Vidisha

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Author:Laxman Burdak IFS (R)
Map of Vidisha district
Garuda (Heliodorus) Pillar of Besnagar

Vidisha (विदिशा) is a city and district in the central Indian state Madhya Pradesh, near its capital Bhopal. List of Mahabharata people and places includes Vidisha (विदिशा) as a River in Mahabharata (II.9.18), (II.9), (VI.10.27).

Variants of name

Location

The town is situated east of the Betwa River, in the fork of the Betwa and Bes rivers, 10 km from Sanchi. The town of Besnagar, 3 km from present-day Vidisha on the west side of the river.

Sindh River originates on the Malwa Plateau in Vidisha district.

Jat Gotras

Tahsils in Vidisha district

  1. Basoda
  2. Gyaraspur
  3. Kurwai
  4. Lateri
  5. Nateran
  6. Sironj
  7. Vidisha

Villages in Vidisha tahsil

Abela, Adampur, Ahmada Nagar, Ahmadpur Tappa Kheda, Amachhawar, Amaukhedi, Amkheda Haweli, Amoda, Andiya Ahmadpur, Andiya Khurd, Arwariya, Badanpur, Bagri, Bais, Bala Barkheda, Ballakhedi, Baman Kheda, Bamankheda Lashkarpur, Bamora, Bamuriya, Bankhedi, Barkheda, Barkheda Ahmadpur, Barkheda Kachawa Padrat, Barkhedi Birma, Barkhedi Kasba, Barro, Beed Sarkar, Berkhedi Ahmadpur, Berkhedi Bujurg, Berkhedi Jetu, Bhadar Badagaon, Bhadora, Bhairokhedi, Bhatkhedi, Bhatni, Bhauriya, Bhila Khedi, Bhiya Khedi, Bhoot Parasi, Bilori, Boria Khamkheda, Byonchi, Chakpiya, Chhapkheda, Chhirkheda, Chidoriya Munjapta, Chidoriya Padrat, Chitoriya, Dabar, Dalla Khedi, Dangarwada, Deetakhedi, Dehri, Deo Khajuri, Deorajpur, Dhamnoda, Dhanora Haweli, Dharu Khedi, Dhaturiya Heweli, Dhol Khedi, Dulhai, Dupariya, Gadhla, Gajar, Gajikhedi, Gangarwada, Gehu Khedi, Ghatkhedi, Ghudiyakhedi, Goriya Khamkheda, Goriyakhamkheda, Gubarhela, Gurariya Haweli, Gurariya Lashkarpur, Hansua, Harukhedi, Hasnabad, Hinotiya, Hinotiya, Hirnai, Hirnoda, Ikodiya Lashkarpur, Imaliya, Imaliya Lashkarpur, Imaliya Parasi, Jafarkhedi, Jaitpura, Jalhari, Jamaldi, Jambar, Jhirniya, Jiwajipur, Kabula, Kachhi Kheda, Kachhwa, Kachnariya, Kaf, Kagpur, Kanari, Kankarkhedi, Karahi, Karaiya Hat, Karaiya Haweli, Karakhedi, Karariya Ahmadpur, Karariya Lashkarpur, Karela, Kariya Ahmadpur, Karodiya Bagoda, Kasba Ahmadpur, Katsara, Khai Kheda, Khajuri Thanner, Khamkheda Kasba, Khamkheda Lashkarpur, Khammukhedi, Khamtala, Khaparkheda, Khari, Kharwai, Khejada Ahmadpur, Khejada Sultan, Kherua Lashkarpur, Khiriya, Kirimchi Bandhera, Kolinja, Kothichar Kalan, Kothichar Khurd, Kotra Lashkarpur, Kuwakhedi, Lala Khedi, Lashkarpur, Lodha Khedi, Madankhedi, Madhiya Kalan, Madhiya Khurd, Mahuakheda (Khamkheda), Meharkhedi Padrat, Mirzapur, Mudra Ahmadpur, Mudra Durjansal, Mudra Surai, Muhana, Mundra Abela, Mundra Harisingh, Mungod, Murwara, Namakhedi, Narot, Nathanpur, Neemkheda, Nimkhiriya, Nitarri, Padrayat, Padriya, Padriya Mafi, Paho(Kohakhedi), Palki, Paloh, Panjh, Paras, Parasi Gujar, Parasi Khurd, Parasi Tunda, Pardhi, Parsora, Parsora Haweli, Parsukhedi, Pathrai Haweli, Pathriya, Perwara, Pipal Hutha, Pipalkheda Kalan, Pipalkheda Khurd, Pipariya Ajit, Pipariya Mota, Pipariya Nag, Pipriyaghat, Porukhedi, Powa Nala, Purenia, Ramgarh, Rampur Bandhiya, Rampura, Rangai, Roda, Rusalli Khamkheda, Ruslla, Sagoda, Salaikhedi, Sallaiya, Samrasukha, San, Sangai, Sangakhedi, Sankalkheda Kalan, Sankalkheda Khurd, Sanoti, Satiyakhedi, Satpada Ahmadpur, Satpadakalan, Sayar, Semra Ahamadpur, Semra Lashkarpur, Shajakhedi, Sherpurkasba, Silpari, Sonthar, Sorai, Sothiya, Suakhedi, Sugnakhedi, Sultaniya, Sunpura, Surod, Thanner, Tharr, Tigra, Tilak, Tilakhedi, Tori, Udaigiri, Udlakhedi, Vidisha, (M) Vighan,

