkerwanderun and finally settled in Anatolia. They reached Anatolia through northern Iran (Luristan) where they were known as Yautiya. Those who reached


The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations:End of page 245


Anatolia through Armenia and Transcaucasia were simply called Uti or Utene in Greek. T.J. Kedar,[12] like others, does not admit India as the home of Aryans and contradicts himself when he locates Indo-Aryan tribe like Sivas or Sivis, Manns, Yakshus (Jakshus or Jakhus or Jakhars), Purus, Kurus and Sigrus (Sigrohas) etc. in Armenia and Anatolia in 7102 B.C., the age of Emperor Yayati.


James Todd[13] writes - The various tribes inhabiting the desert and valley of the Indus would alone form an ample subject of investigation, which would, in all probability, elicit some important truths. Amongst the converts to Islam the inquirer into the pedigree of nations would discover names, once illustrious, but which, now hidden under the mantle of a new faith, might little aid his researches into the history of their origin. He would find the Sodha, the Kathi, the Mallani, affording in history, position, and nominal resemblance grounds for inferring that they are the descendants of the Sogdoi, Kathi, and Malloi, who opposed the Macedonian in his passage down the Indus ; besides swarms of Getae or Yuti, many of whom have assumed the general title of Baloch, or retain the ancient specific name of Numri ; while others, in that of Zjat Jat, preserve almost the primitive appellation. We have also the remains of those interesting races the Johyas and Dahyas, of which much has been said in the Annals of Jaisalmer, and elsewhere ; who, as well as the Getae or Jats, and Huns, hold places amongst the " Thirty-six Royal Races " of ancient India.[14]

From Thakur Deshraj history

James Todd obtained a Pali inscription about Jit or Jat tribe at village Ramchandrapura 3 kos (6 miles) east of Bundi state, which he sent to Asiatic Society London. The inscription reveals that there was a king Thot born in Yuti vansha. His son was Raja Chandrasain, a powerful and beloved of his subject. The son of Chandrasain was Kartika, renowned for his prowess. His wife was Gunaniwas, who gave birth to two sons Mukunda and Daruka. Daruka produced son named Kuhal. Kuhal produced son named Dhunak, who achieved great works. He had war with Hill Meenas tribes and defeated and destroyed them. He along with his brother Dok worshipped gods and brahmanas. They founded a Sun-temple for the pleasure of his beloved wife. The temple will stand till the sumer suvarna mountain stands on the sand. Kuhal had founded this temple and a Maheshwar temple in east. The popularity of this was spread by Achal, son of Mahabali Maharaja Yashovarma. [15]

The period of war of this dynasty with pahari Meenas is difficult to asses. If we assume that Jat ruler Kartik had war with Menander then the period of this comes about 150 BC. Menander had attacked areas upto Chittor. It is very likely that Kartika had a war with Menander. This way the period of his descendant becomes the first century. If we look into the period of Achal who made this temple popular it comes around third or fourth century or beyond it, as ruler Yashovarman was in Maukhari vansha in eighth century in Kannauj. He had sent a delegation to China in 731 AD. [16] Lack of records and history prior to sixth century prevents from determining the exact period of the rule of Kartik and his descendants. According to Thakur Deshraj, We can presume their rule from fourth to sixth century. [17]

Identification by Bhim Singh Dahiya

Bhim Singh Dahiya[18] provides us two Clan Identification Charts:

Sl West Asian/Iranian Greek Chines Central Asian Indian Present name
1 2 3 4 5 6
61. Yutiya Utians ? - - Yaudheya Johiya
Sl West Asian/Iranian Greek Chinese Central Asian Indian Present name
1 2 3 4 5 6
157. Uti Utian - Utargari Uttara Utar

Notable persons

References

  1. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.165
  2. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms/Chapter 2,f.n.13
  3. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms/Chapter 3
  4. Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria), The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/Jat-Its variants,pp.345
  5. Mukerji, AB.; op.cit., p. 39.
  6. An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.164-65
  7. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The migrations of the Jats to the North-Western countries,pp.245-246
  8. Dr.D.G. Sidharth, B.M. Birla Science Centre, Research Report, Aug., 1991, pp. 1-5. Cf. Ali Sami, Shiraz, Musavi Printing Office, Shiraz, 1958, p.12.
  9. Kephart, op.cit., p. 244.
  10. Deshpande & Hook, op.cit., p. 104. cf. also Zohary, Daniel; 1969
  11. Pol. & Sac Movts. in Anc. Pb. p. 105. Cf. R.N. Frye, Heritage of Persia. 1962. London, p. 50; N Adontz, Histoire d 'Armenia, les origines. p. 308). q. by Buddha Prakash. op.cit., p. 105.
  12. Op.cit.. pp. 2. 211. 30. etc. etc.
  13. James Todd Annals/Sketch of the Indian Desert,p.1292
  14. See sketch of the tribes, Vol. I. p. 98
  15. James Todd, Appedix 1], Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.588-589
  16. Bharat Ke Prachin Rajvansh, II
  17. Thakur Deshraj, Jat Itihas, p.589-590
  18. Jats the Ancient Rulers (A clan study)/Appendices/Appendix II,p.322 & p.328

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