Bhim Singh Dahiya mentions Rigvedic tribe Sarangya : A king, Daivavata, of this tribe, is named in RV l/27/7,4/15/4,7. Also the charity of Prastoka Sringya is mentioned in Rigveda. They are to be identified with the Sarangh clan of the Jats, and also with the Sarangai of the Greek authors and Sarank/Zarank of Iranian history.
H. W. Bellew  writes that Pushkalavati the ancient capital of Gandhara, and situated on the East bank of the Swat or Landi river near its junction with the Kabul stream), towards the river Indus, the prince of which was called Astes (chieftain probably of the Astakenoi of Strabo, and governor of their capital city, now represented by the modern Charsada, commonly called Hashtnagar, indicating a former name of the sort, most likely Hastinagar, " City of the Hasti"; for Hashtnagar is a compound Persian and Hindi word meaning " eight cities," and has hence been vulgarly applied to as many villages along this river, and to the district in which they are situated).
Astes was slain in the defence of a city (not named) into which he had fled ; Hephaistion took this city after a siege of thirty days, and then gave the government of it to Sangaius (perhaps of the Sangu clan of the Shinwari tribe, now inhabiting the Nazian valley of Nangrihar district west of the Khybar Pass). Alexander, after dividing his forces as above stated, then himself marched with a detachment against the Aspioi (Isap) the Thyraioi (Tirahi) and Arasakoi (Orakzi) and passing through a rough mountainous country along the river Khoe (Kao, the name of the Kabul river from the junction of the Kao of Dara Najil to that of the Kunar stream), which he crossed with some difficulty (perhaps at the ford opposite Jalalabad...
H. W. Bellew tells that Sangu may be the tribe of the Sangarius to whom Hephaistion gave the charge of the city he took from Astes (of the Hasto-khel of the Jawaki Afridi), as related in a preceding page.
Lake Urmia islands
- O.S.Tugania:Jat Samuday ke Pramukh Adhar Bindu,p.61,s.n. 2416
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.66,96,111
- Dr Mahendra Singh Arya, Dharmpal Singh Dudee, Kishan Singh Faujdar & Vijendra Singh Narwar: Ādhunik Jat Itihasa (The modern history of Jats), Agra 1998, p.284
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.66
- An Inquiry Into the Ethnography of Afghanistan By H. W. Bellew, The Oriental University Institute, Woking, 1891, p.96
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