Hund

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Map of Hindu Shahi dynasty with location of Udabhanda

Hund or Waihind (वैहिंद) is a small village in Swabi district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, of Pakistan.

Variants of name

Location

Hund is situated on the right bank of the Indus River about 15 km upstream of Attock Fort and at a distance of about 80 km to the east of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, of Pakistan.

History

Tej Ram Sharma writes that the term Sindhu was corrupted to Hindu in the old Persian inscriptions of Darius I (516-485 B. C.), and to Indus by the Ionian (=Panini's Yavana) Greeks. The word 'India' is derived from the river Sindhu or the Indus. Taking its rise from the snows of Western Kailasa in Tibet, the Sindhu first flows north-west of Kashmir and South of little Pamir, and then takes a southward course along which lay some of the important cities of north India. Emerging from the Darad high-lands, the river (Daradi Sindhuh) enters the Gandhara country until it receives its most important western tributary the Kabul river at Ohind, a few miles north of Attock.[1]

It was the site of Alexander the Great's crossing of the Indus and an important site of Gandhara ruins.[2]

Hund was the last capital of Gandhara under the Hindu Shahi rulers until the beginning of 11th century AD. Gandhara (गन्धार) is also known as Waihind (ویهیند) in Persian. when Mahmud of Ghazna defeated Anandapala, the last Hindu Shahi ruler in Gandhara. The Hindu Shahi capital was then shifted to Nandana in the Salt Range.[3]

It has also been said that the Mongol invader Changez Khan (Genghis Khan) also followed Khwarzim Shah up to Hund, before the prince jumped into the Indus River on his way to India.

Hund is also said to be the site of Khwarazm Shah's Army's last stand against Genghis Khan. The settlements of Balar Khel are mainly in villages Zaida, Maini, Yaqubi, Yarhussain, Hund, Ambar, Lahor, Kaddi and Panj Pir in Swabi District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in Pakistan. Juna Khel Mardan , Gumbat. Taus Khel Mardan , Gumbat.

In the spring of 326 BCE Alexander III of Macedonia passed into the Punjab (at Ohind, 16 m. above Attock), using a bridge over the Indus constructed by Perdiccas and Hephaestion.[4] The region became part of the Kingdom of Ederatides the Greek or Indo-Greek Kingdom, who extended his power over western Punjab. The Indo-Greek kings held the country after him (until about 80 BCE) until its invasion by the Indo-scythians.

It was a famous town of ancient India. It is mentioned in connection with Ghazanavi conquests. Mahmud conquered it in 393 AH after conquest of Peshawar. It was the capital of Kandahar and it lies in the Sindh valley. V A Smith in the Early History of India locates the capital named Ohind near Sind River and writes that after the Muslim conquest of Kabul in 256 AH the capital shifted to Ohind which was situated near Sind and was the capital of Hindu Ruling Dynasty. Towns under capital vaihind were Wadhan' Batir, Nawj Lawar' Saman Kuj etc. In the territory of Waihind there was sizable population of Muslims but Hindus were in majority. Both populations had their own kings. [5]

In AD 671 when Muslim armies seized Kabul then the capital was moved to Udabhandapura, Modern day Und near modern Attock, also called Waihind by Al Biruni (Wink p 125), where they became known as the Rajas of Hindustan or Hindu Shahi. Udabhanda was the capital of the Shahi dynasty.

In the wake of Muslim invasions of Kabul and Kapisa in second half of 7th century (AD 664), the Kapisa/Kabul ruler called by Muslim writers Kabul Shahi (Shahi of Kabul) made an appeal to the Kshatriyas of the Hind who had gathered there in large numbers for assistance and drove out the Muslim invaders as far as Bost.[6]This king of Kapisa/Kabul who faced the Muslim invasion was undoubtedly a Kshatriya.[7]

