Kalyani

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Kalyani (कल्याणी) was name of a river and area around it in Sri Lanka near Colombo. Kalyani was the Capital of Naga king Maniakkhika during the time of Buddha. It is mentioned in Mahavansa/Chapter 1.

Later it was the capital of Kannadiga dynasty sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukyas. It is today's Basavakalyan, a town in Bidar District of the state of Karnataka, India, and was historically known as Kalyan.

Variants

History

Kalyani or Basavakalyan's history dates back to 3000 years with its name being mentioned in Guru Charitra.

Before India's independence, Basavakalyan was called Kalyani. After independence and division of states on linguistic basis in 1956, Kalyana was renamed as Basava Kalyana in memory of Vishwaguru Basavanna, a great revolutionary who established Anubhava Mantapa (spiritual democracy) in 12th century India.

Basavakalyana was ruled by Western Chalukyas, Kalachuris, Yadavas of Devagiri, Kakatiyas, Delhi Sultanate, Bahamani Sultanate (Bidar, Gulbarga), Bidar Sultanate, Bijapur Sultanate, Mughals and Hyderabad Nizams.

It was the royal capital of the Western Chalukya (Kalyani Chalukyas) dynasty from 1050 to 1195. Someshvara I (1041-1068) made Kalyana as his capital, recognised as Kalyani Chalukyas to differentiate with Badami Chalukyas. Later ruled by Someshvara II, Vikramaditya VI, Someshvara III, Jagadhekamalla III and Tailapa III. Before this Manyakheta was their capital. During the 10th-12th centuries ruled nearly half of India,[1][2] most of the western Deccan and South India. King Vikramaditya VI had scholars in his court such as Someshwara, Bilhana (poet of Kashmir) and Vigyaneshwara (legal expert).


The Western Chalukya Empire ruled most of the western Deccan, South India, between the 10th and 12th centuries. This Kannadiga dynasty is sometimes called the Kalyani Chalukya after its regal capital at Kalyani, today's Basavakalyan in Karnataka and alternatively the Later Chalukya from its theoretical relationship to the 6th-century Chalukya dynasty of Badami.

The dynasty is called Western Chalukyas to differentiate from the contemporaneous Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, a separate dynasty. Prior to the rise of these Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta empire of Manyakheta controlled most of Deccan and Central India for over two centuries.

In 973, seeing confusion in the Rashtrakuta empire after a successful invasion of their capital by the ruler of the Paramara dynasty of Malwa, Tailapa II, a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty ruling from Bijapur region defeated his overlords and made Manyakheta his capital. The dynasty quickly rose to power and grew into an empire under Someshvara I who moved the capital to Kalyani.

For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many fierce wars to control the fertile region of Vengi. During these conflicts, the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, distant cousins of the Western Chalukyas but related to the Cholas by marriage took sides with the Cholas further complicating the situation. During the rule of Vikramaditya VI, in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the Western Chalukyas convincingly contended with the Cholas and reached a peak ruling territories that spread over most of the Deccan, between the Narmada River in the north and Kaveri River in the south. His exploits were not limited to the south for even as a prince, during the rule of Someshvara I, he had led successful military campaigns as far east as modern Bihar and Bengal.[3][4][5]

During this period the other major ruling families of the Deccan, the Hoysalas, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty and the Southern Kalachuri, were subordinates of the Western Chalukyas and gained their independence only when the power of the Chalukya waned during the later half of the 12th century.

The Western Chalukyas developed an architectural style known today as a transitional style, an architectural link between the style of the early Chalukya dynasty and that of the later Hoysala empire. Most of its monuments are in the districts bordering the Tungabhadra River in central Karnataka. Well known examples are the Kasivisvesvara Temple at Lakkundi, the Mallikarjuna Temple at Kuruvatti, the Kallesvara Temple at Bagali and the Mahadeva Temple at Itagi. This was an important period in the development of fine arts in Southern India, especially in literature as the Western Chalukya kings encouraged writers in the native language Kannada, and Sanskrit.

कल्याणी कर्नाटक

विजयेन्द्र कुमार माथुर[6] ने लेख किया है ...