History

The town is situated east of the Betwa River, in the fork of the Betwa and Bes rivers, 10 km from Sanchi. The town of Besnagar, 3 km from present-day Vidisha on the west side of the river, became an important trade center in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE, under the Sungas, Nagas, Satavahanas, and Guptas, and was mentioned in the Pali scriptures. The Emperor Ashoka was the governor of Vidisha and it finds mention in Kalidasa's immortal Meghdoot. Besnagar was abandoned in the sixth century, it came into prominence again as Bhelsa during the medieval period. It thus, passed on to the Malwa Sultans, the Mughals and the Scindias.


K.P. Jayaswal attributes Bagat, a village in the Jhansi district as the home of Vakatakas. But after refuting the theory regarding the northern home of the Vakatakas, V.V. Mirashi points out that the earliest mention of the name Vakataka occurs in an inscription found on a fragment of a pillar at Amravati which records the gift of a Grihapati (householder) Vakataka and his two wives. This Grihapati in all probability was the progenitor of Vidhyashakti. It appears from the Puranas that Vindhyasakti was a ruler of Vidisha (in the present day Madhya Pradesh state) but that is not considered to be correct.[1]


During 3-4th centuries AD Nagas became powerful in Central India. The Nagas had their main centres at Kantipuri (modern Kutwar, Morena district), Padmavati (Pawaya, near Gwalior) and Vidisa. The coins of the Nagas have been discovered in thousands from these places and preserved at Gwalior Museum.[2]


Dilip Kumar Ganguly[3] writes that ....The Nagas established their rule at Vidisha, Padmavati (modern Padam Pawaya, Mathura and Kantipura, which has been identified by KP Jayaswal as Kantit between Mirzapur and Vindhyachal, but located more properly at Kutwal or Kutwar in Morena district Madhya Pradesh.

Dr Naval Viyogi[4] writes that Sometimes before Samudragupta, (335-375 AD) the Naga kings were ruling over Eran. As,[5] Padmavati, Kantipuri and Mathura were three centres of their rule, the Eran- Vidisa was fourth. Naga coins have been recovered in a very large number from this region. All these four kingdoms were inter-related with each other and perhaps, they all unitedly encountered the attacks of Kushanas and Scythians and pushed them back from their motherland.


The ruins of a Hindu shrine at Vidisha dedicated to Vishnu reveal that the foundation bricks were cemented together with lime mortar, the first known example of the use of cement in India. The ruins are of period prior to 2nd century BC.

Close to the ruins are the remains of votive pillars with palm-leaf capitals; the only one that still stands is the Heliodorus pillar, also known as Khamba Baba. A monolithic free-standing column, the pillar bears an inscription which states that it was Garuda Pillar, raised in honour of Vasudeva by Heliodorous, a resident of Taxila, who had been sent to the court of Bhagabhadra as an envoy of Indo-Greek monarch, Antialkidas. This inscription is a valuable historical record, revealing both the relations that existed between the region and the Greek kingdoms of the Punjab, and the fact that the Greek ambassador had become a follower of Hindu god Vishnu. The inclusion of the name of Antialkidas dates the erection of the pillar to approximately 140 BC.

