Variants of name
The capital of the Nagas, which was beneath the waters, was named Bhogawati, or the " city of enjoyment." Water was the element of the Nagas, as Earth was that of the Yakshas ; and the lake-covered land of Kashmir was their especial province. Every spring, every pool, and every lake had its own Naga, and even now nearly every spring or river source bears the name of some Naga, as Vir Nag, Anant Nag, etc., the word being used as equivalent to a " spring or fount of water."
Nagpur Museum Inscription of Somesvara Saka Samvat 1130 (1209 AD) tells us..............He claims to be a descendant of the race of the Naga with thousand hoods, i.e. of the serpent Sesha, to be the lord of the city of Bhogvati, to have for his crest a tiger with a calf to belong to the Kasyapa gotra, and to be a worshipper of the god Mahesvara and of the goddess Manikyadevi. (See - Nagpur)
Narayanpal Stone inscription of Queen Gunda-mahadevi, the mother of Somesvaradeva (Nagavanshi) 1111 AD tells us.....The dynasty claims to belong to the Nagavansha and the Kasyapa gotra, to have a tiger with a calf as their crest and to be the lords of Bhogavati the best of the cities (Nagavamsodbhava, Bhogavati-pura-var-esvara savatsa-vyaghra Lamchhana Kas(s)yapa,-gotra).
नागलोक के नागों का वर्णन
नारद उवाच :- मातले! यह नागराज वासुकि द्वारा सुरक्षित उनकी भोगवती नामक पुरी है। देवराज इन्द्र की सर्वश्रेष्ठ नगरी अमरावती की तरह यह भी सुख समृद्धि से सम्पन्न है। यहां सुरसा के पुत्र नागगण शोक संताप से रहित होकर निवास करते हैं। इनके रूप रंग और आभूषण अनेक प्रकार के हैं। बहुत से नाग कश्यप के वंशज हैं। मातलि को नागकुमार सुमुख पसन्द आया1।
- 1. महाभारत उद्योगपर्व 103वां अध्याय, श्लोक 1-4.
जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-165
नारद ने नागराज आर्यक को मातलि व उसकी पुत्री गुणकेशी के विषय में सब बातें बताईं। मातलि के कहने पर आर्यक ने अपना पौत्र नारद जी व मातलि के साथ इन्द्र के पास भेज दिया, जो स्वर्ग के सिंहासन पर विराजमान थे। दैवयोग से वहां भगवान् विष्णु भी उपस्थित थे।
भगवान् विष्णु ने सुमुख को उत्तम आयु प्रदान की। इन्द्र का वर पाकर सुमुख ने गुणकेशी से विवाह कर लिया और अपने घर चला गया2।
The foremost of cities which resembles the Amaravati of Deva king Indra, is known by the name of Bhogavati. It is ruled over by Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Shesha, the foremost of Nagas who is a great ascetic also dwells here (5,103). In the region south-west to Deva territories is the city called Bhogavati that is ruled by Vasuki, by the Naga Takshaka and also by Airavata (5,109).
Udyoga Parva/Mahabharata Book V Chapter 101 mentions that the foremost of cities Bhogavati resembles the Amaravati. It is ruled over by Vasuki, the king of the Nagas. Shesha dwells here. He has thousand heads. There dwell in happiness innumerable Nagas -- sons of Surasa. And all of them are possessed of huge bodies that resemble the mountains stretching over the earth. Millions and tens of millions are they, in fact, uncountable, even as regards those of them that belong to a single race.