In AD 645, when Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang was passing through the Uttarapatha, Udabhanda or Udabhandapura was the place of residence or secondary capital of emperor of Kapisa which then dominated over 10 neighboring states comprising Lampaka, Nagara, Gandhara and Varna (Bannu) and probably also Jaguda. About Gandhara, the pilgrim says that its capital was Purushapura; the royal family was extinct and country was subject to Kapisa; the towns and villages were desolate and the inhabitants were very few. It seems that under pressure from Arabs in the southwest and the Turks in the north, the kings of Kapisa had left their western possessions in the hands of their viceroys and made Udabhanda their principal seat of residence. The reason why Udabhandapura was selected in preference to Peshawar is at present unknown but it is possible that the new city of Udabhanda was built by Kapisa rulers for strategic reasons.[8]

Bhera Pakistan is a historical city. Mahmud of Ghazni In his attack on Waihind (Peshawar) in 1001-3, is reported to have captured the Hindu Shahi King Jayapala and fifteen of his principal chiefs and relations some of whom like Sukhpal, were made Musalmans. At Bhera a great many inhabitants, except those who embraced Islam, were put to the sword.


Visit by Xuanzang in 630 AD:

  • Reaching Oḍḍiyāna, Xuanzang found 1,400 old monasteries, that had previously supported 18,000 monks. The remnant monks were of the Mahayana school.

In Rajatarangini

Rajatarangini[9] tells that Then the virtuous and truthful Gopalavarmma (902-904), began to reign under the direction of his mother Sugandha. Though he was yet a boy, and lived among the vile and the seduced, yet he did not contract any bad habit. His mother was now a widow, and living in luxury, asked Prabhakaradeva, a minister (treasurer), to her embrace, and bestowed on her paramour wealth, rank, and three good districts. The treasurer robbed the queen of much wealth and built a town Bhandapura at Shahirajya. The reigning Shahi disobeyed his orders to build the town, on which he changed the name of the country to Kamalaka, and gave it to Tomarana the son of Lalliya. (Book V,p.122)

Visit by Xuanzang in 630 AD

Alexander Cunningham[10] writes about Utakhanda, or Ohind, or Embolima. From Polusha Hwen Thsang travelled 200 li, or 33 miles, to the south-east to U-to-kia-han-cha, which M. Julien transcribes as Udakhanda, and M. Vivien de St. Martin identifies with Ohind on the Indus. The pilgrim describes Udakhanda as having its south side resting on the river, which tallies exactly with the position of Ohind, on the north bank of the Indus, about 15 miles above Attok. General Court and Burnes call this place Hund, and so does Mr. Loewenthal, who styles Ohind a mistaken pronunciation. But the name was written <arabic> Waihand or Oaihand, by Abu Rihan in A.D. 1030, and Ohind by Mirza Mogal Beg in 1790. To my ear the name sounded something like Wahand, and this would appear to have been the


[p.53]: pronunciation which. Rashid-ud-din obtained in A.D. 1310, as he names the place Wehand[11] According to all these authors Waihand was the capital of Gandhara, and Rashid-ud-din adds that the Mogals called it Karajang. The only native writer who uses the abbreviated form of the name is Nizam-ud-din, who in his ' Tabakat-i-Akbari ' says that Mahmud besieged Jaipal in the fort of Hind in A.D. 1002. But this place is differently named by Ferishta, who calls it the fort of Bithanda, <arabic>. In this last name we have a very near approach to the old form of Utakhanda, which is given by Hwen Thsang.

From all these examples, I infer that the original name of Utakhanda, or Ut-khand, was first softened to Uthand or Bithanda, and then shortened to Uhand or Ohund. The other form of Wehand I look upon as a simple misreading of Uthand, as the two words only differ in the position of the diacritical points of the second letter. General James Abbott, in his ' Gradus ad Aornon,' calls the place Oond, and says that it was formerly called Oora, from which he thinks it probable that it may be identified with the Ora, Ωρα of Alexander's historians.