Buddhist Inscription at Nagaur near Sanchi

Recently Inscription of Buddha have been discovered at village Nagaur Vidisha in Nateran tahsil in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh. This Inscription is of 11-12th century and engraved on a rocks of 4-5 feet high. The Inscription is in pictorial form as well as in sanskrit language with nagari script. The archaeologists are of the view that there must some more inscription like this. There is a need to further research.

The Naga coins found at Eran, Vidisha, Pawaya (Padmabati), and Mathura show various common features the names of rulers occurring on these coins are to be carefully studied and compared in order to arrive at a correct attribution and chronology of the Nagas.[6] The mints at Eran and Vidisha produced a large number of copper coins. Copper was available in large quantities in the Balaghat area for the mints at Eran, Vidisha attesting to the great importance of this town as a political seat and also as a mint-town.

Sabha Parva, Mahabharata/Book II Chapter 47 mentions Kings who brought tributes to Yudhishthira. Karpasika tribe is mentioned in Mahabharata (II.47.7)[7], which states ...Hundred thousands of serving girls of the Karpasika country, all of beautiful features and slender waist and luxuriant hair and decked in golden ornaments .... were brought as tribute unto king Yudhishthira.

Sandhya Jain[8] writes that Karpasika (कार्पासिक) tribe who Brought tributes to Yudhisthira; possibly hailed from the Vidisha region in Central India.

Places of Historical Importance

  • Udayagiri caves are situated in Vidisha district of Madhya Pradesh in India. These caves are at a distance of 4 km from Vidisha and 13 km from Sanchi. Udaygiri is word of Sanskrit language meaning – sunrise hills. These are a group of rock-cut caves sanctuaries carved into a sandstone hill that stands sentinel-like on the horizon. An inscription in one of these states that it was produced during the reign of Chandragupta II (382-401 AD), thus dating these caves to 4th - 5th century AD. The use of the word "cave" is a bit of a misnomer, since these are not natural, but instead examples of rock-cut architecture. (For details see Udayagiri)
Sanchi Stupa
  • Sanchi (सांची) is a small village in Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is located 46 km north east of Bhopal, and 10 km from Besnagar and Vidisha in the central part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the location of several Buddhist monuments dating from the third century BCE to the twelfth century CE and is one of the important places of Buddhist pilgrimage. (For details see - Sanchi)

Vidisha in Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 13 mentions about Vidisha. Mahavansa/Chapter 13 tells....When Mahendra son of Ashoka came in time to Vedisagiri the city of his mother Devi, he visited his mother and when Devi saw her dear son she made him welcome, and his companions likewise, with foods prepared by herself, and she led the thera up to the lovely vihära Vedisagiri.

Mahavansa/Chapter 13 tells....When the prince Asoka, while ruling over the realm of Avanti, that his father had bestowed on him, halted in the town of Vedisa, before he came to Ujjeni, and met there a lovely maiden named Devi, the daughter of a merchant, he made her his wife; and she was (afterwards) with child by him and bore in Ujjeni a beautiful boy, Mahinda, and when two years had passed (she bore) a daughter, Samghamitta. At that time she lived in the city of Vedisa.

Mahavansa/Chapter 13 tells....The son of a daughter of Devi's sister, (a youth) named Bhanduka, who had heard the doctrine preached by the thera to Devi, and who had obtained the reward of one who shall return no more unto life remained with the thera. When he had stayed there a month the thera, on the uposatha-day of the month Jettha, with the four theras and Sumana, and the lay-disciple Bhanduka also, to the end that they might be known for human beings, rose up in the air (and departed) from that vihara; and he, the (thera) of wondrous powers, coming hither with his following alighted on the pleasant Missaka-mountain, on the Sila-peak on the open and fair Ambatthala.

Vidisha in Inscriptions

There is mention of Bura of Vidisha by Cunningham[9] in an inscription at the Buddhist Stupa of Sanchi of the Ashoka period as under: No. 112. — Burāya musana gothi yajana Vedisānyā. Meaning: "Gift of Bura(?) . . . of Vidisha.

