|Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)|
Baramulla (बारामुला) is a city and district in Jammu and Kashmir.
Variants of name
- Hu.se.kia-lo (Xuanzang)
- Ushkur (उष्कूर)/Ushkura (उष्कूर) = Hushkapura (हुष्कपुर) (AS, p.103)
- Hushkapura (हुष्कपुर) (AS, p.1027)
Rajatarangini mentions that there were on the throne of Kashmira three kings reigning jointly, namely, Hushka, Jushka and Kanishka ; they built three cities and called these after their names i.e. Hushkapura, Jushkapura and Kanishkapura.
Origin of name
The city of Baramulla is said to be founded by Raja Bhimsina in 2306 BCE. A number of prominent visitors have travelled to Baramulla. These include the famous Chinese visitor Xuanzang and the British historian, Moorcraft.
RajataranginiWhen Uchchala was entering Varahamula, a good-omened mare came to him from the enemy's side, and the garland fell from the neck of the Great Varaha (an incarnation of Vishnu) on his head, as if crowning him king of the world. Kaka and other warriors, born of Vaidya caste, opposed Uchchala, so that he left Hushkapura and turned towards Kramarajya. Hearing of his approach, the Damaras became excited and rebelled against the Lord of Mandala. They killed Yasharaja and other good warriors, and defeated the Lord of Mandala and crippled his power. The Lord of Mandala slowly retreated to Taramulaka, and the Damaras, led by Uchchala, followed him there. The Lord of Mandala was at the head of his army and could not for a long time be captured.
Mughal emperors had special fascination for Baramulla. Being the gateway of the Kashmir Valley, Baramulla was a halting station for them during their visits to the valley. In 1508 CE Emperor Akbar, who entered the valley via Pakhil, spent a few days at Baramulla and, according to "Tarikh-e-Hassan", the city had been decorated like a bride during Akbar's stay. Jahangir also stayed at Baramulla during his visit to Kashmir in 1620 CE.
From the very beginning, Baramulla has enjoyed religious importance. The construction of Hindu Teertha and Buddhist Vihars made the city sacred to Hindus as well as Buddhists. In the 15th century, the place became important to Muslims also, as the famous Muslim saint, Syed Janbaz Wali, who visited the valley along with his companions in 1421 CE, chose Baramulla as the centre of his mission and was buried here after death. His shrine attracts pilgrims from all over the Valley.
In 1894, the sixth Sikh Guru Shri Hargobind visited the city. Baramulla thus became an abode of Hindus, Muslims, Buddhists and Sikhs living in harmony and contributing to a rich composite culture.
It was the oldest and the most important town in north of princely state of Kashmir and Jammu and the 'Gateway of Kashmir Valley' by Rawalpindi-Murree-Muzaffarabad-Baramulla Road until 27 October 1947. It acceded to India when the Maharaja signed the instrument of accession on 26 October 1947 which was accepted the next day. It is now the headquarters of Baramulla district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir which is now a part of the Republic of India.
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...उष्कूर (AS, p.103) कनिष्क के उत्तराधिकारी हुविष्क का कश्मीर घाटी में बसाया हुआ नगर था। बारामूला गिरिद्वार के निकट हुष्कपुर के खंडहर और एक छोटा सा उष्कूर नामक ग्राम जो हुष्कपुर का स्मारक है, स्थित है। उष्कपुर में एक प्राचीन स्तूप के चिह्न देखे जा सकते है। उष्कूर, हुष्कपुर का ही अपभ्रंश है। (देखें:- हुष्कपुर)
विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर ने लेख किया है ...हुष्कपुर (AS, p.1027) कनिष्क के उत्तराधिकारी हुविष्क या हुष्क (111-138 ई.) का बसाया हुआ नगर था। इसकी स्थिति कश्मीर घाटी में स्थित बारामूला के गिरिद्वार (दर्रे) के ठीक बाहर पश्चिम की ओर थी। उस काल में यह स्थान कश्मीर का पश्चिमी द्वार कहलाता था।
चीनी यात्री हुएन-सांग हुष्कपुर के विहार में 631 ई. के लगभग पहुँचा था। वह यहाँ कई दिन ठहरा था। विहार से वह नगर में भी गया था जहाँ उसने पाँच सहस्त्र भिक्षु देखें थे। बारामूला गिरिद्वार के निकट हुष्कपुर के खंडहर और एक छोटा सा उष्कूर नामक ग्राम जो हुष्कपुर का स्मारक है, स्थित है। उष्कूर में एक प्राचीन स्तूप के चिह्न देखे जा सकते है। उष्कूर, हुष्कपुर का ही अपभ्रंश है।
Visit by Xuanzang in 631 AD
Alexander Cunningham writes that Hwen Thsang entered the valley of Kashmir from the west in September, A.D. 631. At the entrance there was a stone gate, where he was met by the younger brother of the king's mother ; and after
[p.91]: paying his devotions at the sacred monuments, he went to lodge for the night in the monastery of Hu-se-kia-lo, or Hushkara. This place is mentioned by Abu Rihan, who makes Ushkara the same as Baramula, which occupied both sides of the river. In the ' Raja Tarangini also Hushkapura is said to be near Varaha, or Varahamula, which is the Sanskrit form of Baramula. Hushkara or Uskar still exists as a village on the left or eastern bank of the Behat, two miles to the south-east of Baramula. The Kashmiri Brahmans say that this is the Hushkapura of the ' Raja Tarangini,' which was founded by the Turushka king Hushka, about the beginning of the Christian era.