I have entered into this long detail out of respect for the acknowledged learning of the late lamented Isidor Loewenthal. His opinion as to the name of Ohind was most probably, although quite unconsciously, biased by his belief that Utakhanda was to be found in the modern Attak. But this place is unfortunately on the wrong side of the Indus, besides which its name, as far as I am aware, is not to be found in any author prior to the reign of Akbar. Abul Fazl


[p.54]: calls the fort Atak-Banaras, and states that it was built in the reign of his Majesty. Baber never mentions the place, although he frequently speaks of Nilab. Rashid-ud-din, however, states that the Parashawar river joins the Indus near Tankur, which most probably refers to the strong position of Khairabad. I have a suspicion that the name of Attak, the "forbidden," may have been derived by Akbar from a mistaken reading of Tankur, with the Arabic article prefixed, as Et-tankur. The name of Banaras was undoubtedly derived from Banar, the old name of the district in which the fort is situated. The name of Banar suggested Banaras, and as Kasi-Banaras was the city which all Hindus would wish to visit, so we may guess that this fact suggested to the playful mind of Akbar the exactly opposite idea of Attah Banaras or the " forbidden " Banaras, which all good Hindus should avoid. Or the existence of Katak Banaras[12] (or Cuttack) in Orissa, on the extreme eastern limit of his kingdom, may have suggested an alteration of the existing names of Attak and Banar to Attak-Banaras as an antithesis for the extreme west.

Wehand, or Uhand as I believe it should be written, was the capital of the Brahman kings of Kabul, whose dynasty was extinguished by Mahmud of Ghazni in A.D. 1026. Masudi, who visited India in A.D. 915, states that " the king of El-kandahar (or Gandhara), who is one of the kings of Es-Sind ruling over this country, is called Jahaj ; this name is common to all sovereigns of that country."[13] Now, Chach is the name


[p.55]: of the great plain to the east of the Indus, immediately opposite to Ohind; and as the plain of Banar is said to have been named after Raja Banar it seems probable that the plain of Chach may have been named after the Brahman dynasty of Ohind. It is curious that the Brahman dynasty of Sindh was also established by a Chach in A.D. 641 ; but it is still more remarkable that this date corresponds with the period of the expulsion of the Brahman dynasty from Chichito, or Jajhoti, by the Chandels of Khajura. I think, therefore, that there may have been some connection between these events, and that the expelled Jajhotiya Brahmans of Khajura may have found their way to the Indus, where they succeeded in establishing themselves at first in Sindh and afterwards in Ohind and Kabul.

In the time of Hwen Thsang the city was 20 li, or upwards of 3 miles, in circuit, and we may reasonably suppose that it must have increased in size during the sway of the Brahman dynasty. It would seem also to have been still a place of importance under the successors of Changiz Khan, as the Mogals had changed its name to Karajang. But the building of Attak, and the permanent diversion of the high-road, must seriously have affected its prosperity, and its gradual decay since then has been hastened by the constant encroachments of the Indus, which has now carried away at least one-half of the old town.[14] In the sands at the foot of the cliff, which are mixed with the debris of the ruined houses, the gold-washers find numerous coins and trinkets, which offer the best evidence of the


[p.56]: former prosperity of the city. In a few hours' washing I obtained a bronze buckle, apparently belonging to a bridle, a female neck ornament, several flat needles for applying antimony to the eyes, and a considerable number of coins of the Indo-Scythian and Brahman princes of Kabul. The continual discovery of Indo-Scythian coins is a suficient proof that the city was already in existence at the beginning of the Christian era, which may perhaps induce us to put some faith in the tradition, mentioned by Abul Peda, that Wehand, or OJiind, was one of the cities founded by Alexander the Great.

After the surrender of Peukelaotis, Arrian[15] relates that Alexander captured other small towns on the river Kophenes, and " arrived at last at Embolima, a city seated not far from the rock Aornos," where he left Kraterus to collect provisions, in case the siege should be protracted. Before he left Bazaria, Alexander, with his usual foresight, had despatched Hephaestion and Perdikkas straight to the Indus with orders to "prepare everything for throwing a bridge over the river." Unfortunately, not one of the historians has mentioned the name of the place where the bridge was made ; but as the great depot of provisions and other necessaries was formed at Embolima, I conclude that the bridge must have been at the same place. General Abbott has fixed Embolima at Amb-Balima on the Indus, 8 miles to the east of Mahaban ; and certainly if Mahaban was Aornos the identity of the other places would be incontestable. But as the identification of Mahaban seems to me to be altogether untenable, I would suggest that Ohind or Ambar-Ohind


