Bamar

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Bamar

(Bamal)

Location : Madhya Pradesh

Country : Flag of India.png India

Languages :

Religion : Hinduism

Bamar (बामर) gotra Jats live in Mandsaur, Ratlam districts in Madhya Pradesh. It is probably a variant of Bamal.

Origin

History

Both the names Myanmar and Burma derive from the earlier Burmese Mranma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology.[3]



Early civilisations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. [4] In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley and, following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country was for a brief period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia.[5] The early 19th century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British took over the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the country became a British colony. Myanmar was granted independence in 1948, as a democratic nation.


Prehistory: Archaeological evidence shows that Homo erectus lived in the region now known as Myanmar as early as 750,000 years ago, with no more erectus finds after 75,000 years ago.[6]The first evidence of Homo sapiens is dated to about 25,000 BP with discoveries of stone tools in central Myanmar.[7] Evidence of Neolithic age domestication of plants and animals and the use of polished stone tools dating to sometime between 10,000 and 6,000 BC has been discovered in the form of cave paintings in Padah-Lin Caves.[8]

The Bronze Age arrived circa 1500 BC when people in the region were turning copper into bronze, growing rice and domesticating poultry and pigs; they were among the first people in the world to do so.[9] Human remains and artefacts from this era were discovered in Monywa District in the Sagaing Division.[10]

The Iron Age began around 500 BC with the emergence of iron-working settlements in an area south of present-day Mandalay.[11] Evidence also shows the presence of rice-growing settlements of large villages and small towns that traded with their surroundings as far as China between 500 BC and 200 AD.[12] Iron Age Burmese cultures also had influences from outside sources such as India and Thailand, as seen in their funerary practices concerning child burials. This indicates some form of communication between groups in Myanmar and other places, possibly through trade.[13]

Early city-states: Around the second century BC the first-known city-states emerged in central Myanmar. The city-states were founded as part of the southward migration by the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu people, the earliest inhabitants of Myanmar of whom records are extant, from present-day Yunnan.[14]

The Pyu culture was heavily influenced by trade with India, importing Buddhism as well as other cultural, architectural and political concepts, which would have an enduring influence on later Burmese culture and political organisation.[15]

By the 9th century, several city-states had sprouted across the land: the Pyu in the central dry zone, Mon along the southern coastline and Arakanese along the western littoral. The balance was upset when the Pyu came under repeated attacks from Nanzhao between the 750s and the 830s. In the mid-to-late 9th century the Bamar people founded a small settlement at Bagan. It was one of several competing city-states until the late 10th century when it grew in authority and grandeur.[16]

Distribution in Madhya Pradesh

Villages in Mandsaur district

Rajnagar (Sitamau) Pipalkhunta

Villages in Ratlam district

Villages in Ratlam with population of this gotra are:

Kanser (1),

Notable persons

External links

References

  1. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 270
  2. Mahendra Singh Arya et al.: Ādhunik Jat Itihas, Agra 1998, p. 271
  3. Hall, DGE (1960). "Pre-Pagan Burma". Burma (3 ed.). p. 13.
  4. O'Reilly, Dougald JW (2007). Early civilizations of Southeast Asia. United Kingdom: Altamira Press. ISBN 978-0-7591-0279-8.
  5. Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. p. 152
  6. Win Naing Tun (24 July 2015). "Prehistory to Protohistory of Myanmar: A Perspective of Historical Geography" (PDF). Myanmar Environment Institute. p. 1. Retrieved 22 November 2016. "Homo erectus had lived in Myanmar 750,000 years ago" Bowman, John Stewart Bowman (2013). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-231-50004-3.
  7. Schaarschmidt, Maria; Fu, Xiao; Li, Bo; Marwick, Ben; Khaing, Kyaw; Douka, Katerina; Roberts, Richard G. (January 2018). "pIRIR and IR-RF dating of archaeological deposits at Badahlin and Gu Myaung Caves – First luminescence ages for Myanmar". Quaternary Geochronology. doi:10.1016/j.quageo.2018.01.001.
  8. Cooler, Richard M. (2002). "The Art and Culture of Bur
  9. Myint-U, Thant (2006). The River of Lost Footsteps—Histories of Burma. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-16342-6.,p.7
  10. Yee Yee Aung. "Skeletal Remains of Nyaunggan, Budalin Township, Monywa District, Sagaing Division". Perspective July 2002.
  11. Myint-U, p. 45
  12. Hudson, Bob (March 2005). "A Pyu Homeland in the Samon Valley: a new theory of the origins of Myanmar's early urban system" (PDF). Myanmar Historical Commission Golden Jubilee International Conference: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013.
  13. Coupey, A. S. (2008). Infant and child burials in the Samon valley, Myanmar. In Archaeology in Southeast Asia, from Homo Erectus to the living traditions: choice of papers from the 11th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists, 25–29 September 2006, Bougon, France
  14. Hall, D.G.E. (1960). Burma (3rd ed.). Hutchinson University Library. pp. 8–10. ISBN 978-1-4067-3503-1. Moore, Elizabeth H. (2007). Early Landscapes of Myanmar. Bangkok: River Books. p. 236. ISBN 978-974-9863-31-2.
  15. Myint-U, pp. 51–52
  16. [Lieberman, Victor B. (2003). Strange Parallels: Southeast Asia in Global Context, c. 800–1830, volume 1, Integration on the Mainland. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-80496-7. pp. 90–91]

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