[p.99]: Hushkapura, which was founded by the Indo-Scythian prince Hushka, or Huvishka, the brother of Kanishka, would appear to have been the same place as the well-known Varahamula, or Barahmula, on the Behat River. Abu Rihan calls it " Ushkar, which is the
[p.100]: town of Baramula, built on both banks of the river." It is noted under the same name by the Chinese pilgrim Hwen Thsang, who entered the valley from the west by a stone gate, and halted at the monastery of Hu.se.kia-lo, or Hushkara. The name of Barahmula has now eclipsed the more ancient appellation, which, however, still exists in the village of Uskara, 2 miles to the south-east of the present town, and immediately under the hills. The place has been visited, at my request, by the Rev. G. W. Cowie, who found there a Buddhist stupa still intact. This is probably the same monument that is recorded to have been erected by Raja Lalitaditya between A.D. 723 and 760. It is again mentioned in the native chronicle as the residence of the Queen Sugandha in A.D. 913. From all these notices, it is certain that the town still bore its original name down to the beginning of the eleventh century, when Abu Rihan mentions both names. But after this time the name of Varahamula alone is found in the native chronicles, in which it is mentioned during the reigns of Harsha and Sussala, early in the twelfth century. I think it probable that the main portion of the town of Hushkapura was on the left, or south bank of the river, and that Varahamula was originally a small suburb on the right bank. On the decline of Buddhism, when the monastic establishment at Hushkapura was abandoned, the old town also must have been partially deserted, and most probably it continued to decrease until it was supplanted by the Brahmanical suburb of Varahamula.
Rajatarangini tells us....Sussala understood the signs of the times, and though as yet there was peace, he had misgivings about Garga. He was anxious to come to Kashmira but he first sent Sanjapala. The king had bestowed wealth and Dvara on Lakkaka who with difficulty reached Barahamula. Garga remembered that it was Lakkaka who had attacked him in his house, he came up to him from behind, destroyed his army and plundered both the soldiers and the place Barahamula.(p.38-39)
Rajatarangini tells us....The very powerful Prithvihara who stationed himself on a level plain covered with trees and bordering on the mountains came out and defeated the royal army. Ananda, lord of Dvara, of the line of Ananta, Kāka and Tilakasimha ; — these three who had once fled from battle were made ministers. Vijaya fell in Jaishta, and the king suffered a defeat on the sixth day of bright moon in Ashadha and became disheartened. As when the cows run about, or the serpents ascend the tops of trees, or the ants lay eggs, the approach of rain is known, so the king knew by evil omens, that danger was nigh and did what was necessary to be done. On the third day of bright moon, in the month of Ashadha, he sent his queen, his son and other relatives to the fortified Lohara. He followed them, but the bridge on the Vitasta broke down and some Brahmanas and the twice-born inhabitants of Loshta fell in the river. Grieved at this ill omen, he accompanied his family for two or three days to Hushkapura, and then again returned to his capital. (VIII,p.61)
Rajatarangini tells us....When Janakasimha had fled, Bhikshu broke down the houses of those who had set themselves against him. When Sulhaṇa, Vimba and others had with their large armies defeated Tilaka at Hushkapura, Sussala was seen by the enemies approaching by the Lohara road after two or three days, with Mallakoshta, Janaka &c., and their army in front, and with many petty chieftains in his rear. (VIII,p.81)
Rajatarangini tells us.... The king Sussala, who was indifferent in mind and wished to resign his kingdom brought from Lohara, his son who had just then passed his boyhood. He had made Bhagika, Prajji's brother's son Simhadeva, lord of Mandala and employed him at Lohara, and thus guarded the country and its treasury. When his beloved son arrived in 1125 AD at Varahamula, he advanced and embraced him with joy as well as with grief. (p.105)
This district consists of 12 blocks: Uri, Rohama, Rafiabad, Zaingeer, Sopore, Boniyar, Baramulla, Tangmarg, Singpora, Pattan, Wagoora and Kunzer. Pattan tehsil is the largest tehsil of the district Baramulla and was later split to from separate Kreeri tehsil.
- The Ancient Geography of India/Kingdom of Kashmir, pp. 91,99
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book I,p.12-13
- The economy of Jammu & Kashmir. Radha Krishan Anand & Co., 2004
- Rajatarangini of Kalhana:Kings of Kashmira/Book VII (i),p.269
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.103
- Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.1027
- देखें स्टाइन कृत राजतरंगिणी 5, 168-171
- The Ancient Geography of India/Kingdom of Kashmir, pp. 90-91,99-100
- ' Hiouen Thsang,' i. 90.
- Reinaud, ' Fragments Arabes,' p. 116.
- B. vii. 1310 and 1313.
- Reinaud, 'Fragments Arabes, etc.,' p. 116.
- ' Raja Tarangini,' iv. 188.
- Ibid., v. 258.
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII,p.34
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII,p.38-39
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII,p.61
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII,p.81
- Kings of Kashmira Vol 2 (Rajatarangini of Kalhana)/Book VIII (i),p.105