[p.57]: is the most probable site of Embolima. Ambar is a village two miles to the north of Ohind, and it is in accordance with Indian custom to join the names of two neighbouring places together, as in the case of Attak-Banaras, for the sake of distinction, as there is another Ohin on the Jhelam. It must be remembered, however, that Embolima or Ekbolima may be only a pure Greek name, descriptive of the position of the place, at the junction of the Kabul river with the Indus, where it is placed by Ptolemy. In this case the claim of Ohind would be even stronger than before. That the bridge over the Indus was at, or near, Embolima, seems almost certain from the statement of Curtius, that when Alexander had finished his campaign to the west of the Indus by the capture of Aornos, "he proceeded towards Ecbolima;"[16] that is, as I conclude, to the place where his bridge had been prepared by Hephaestion and Perdikkas, and where his provisions had been stored by Kraterus. I infer that the depot of provisions must have been close to the bridge, because one guard would have sufficed for the security of both bridge and stores.

Connection with Burdak History

As per records of the Bards of the Burdak clan, Rao Burdak Dev went to Lahore to help Raja Jai Pal. He died in war in V.S. 1057 (1000 AD) and his wife Tejal of gotra Shekwal became sati in Dadrewa. Her chhatri was built on the site of Dadrewa pond in samvat 1058 (1001 AD). Rao Burdakdeo’s elder son Samudra Pal begot two sons: Nar Pal and Kusum Pal. Smudra Pal went to Vaihind near Peshawar in Pakistan to help Raja Anand Pal and was killed there in war. Samudra Pal’s wife Punyani became sati in samvat 1067 (1010 AD) at Sambhar. [17]

Ch.28: Capture of Oazira by Alexander.— advance to the rock of Aornus.

Arrian[18] writes.... WHEN the men in Bazira heard this news, despairing of their own affairs, they abandoned the city about the middle of the night, and fled to the rock as the other barbarians were doing. For all the inhabitants deserted the cities and began to flee to the rock which is in their land, and is called Aornus1. For stupendous is this rock in this land, about which the current report is, that it was found impregnable even by Heracles, the son of Zeus. I cannot affirm with confidence either way, whether the Theban, Tyrian, or Egyptian Heracles2 penetrated into India or not; but I am rather inclined to think that he did not penetrate so far for men are wont to magnify the difficulty of all difficult enterprises to such a degree as to assert that they would have been impracticable even to Heracles. Therefore, I am inclined to think, that in regard to this rock the name of Heracles was mentioned simply to add to the marvellous-ness of the tale. The circuit of the rock is said to be about 200 stades (i.e., about twenty-three miles), and its height where it is lowest, eleven stades (i.e., about a mile and a quarter). There was only one ascent, which was artificial and difficult; on the summit of the rock there was abundance of pure water, a spring issuing from the ground, from which the water flowed; and there was also timber, and sufficient good arable land for 1,000 men to till3. When Alexander heard this, he was seized with a vehement desire to capture this mountain also, especially on account of the legend which was current about Heracles. He then made Ora and Massaga fortresses to keep the land in subjection, and fortified the city of Bazira. Hephaestion and Perdiccas also fortified for him another city, named Orobatis, and leaving a garrison in it marched towards the river Indus. When they reached that river they at once began to carry out Alexander’s instructions in regard to bridging it. Alexander then appointed Nicanor, one of the Companions, viceroy of the land on this side the river Indus; and in the first place leading his army towards that river, he brought over on terms of capitulation the city of Peucelaotis, which was situated not far from it. In this city he placed a garrison of Macedonians, under the command of Philip, and then reduced to subjection some other small towns situated near the same river, being accompanied by Cophaeus and Assagetes, the chieftains of the land. Arriving at the city of Embolima4, which was situated near the rock Aornus, he left Craterus there with a part of the army, to gather as much corn as possible into the city, as well as all the other things requisite for a long stay, so that making this their base of operations, the Macedonians might be able by a long siege to wear out the men who were holding the rock, supposing it were not captured at the first assault. He then took the bowmen, the Agrianians, and the brigade of Coenus, and selecting the lightest as well as the best-armed men from the rest of the phalanx, with 200 of the Companion cavalry and zoo horse-bowmen, he advanced to the rock. This day he encamped where it appeared to him convenient; but on the morrow he approached a little nearer to the rock, and encamped again.