1. कल्याणी (AS, p.150) : कल्याणी, बीदर ज़िला (मैसूर) चालुक्यों की प्रसिद्ध राजधानी थी। यह तुलजापुर से हैदराबाद जाने वाली सड़क पर अवस्थित है। प्रारम्भ में यह उत्तर चालुक्य काल में राज्य के पश्चिमी भाग की राजधानी थी। मैसूर राज्य के 'भारंगी' नामक स्थान से प्राप्त पुलकेशियन चालुक्य के एक अभिलेख में कल्याणी का उल्लेख है।

[p.151]: पूर्व और उत्तर-चालुक्यकाल के बीच में राष्ट्रकूट नरेशों ने मलखेड़ नामक स्थान पर अपने राज्य की राजधानी बनाई थी, किन्तु चालुक्य राज्य के पुररुद्धारक तैला (973-997 ई.) ने कल्याणी को पुनः राजधानी बनने का गौरव प्रदान किया। 11वीं शती में चालुक्यराज सोमेश्वर प्रथम के राजत्वकाल में कल्याणी की गणना परम समृद्धिशाली नगरों में की जाती थी। धर्मशास्त्र के प्रसिद्ध ग्रंथ मिताक्षरा का रचयिता विज्ञानेश्वर कल्याणी-नरेश विक्रमादित्य चालुक्य की राजसभा का रत्न था। 12वीं शती के मध्य में चालुक्यों का राज्य कलचुरी नरेशों द्वारा समाप्त कर दिया गया। इसके बाद से कल्याणी से राजधानी भी हटा ली गई।

कल्याणी के क़िले में मोहम्मद बिन तुग़लक़ के दो अभिलेख हैं, जिनमें कल्याणी को दिल्ली की सल्तनत का अंग बताया गया है। तत्पश्चात् कल्याणी बहमनी राज्य में सम्मिलित कर ली गई।

बहमनी नरेशों ने कल्याणी के प्राचीन हिन्दू दुर्ग का युद्ध में गोलाबारी से रक्षा की दृष्टि से समुचित रूप में सुधार किया। बहमनी राज्य के विघटन के पश्चात् कल्याणी बरीदी सल्तनत के अंदर कुछ समय तक रही, किन्तु थोड़े ही समय के उपरांत यहाँ बीजापुर के आदिलशाही सुल्तानों का अधिकार हो गया। औरंगज़ेब का बीजापुर पर क़ब्ज़ा होने पर कल्याणी को मुग़ल सैनिकों ने खूब लूटा। तत्पश्चात् कल्याणी को मुग़ल साम्राज्य के बीदर नाम के सूबे में शामिल कर लिया गया।

2. कल्याणी (AS, p.150) : कल्याणी (लंका) महावंश 1,63; कोलंबो के समीप समुद्र में गिरने वाली एक नदी तथा इसका तटवर्ती प्रदेश. सिंहली किंवदंती के अनुसार गौतम बुद्ध ने इस स्थान पर राजायतन चैत्य स्थापित किया था.

Jat Clans

Ahlawat: Two branches of Ahlawat Solankis were rulers in south India. Pulkesin first of this clan founded Vatapi (Badami) kingdom between Godavari and Krishna Rivers. This branch ruled till 753. The second branch of this clan founded rule at Kalyani near Warangal in north east of Vatapi in 937. They ruled till 1190. After their down fall in south India they migrated to north India and settled at Dadheda village in Jangladesh. They further moved to Kalabadala place in Bhiwani district of Haryana. After some time they moved to Seria village of Jhajjar district and cleared forests of this place for cultivation.


Ahlawat and Joon: Ram Sarup Joon [7] writes that ... Ahlawat and Joon gotras belong to that branch of Solanki which ruled over Kaliani and Watapi (Vatapi) in South India from 5th to 12th century AD. They had a staunch enemy i.e. Raja Rajendra Chol. He attacked them with an army of one hundred thousand strong during the reign of seventh Raja Satish Raj Solanki and seized a major part of the kingdom.

In 1052 AD a new ruler of this dynasty came forth to redeem the old loss. His name was Ahumal and was titles Sameshwar I and Raj Raja. He attacked the Chol kingdom with a large army, conquered it and married Umang Devi daughter of the Chol king. He made Bangi his new capital. This kingdom existed astride the Tunga Bhadra River. Ahumal died in 1068 AD. His dynasty is called Ahlawat.


History of the Jats, End of Page-69


After several generations Bisaldev of this dynasty migrated towards north and settled down in village Nanhakhera (Seria) near Dighal in district Rohtak. He had four sons Olha, Ahlawat, Birmhan and Pehlawat An ancient pond (Birmala) named after Birmhan (Brebhan) is still famous for its sanctity in village Seria (Rohtak). Four new gotras (clans) originated after their names and are found settled in 30 villages around Dighal. Todd and Tarikhe Gujran have recorded this event in "Gazetteer of Rohtak" by Abdul Malik.