Bharhut Inscription on Pillars S.E. Quadrant, No. I. Pillar, states... 1. Vedisā Chāpa Devāyā Revati Mita bhariyāya pathama thabho dānam. = " The first Pillar-gift of Chāpa Devā, wife of Revati Mitra of Vedisa." Vedisa is the old name of Besnagar, a ruined city situated in the fork of the Bes or Vedisa River and the Betwa within two miles of Bhilsa. The inscription is engraved on the first Pillar of the Railing next to the Gateway.[10]

Bharhut Inscription on Pillars of Railing — N.W. Quadrant. 69. Vedisa Phagu Devasa dānam = " Gift of Phalgu Deva of Vedisa (Besnagar)."

Bharhut Inscription on Pillars of Railing — N.W. Quadrant. 73. Vedisa Anurādhaya dānam. = "Gift of Anuradha of Vedisa (Besnagar)."

Bharhut Inscription on Pillars of Railing — N.W. Quadrant. Pillars at Pataora. 100. Vedisa Aya Māyā dānam. = " Gift of the reverend Maya of Vedisa."

Bharhut Inscription on Rail Inscriptions — S. Gate. 20. Vedisā Tabhuta Rakhitasa dānam. = " Gift of Tabhuta Rakshita of āedisa."

Bharhut Inscription Fragments. 1. Vedisa Vāsithiya Velimi = " Gift of Vāsitha (wife of) Velimi (tra.)"

Vidisha Inscription of Ramagupta 375 CE

भगवतोर्हतः चन्द्रप्रभस्य प्रतिमेऽयं कारिता महाराजाधिराज-श्री-रामगुप्तेन उपदेशात् पाणिपात्रिक-चन्द्रक्षमाचार्य्य-क्षमण-श्रमण-प्रशिष्य-आचार्य्य सर्प्पसेन-क्षमण-शिष्यस्य गोलक्यान्त्या-सत्पुत्रस्य चेलु-क्षमणस्येति || ||
The Ramagupta Inscription found near Vidisha 375 CE

Besnagar Pillar of Garuda (Heliodorus)

Text A:
"This Garuda-standard was made by order of the Bhagavata ……….Heliodoros, the son of Dion, a man of Taxila, a Greek ambassador from King Antialkidas, to King Bhagabhadra, the son of the Princess from Benares, the saviour, while prospering in the fourteenth year of his reign."
  • On the other side of the pillar the following inscription is found:-
Text B:
  • "Three are the steps to immortality which ………… followed lead to heaven, [namely] self-control, self-denial and watchfulness."
  • From: Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report (1908-1909). Calcutta: Superintendent of Government Printing, 1912, 129.

Mehrauli Iron Pillar Inscription of Chandragupta II

Mehrauli Iron pillar Inscription in Sanskrit

The iron pillar of Delhi, India is a 7 meter (22 feet) high pillar in the Qutb complex which is notable for the composition of the metals used in its construction.

The pillar, almost seven meters high and weighing more than six tons, was erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375 CE–414 CE), (interpretation based on analysis of archer type Gupta gold coins) of the Gupta dynasty that ruled northern India 320–540.[11] The pillar with the statue of Chakra at the top was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri (meaning “hill with footprint of Lord Vishnu”).[12]

This has been identified as modern Udayagiri, situated in the vicinity of Besnagar, Vidisha and Sanchi. These towns are located about 50 kilometres east of Bhopal, in central India. There are several aspects to the original site of the pillar at Udayagiri. Vishnupadagiri is located on the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, was a centre of astronomical studies during the Gupta period. The Iron Pillar served as a sundial when it was originally at Vishnupadagiri. The early morning shadow of the Iron Pillar fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayin Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only around the summer solstice (June 21). The Udayagiri site in general, and the Iron Pillar location in particular, are evidence for the astronomical knowledge that existed in Gupta India.