Names of famous Nagas:
- Vasuki, Takshaka, Karkotaka, Dhananjaya, Kaliya, Nahusha, Kambala , Ashwatara, (Mahabharata:V.101.9)
- Sumanomukha, Dadhimukha, Sankha, Nanda, Upanandaka, Apta, Kotanaka, Sikhi, Nishthuraka, (Mahabharata:V.101.12)
- Tittira, Hastibhadra, Kumuda, Malyapindaka, the two Padmas, Pundarika, Pushpa, Mudgaraparnaka, (Mahabharata:V.101.13)
- Karavira, Pitharaka, Samvritta, Vritta, Pindara, Vilwapatra, Mushikada, Sirishaka, (Mahabharata:V.101.14)
- Dilipa, Sankha-sirsha, Jyotishka, Aparajita, Kauravya, Dhritarashtra, Kuhara, Kushaka, (Mahabharata:V.101.15)
- Virajas, Dharana, Subahu, Mukhara, Jaya, Badhira, Andha, Vikunda, Virasa, and Surasa. (Mahabharata:V.101.16)
The place is also called Putkari.
Vana Parva, Mahabharata/Book III Chapter 83 mentions Bhogavati (भॊगवती) irtha in Mbt (III.83.72). The tirthas Prayaga, Pratisthana (प्रतिष्ठान) (III.83.72), Kambala (कम्बल) (III.83.72), Ashwatara (अश्वतर) (III.83.72) and Bhogavati (भॊगवती) (III.83.72) are the sacrificial platforms of the Creator. There in those places, O foremost of warriors, the Vedas and the Sacrifices, in embodied forms, and the Rishis endued with wealth of asceticism, adore Brahma, and there the gods and rulers of territories also celebrate their sacrifices.
The Ramayana, Kishkindha Kanda Sarga 41, mentions about the directions given to southward search party for Sita, prepared by Sugriva under the leadership of Angad, in which several important Vanaras were included - Neel, Hanuman, Jamvanta, Suhotra, Shararita, Shargulma, Gaja, Gavaksha etc. Sugriva told them about the impassable countries and difficult path and said ....
- 36b, 37, 38a: "Next you will see Kunjar Parvat. Here Vishwakarmaa built a place for Agastya Muni. This place is one Yojan wide and 10 Yojan high. Here there is Bhogvati city where snakes live, that is why it is impossible for human beings to go there. Here lives the king of snakes - Vasuki Naga. Many terrific snakes guard him. This place is studded in numerous gem stones. Go in this place very carefully and search for Sita.
- 38b, 39a. "That Bhogavati city is to be searched for Seetha and on coming out of that city, you have to search even in the fringes surrounding that city including the intermediate zones from city to its fringes. [4-41-38b, 39a]
- शरणम् कांचनम् दिव्यम् नाना रत्न विभूषितम् ।
- तत्र भोगवती नाम सर्पाणाम् आलयः पुरी ॥४-४१-३६॥
- विशाल रथ्या दुर्धर्षा सर्वतः परिरक्षिता ।
- रक्षिता पन्नगैः घोरैः तीष्क्ण दम्ष्ट्रैः महा विषैः ॥४-४१-३७॥
- सर्प राजो महाघोरो यस्याम् वसति वासुकिः ।
- निर्याय मार्गितव्या च सा च भोगवती पुरी ॥४-४१-३८॥
- तत्र च अंतरोद्देशा ये केचन समावृताः ।
- तम् च देशम् अतिक्रम्य महान् ऋषभ संस्थितिः ॥४-४१-३९॥
Yuddha Kanda/Yuddha Kanda Sarga 7 tells that the demons inspire Ravana with confidence and eulogise his army’s strength.
- 3b-4. After proceeding to Bhogavati city (the abode of Nagas in Patala one of the seven regions under the earth), the Nagas there were defeated by you. Kubera (the bestower of riches) who resides on the peak of Mount Kailasa, surrounded by many yakshas (a class of demi-gods) surrendered to you after doing a great battle.”
- कैलास शिखर आवासी यक्षैर् बहुभिर् आवृतः ।
- सुमहत् कदनम् कृत्वा वश्यस् ते धनदः कृतः ॥६-७-४॥
- 9. Oh, mighty armed! After moving down to rasatala (the penultimate subterranean region), the you conquered serpent-demons Vasuki, Takshaka, Shankha and Jati were conquered by you and captivated as your subjects.”
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