जाट इतिहास

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[8] लिखते हैं: ब्रह्मा से आठवीं पीढ़ी में चन्द्रवंशी नहुषपुत्र सम्राट् ययाति हुए। ये जम्बूद्वीप के सम्राट् थे। जम्बूद्वीप आज का एशिया समझो (देखो अध्याय 1, जम्बूद्वीप)। इस जम्बूद्वीप में कई देश (वर्ष) थे जिनमें से एक का नाम इलावृत देश था। जिस देश के बीच में सुमेरु पर्वत है, जिस पर वैवस्वत मनु निवास करते थे और जो जम्बूद्वीप के बीच में है, उसका नाम इलावृत देश था। आज यह देश मंगोलिया में अलताई नाम से कहा जाता है। यह्ह अलताई शब्द इलावृत का ही अपभ्रंश है। (“वैदिक सम्पत्ति”, आर्यों का विदेशगमन, पृ० 423, लेखक पं० रघुनन्दन शर्मा साहित्यभूषण)। ययातिवंशज क्षत्रिय आर्यों का संघ (दल) भारतवर्ष से जाकर इस इलावृत देश में आबाद हुआ था। चन्द्रवंशज क्षत्रिय आर्यों का वह संघ इलावृत देश में बसने के कारण उस देश के नाम से अहलावत कहलाया। अहलावत सोलंकी जाटवंश के शासकों की दो शाखायें कही गई हैं। पहली शाखा ने सन् 550 ई० से 753 ई० तक लगभग 200 वर्ष तक दक्षिण भारत में राज्य किया। इनकी राजधानी बादामी (वातापी) थी। दूसरी शाखा ने सन् 973 ई० से 1190 ई० तक लगभग 200 वर्ष तक दक्षिण भारत में राज्य किया। इनकी राजधानी कल्याणी थी।[9]

Visit by Xuanzang in 640 AD

Alexander Cunningham[10] writes that From Konkana the pilgrim Xuanzang proceeded to the north-west for 2400 to 2500 li, or upwards of 400 miles, to Mo-ho-la-cha, or Maharashtra. The capital was 30 li, or 5 miles, in circuit, and on the west side touched a large river.[11] From this description alone I should be inclined to adopt Paithan, or Pratishthana, on the Godavari as the capital of Maharashtra in the seventh


[p.554]: century. It is mentioned by Ptolemy as Baithana, and by the author of the 'Periplus' as Plithana, which should no doubt be corrected to Paithana. But the subsequent distance of 1000 li, or 167 miles, westward or north-westward[12] to Bharoch is much too small, as the actual distance between Paithan and Bharoch is not less than 250 miles. M. Vivien de Saint- Martin thinks that Devagiri accords better with the position indicated ; but Devagiri is not situated on any river, and its distance from Bharoch is about 200 miles.

I think it more probable that Kalyani is the place intended, as we know that it was the ancient capital of the Chalukya dynasty. Its position also agrees better with both of Hwen Thsang's distances, as it is about 400 miles to the north-west of Annagundi, and 180 or 190 miles to the south of Bharoch. To the west of the city also flows the Kailas river, which at this point is a large stream. Kalyan or Kalyani is mentioned by Kosmas Indikopleustes in the sixth century as the seat of a Christian bishopric, under the name of Kalliana, and by the author of the ' Periplus ' in the second century as Kalliena, which had been a famous emporium in the time of Sarayanos the elder.[13] The name of Kaliyana also occurs several times in the Kanhari Cave inscriptions, which date from the first and second centuries of the Christian era.

The circuit of the province is said to be 6000 li, or 1000 miles, which agrees with the dimensions of the


[p.555]: tract remaining unassigned between Malwa on the north, Kosala and Andhra on the east, Konkana on the south, and the sea on the west. The limiting points of this tract are Daman and Vingorla on the sea-coast, and Idalabad and Haidarabad inland, which give a circuit of rather more than 1000 miles.

On the eastern frontier of the kingdom there was a great mountain with ridges rising one over another, and scarped crests. In former days the Arhat Achara had built a monastery, with rooms excavated in the rock, and a front of two storeys in height facing a " sombre" valley. The Vihar attached to it was 100 feet in height; and in the midst of the monastery there was a stone statue of Buddha about 70 feet high, which was surmounted by seven stone caps suspended in the air without any apparent support. The walls of the Vihar were divided all round into panels in which were sculptured with minute detail all the great events of Buddha's life. Outside the north and south gates of the monastery there were stone elephants, both on the right-hand and on the left, which according to the belief of the people occasionally roared so loudly as to make the earth quake. The description of the hill is too vague to be of much use in identifying its position ; but if the easterly bearing is correct, the hill of Ajayanti is most probably the place intended, as its bluff ridges appear to answer better to the pilgrim's account than the smoother slopes of Elura. But with the exception of the stone elephants, the account is too vague to enable us to identify the place with any certainty. There are two stone elephants outside the Kailas excavation at Elura, but that is a Brahmanical temple, and not a Buddhist


