Jorawar Singh

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Jorawar Singh (जोरावरसिंह) was a chieftain of Sinsini in Bharatpur. Jorawar Singh was killed after the fall of Sinsini (1691).[1] According to G C Dwivedi[2] Choosing a successor capable of accomplishing the unfinished work of Raja Ram was not so easy. Brij Raj, Bhao Singh and Raja Ram’s associate Ram Chehra had perished. Fateh Singh [3] the son of Raja Ram does not appear to have been a promising youth. Amidst the circumstances, Raja Ram’s aged father, Bhajja Singh of Sinsini assumed the leadership of the Jats. [4], while Raja Ram’s other son, Jorawar Singh took up as his deputy . [5].

History

After the death of Raja Ram, his old father Bhajja Singh of Sinsini assumed the leadership of the Jats. Bishan Singh Kachhwah, the new Raja of Amber (Jaipur), was appointed by the Emperor as faujdar of Mathura with a special charge to root out the Jats and take Sinsini as his own Jagir [6]. He gave the Emperor a written undertaking to demolish the fort of Sinsini [7] as he was burning to distinguish himself and win a high mansab like his father Ram Singh and grandfather Mirza Raja Jai Singh. Bidar Bakhat laid siege to Sinsini. But the campaign in the jungles of the Jat country severely taxed the invading army. [8]

The Mughals before Sinsini had to undergo great hardship from scarcity of provisions and water, as the enemy by frequent attacks cut off the grain-convoys and watering parties. Incessant night- attacks kept the siege-camp in perpetual alarm. “The men were prostrated by hunger, and the animals perished in large numbers through weakness” But the besiegers held tenaciously on, and in four months carried their trenches to the gate of the fort, mounted guns on raised platforms, and laid mines. The jungle round the fort was cleared. One mine under the gate was fired, but the Jats having previously detected it and blocked its further side with stones, the charge was driven backwards, destroying many of the artillerymen and supervising officers of the Mughal army. A second mine was then laid and carried under the wall in month’s time. It was successfully fired (end of January, 1690), the wall was breached, the Jat defenders lining it were blown up, and the Mughals stormed the fort after three hours of stubborn opposition. The Jats disputed every inch of the ground and were dispersed only after losing 1500 of their men. On the imperial side 200 Mughals fell and 700 Rajputs were slain or wounded. The remnants of the garrison were captured along with Jorawar Singh and put to the sword, while others fled. [9], [10] , [11], [12]. The Emperor learns of the fall of Sinsini on 15 February, 1690 from the letters of news writers. [13], [14], [15], [16], [17] Jorawar Singh, his wife and children having been imprisoned were first taken to Mathura and finally presented to Aurangzeb in the Deccan. They were brutally slain and their limbs thrown to dogs. [18], [19] The fall of Sinsini fulfilled the cherished desire of both the Mughals and Bishan Singh. Among the notables Fateh Singh of Sinsini and Churaman managed to escape. [20], [21].The testimony of Kamwar Khan (Kamwar. II, 231) leads us to infer that Fateh Singh became the leader after the fall of Sinsini and the arrest of Jorawar Singh.

References

  1. The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire/Chapter II, pp.44,51
  2. The Jats - Their Role in the Mughal Empire/Chapter II, p.41
  3. J. Records, Sarkar's coll. (Pers. Ms.), IX, 356, Ahkam (Pers. Ms) II.206a
  4. 40. William Irvine, Later Mugals. I, 322; Qanungo, Jats 43,: Ganga Singh. op.cit.. 55;
  5. Akhbarat (J. Records), 19 Rabi-us-sani; Kamwar (Pers. Ms.II, 231) thinks that Jorawar was the brother of Raja Ram. Also see Ganga Singh, op. cit. , 55
  6. Ishwardas, 133 a
  7. Ishawar, 139 a, 135 b
  8. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Sinngh, 2003, p. 25
  9. Ishwardas , 136 b – 137 a
  10. M.A. 334
  11. Hamid-ud-din’s Ahkam, S 26
  12. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed Dr Vir Sinngh, 2003, p. 25
  13. Fatuhat, 136a-137a
  14. Maasir, 334
  15. Kamwar, II, 231
  16. Ganga Singh, op.cit., 58
  17. G. C. Dwivedi, The Jats: Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 44
  18. Qanungo, Diggi, 97
  19. U N Sharma, Itihas, I, 142
  20. J.Records, Sarkar’s coll., IX,356
  21. G. C. Dwivedi, The Jats: Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 44

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