IV. Mehrauli iron pillar inscription of Chandra (ASI)

The pillar bears a Sanskrit inscription in Brahmi script which states that it was erected as a standard in honour of Lord Vishnu. It also praises the valor and qualities of a king referred to simply as Chandra, who has been identified with the Gupta King Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375-413). The inscription reads (in the translation given in the tablets erected by Pandit Banke Rai in 1903):

He, on whose arm fame was inscribed by the sword, when, in battle in the Vanga countries (Bengal), he kneaded (and turned) back with (his) breast the enemies who, uniting together, came against (him);-he, by whom, having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu, the Vahlikas were conquered;-he, by the breezes of whose prowess the southern ocean is even still perfumed;-
(Line 3.)-He, the remnant of the great zeal of whose energy, which utterly destroyed (his) enemies, like (the remnant of the great glowing heat) of a burned-out fire in a great forest, even now leaves not the earth; though he, the king, as if wearied, has quit this earth, and has gone to the other world, moving in (bodily) from to the land (of paradise) won by (the merit of his) actions, (but) remaining on (this) earth by (the memory of his) fame;- (L. 5.)-By him, the king,-who attained sole supreme sovereignty in the world, acquired by his own arm and (enjoyed) for a very long time; (and) who, having the name of Chandra, carried a beauty of countenance like (the beauty of) the full-moon,-having in faith fixed his mind upon (the god) Vishnu, this lofty standard of the divine Vishnu was set up on the hill (called) Vishnupada.

Jat History

Following Jat clans are found in Vidisha at present:

Following villages found in Vidisha are associated with Jat clans:

Notable persons

  • Raghuvir Singh Jat - Retd. DSP [19] Mob:9826097094
  • Ashok Jat - Parshad Vidisha Nagar Palika Vidisha (M P ).[20]
  • Narendra Singh Dhorelia - Mahendra Tractor Agency, Vidisha, Mob:9425614899
  • Laxmi Narayan Israwa - Vidisha, Mob:9826274316, 7869964036[21]
  • Nilu Singh Jat (Thenua) - Vidisha, Mob:9826954082[22]
  • Amit Singh Jat (Dusad) - Cricket Player
  • Atul Jat - Taekwondo Player (Vikram Award 2009)

External links

References

  1. Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007) Ancient India, New Delhi: S.Chand, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.587-8
  2. K. D. Bajpai:The History of Gopāchala, p.24
  3. History and Historians in Ancient India, By Dilip Kumar Ganguly, p.28
  4. Nagas: the Ancient Rulers of India, p.334
  5. Jayaswal KP. P-15.
  6. Bajpai, ,K.D., Indian Numismatic Studies, New Delhi,1996,p.11
  7. शतं दासी सहस्राणां कार्पासिक निवासिनाम
    शयामास तन्व्यॊ दीर्घकेश्यॊ हेमाभरण भूषिताःMahabharata (II.47.7)
  8. Sandhya Jain: Adi Deo Arya Devata - A Panoramic View of Tribal-Hindu Cultural Interface, Rupa & Co, 7/16, Ansari Road Daryaganj, New Delhi, 2004, Page 131
  9. The Bhilsa topes: Inscriptions, P. 251
  10. See Plate XII. This Pillar has the Standard Bearer and Relic Bearer sculptured on its inward faces.
  11. Identity of Chandra and Vishnupadagiri of the Delhi Iron Pillar Inscription: Numismatic, Archaeological and Literary Evidence, R Balasubramaniam, Bulletin of Metals Museum, 32 (2000) 42–64.
  12. On the Astronomical Significance of the Delhi Iron Pillar, R Balasubramaniam and Meera I Dass, Current Science, volume 86 (2004) pp. 1134–1142.[1]
  13. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. 46अ-
  14. Jat History Thakur Deshraj/Chapter VIII,s.n. 6,p.585
  15. Mahendra Singh Arya et al: Adhunik Jat Itihas, p.220,s.n. 17
  16. Dr Naval Viyogi: Nagas – The Ancient Rulers of India, p.160
  17. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Parishisht-I, s.n. ब-209
  18. O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu, p.53, s.n. 1817
  19. Purusharth, Jat Sabha Bhopal, Smarika 2009, p. 50
  20. Jat Samaj, January-February 2010, p. 52
  21. Jat Vaibhav Smarika Khategaon, 2010, p. 46
  22. Jat Vaibhav Smarika Khategaon, 2010, p. 93

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