[p.556]: vihar. There is also an elephant close to the Indra-sabha at Elura, but the animal is inside the courtyard, instead of outside the gate as described by the pilgrim. Scenes from Buddha's life formed the common subjects of Buddhist sculpture, and would therefore offer no special assistance towards the identification of the monastery. But though the pilgrim's account is vague, it is so minute as to the positions of the elephants and the arrangement of the sculptures that I am inclined to think he must have seen the place himself. In this case I would read " western " frontier of the kingdom, and identify his cave monastery with the well-known excavations of Kanhari in the island of Salsette. Indeed, if I am correct in the identification of Kalyani as the capital of Maharashtra in the seventh century, it is almost certain that the pilgrim must have visited the Buddhist establishments at Kanhari, which are not more than 25 miles distant from Kalyani. The numerous inscriptions at Kanhari show that some of its excavations must date as early as the first century before Christ, and the bulk of them during the first and second centuries after Christ. One of the inscriptions is dated in the year 30 of the Sakadityakal, or A.D. 108. No remains of stone elephants have yet been found at Kanhari, but as the structural facades in front of the excavated vihars have all fallen down, some elephant torsos may yet be discovered amongst the ruins along the foot of the scarped rock. Mr. E. West has already disinterred the remains of a stone stupa with all its sculptured friezes from amongst these ruins, and further research will no doubt bring to light many other interesting remains.

In Mahavansa

Mahavansa/Chapter 1 tells ....In the third year after this, the naga-king Maniakkhika sought out the Sambuddha and invited him, together with the brotherhood. In the eighth year after he had attained to buddhahood, when the Vanquisher was dwelling in Jetavana, the Master, set forth surrounded by five hundred bhikkhus, on the second day of the beautiful month of Vesäkha, at the fullmoon, and when the hour of the meal was announced the Vanquisher, prince of the wise, forthwith putting on his robe and taking his alms-bowl went to the Kalyani country, the habitation of Maniakkhika. Under a canopy decked with gems, raised upon the spot where (afterwards) the Kalyani cetiya was built, he took his place, together with the brotherhood of bhikkhus, upon a precious throne-seat. And, greatly rejoicing, the naga-king with his following served celestial food, both hard and soft, to the king of truth, the Conqueror, with his followers.

When the Teacher, compassionate to the whole world, had preached the doctrine there, he rose, the Master, and left the traces of his footsteps plain to sight on Sumanakuta And after he had spent the day as it pleased him at the foot of this mountain, with the brotherhood, be set forth for Dighavapi. And there the Master seated himself with the brotherhood at the place where the cetiya (thereafter) stood, and gave himself up to meditation, to consecrate the spot Then arose the Great Sage from that place, and knowing well which places were fit and which unfit he went to the place of the (later) Mahamegha vanarama. After he had seated himself with his disciples at the place, where the sacred Bodhi-tree came afterwards to be, the Master gave himself up to meditation; and likewise there where the Great Thüpa' stood (in later days) and there also where (afterwards) the thupa in the Thuparama stood. Then when he rose up from meditation he went to the place of the (later) Silacetiya, and after the Leader of the assembly (of bhikkhus) had uttered exhortation to the assembly of devas, he, the Enlightened, who has trodden all the paths of enlightenment, returned thence to Jetavana.

Thus the Master of boundless wisdom, looking to the salvation of Lanka in time to come, and knowing in that time the highest good for the hosts of asuras and nagas and so forth in Lanka visited this fair island three times, be, the compassionate Enlightener of the world ; therefore this isle, radiant with the light of truth, came to high honour among faithful believers.

Here ends the Visit to Kalyani.

References

  1. "Basavakalyan getting facelift". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 2007-08-08
  2. "The Chalukyas of Kalyani".
  3. B.P. Sinha in George E. Somers, Dynastic History Of Magadha, p.214, Abhinav Publications, 1977, New Delhi, ISBN 81-7017-059-1
  4. Sen (1999), p282
  5. Majumdar, R. C. (1977), Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, p320, New Delhi, ISBN 81-208-0436-8
  6. Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.150
  7. Ram Sarup Joon: History of the Jats/Chapter V, p.69-70, S.No.2
  8. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.201-211
  9. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ-203<
  10. The Ancient Geography of India/Southern India, p.553-556
  11. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 149. See Map No. I.
  12. M. Julien's ' Hiouen Thsang,' iii. 401. In the life of the pilgrim, i. 203. the direction is said to be north-east, but as this would place the capital of Maharashtra in the midst of the Indian Ocean, the correction to north-west is absolutely necessary.
  13. Hudson, Geogr. Vet. i- 30 : <greek>.