1. This seems to be the Greek translation of the native name, meaning the place to which no bird can rise on account of its height. Cf. Strabo, xv. 1. This mountain was identified by Major Abbot, in 1854, as Mount Mahabunn, near the right bank of the Indus, about 60 miles above its confluence with the Cabul.

2. Cf. Arrian, ii. 16 supra.

3. Curtius (viii. 39) says that the river Indus washed the base of the rock, and that its shape resembled the meta or goal in a race-course, which was a stone shaped like a sugar-loaf. Arrian's description is more likely to be correct as he took it from Ptolemy, one of Alexander's generals.

4. Near mount Mahabunn are two places called Umb and Balimah, the one in the valley of the river and the other on the mountain above it. See Major Abbot's Gradus ad Aornon.

p.257-260

Notable persons

The village is inhibited by mainly Khans (not actually pathans), Mians (The Honorable SYEDS) Habib khel, Awan, Mollas, and other small tribes. the only pathan family belongs to Balar Khel co-mixed with Habib Khel.

In vill Hund Balar Khel family is traced back to MAJOR Muhammad Imran brother of Qamar Zaman and Mufti Fazal e Rabbi, all s/o Qareeb ur Rehman s/o Fazal Dad Khan s/o Khan Bahadur Khan, s/o Bostan Khan s/o Ayaz Khan.

These were the chieftains and Land Lords of village Hund until British came in power in subcontinent and there majority of land was snatched from them and handed over to British Blue eyed people who were not even residents of the area during life time of Khan Bahadur Khan chiftain of Balar khel. The new settlers now land lords of the area adopted the title of KHAN and became the influential of area because of British Patronage and support. In order to serve their British Masters they ( Khadi khan from the family of new settlers)later on conspired and cheated Shah Ismail Shaheed and Shah Wali Ullah Rehmat Ullah Alai when they wanted to attack Marhatas across river Hund commonly known as Abaseen in vill pori Chach.

External links

See also


Back to Jat Places in Pakistan

References

  1. Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions/Names of the Rivers and the Mountains, p.297
  2. The Three Capitals of Gandhara . NWFP tourism site
  3. Cafeteria, rest house inaugurated at Hund Museum Wednesday, January 07, 2009 Nisar Mahmood. THE NEWS. Jang group
  4. M. A. Foucher, Notes sur la géographie ancienne du Gandhara (commentaire a un chapitre de Hiuen-tsang)", Bulletin de l´École Française d´Extrême-Orient, I, No. 4 (Oct., 1901), pp. 322-369; cited, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911
  5. Muslim kingship in India By Nagendra Kr Singh, p.48
  6. The Sun and the Serpent: A Contribution to the History of Serpent-worship, 1905, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham — Serpent worship.
  7. op cit, p 126, Charles Frederick Oldham.
  8. The Geography of Ancient and Medieval India, 1971, p 292-93, Dr D. C. Sircar.
  9. Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book V,p.122
  10. The Ancient Geography of India/Gandhara, p. 52-57
  11. There is a place of the same name on the Jhelam, which Moor-croft spells Oin.
  12. ' Ayin Akbari," ii. 194, and Stirling's ' Orissa,' in Bengal Asiat Researches, xv. 189.
  13. Sir Henry Elliot's ' Muhammadan Historians of India,' i. 57. In the new edition by Professor Dowson, i. 22, the name is altered to Hahaj.
  14. See No. IV. Map for its position
  15. 'Anabasis,' it. 28.
  16. Vit. Alex., viii. 12, — "inde processit Ecbolima. "
  17. Records of Rao Bhawani Singh (Mob:09785459386), village Maheshwash, tahsil Phulera, district Jaipur, Rajasthan.
  18. Arrian Anabasis Book/4b, Ch.28