Sinsini

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (Retd.)

Location of Sinsini in Bharatpur district

Sinsini (सिनसिनी) village is in Deeg tahsil , Bharatpur district in Rajasthan. It is place of origin of Sinsinwars who were the rulers of princely state Bharatpur. Before the formation of Bharatpur fort the capital of Sinsinwars was at Sinsini. Its population is 8,209.

Founder

  • Sinsina (सिनसिना) is considered to be the patron saint of all Sinsinwars, and also has a temple in his name "Sinsina Baba ka Mandir" [1]in Bharatpur. Sinsini village was named after Sinsina (सिनसिना) deva mentioned in Mahabharata.

Location

It is situated 20 km to the south from Deeg.

Jat Gotras

Sinsinwar,

The foundation of Sinsini

Hukum Singh Panwar (Pauria) writes:[2] Similarly, the foundation of Sinsini can be attributed to another Tomar Chief in memory of Satyaki[3] one of their ancestors among the Pandavas, whose name was also Sini. But U.N. Sharma[4] and Yogindarpal[5] accredit Suai Thakur with its building. However, this does not seem to be correct. The fact that the Chobdar gave shelter to Madanpal and his sons in Sinsini amply proves that the village was already there in the Jagirdari of the Chobdar. No doubt, Sini and Satyaka are also shown in the genealogy[6] of the Vrisnis but we have already rejected it as a later interpolation. Moreover, the descendents of this Sini were known as Sainyas[7] and never as Sinsinwar or Sinsinwal. There can, however, be no two opinions about the prominence gained by Sinsini as a hide-out for Madanpal his five sons whom we proved to be descendents of the Tomar dynasty of Delhi. Since Suai chose to stay in Sinsini; the jagas, the source of U.N. Sharma [8],-mistook Suai as its founder. At best, he can be said to have revived the name of the village Which might have fallen into oblivion. To Desh Raj, the name of Sinsini was Surseni, which needs further probe.

Early History

Sinsini earlier was known as 'Shoor saini (शूरसेनी)' and its inhabitants were known as 'Saur Sen' (शौरसेन)[9]. The influence of Saur Sen people can be judged from the fact that the dialect of the entire north India at one time was known as 'Saursaini'.

Shoor Sain people were Chandravanshi. Lord Krishna was also born in Vrishni branch of Chandravansh. A group of Yadavas was follower of Shiv and Vedic God in Sindh. Some inscriptions and coins of these people have been found in 'Mohenjo Daro'. ' Shiv Shani Sevi' words have been found engraved on one inscription. Yajur Veda mentions 'Shinay Swah'. 'Sini Isar' was found on one gold coin. Atharva Veda mentions 'Sinwali' for Sini God.

The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district in Rajasthan. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas. 'Saur Saini' was changed to 'Shin-Shoor' or 'Sinsini' after their God 'Shin'. These people of Sinsini were called Sinsinwar.

शूरसेन-शूर का इतिहास

दलीप सिंह अहलावत[10] लिखते हैं:

यह चन्द्रवंशी जाट गोत्र है जो कि रामायणकाल से ही सुप्रसिद्ध रहा है। सुग्रीव ने सीता जी की खोज के लिए वानर सेना को उत्तर दिशा के शूरसेन, भरत (इन्द्रप्रस्थ क्षेत्र), कुरु आदि देशों में जाने का आदेश दिया (वा० रा० किष्किन्धाकाण्ड सर्ग 43)। शत्रुघ्न ने मधुपुत्र लवणासुर को मारकर मथुरा नगर बसाया। उसके पुत्र सुबाहुशूरसेन ने मथुरा पर राज्य किया। शत्रुघ्न ने शूरसेन जनपद व उसकी राजधानी मधुरापुरी (मथुरा) को पूर्णरूप से बसाया। (वा० रा० उत्तरकाण्ड सर्ग 70, 108)।

महाभारतकाल में इनके वृज में दो राज्य थे। ये लोग कृष्ण जी के बनाए हुए ज्ञाति संघ में मिल गये थे। इन लोगों ने महाभारत युद्ध में भाग लिया था। महाभारत के बाद इनके दो दल हो गये थे। एक दल की राजधानी मथुरा थी। कुछ दिन बाद इन लोगों ने डीग के पास सिनसिनी (पहला नाम शूरसेनी) गांव को अपनी राजधानी बनाया। इन लोगों में से विजयदेव ने बयाना को अपनी राजधानी बनाया। इनका दूसरा सम्प्रदाय सोरों और बटेश्वर के बीच में आबाद था। शूरसेन जाटों का प्रभाव व सभ्यता यहां तक बढ़ी-चढ़ी थी कि उत्तरी भारत में बोली जाने वाली भाषा ही उनके नाम से शूरसेनी कहलाती थी। शूरसेनी भाषा इटावा से लेकर मन्दसौर तक और पलवल से रतलाम तक बोली जाने वाली भाषा है। (जाट इतिहास पृ० 132, लेखक ठा० देशराज)

बौद्धकाल के समय भारतवर्ष में 16 महाजनपद (राज्य) थे जिनमें एक शूरसेन राज्य भी था। इन शूर जाटों ने मुगलों से लोहा लिया। वीर योद्धा गोकुला का जन्म इसी सिनसिनी गांव में हुआ था जिसने औरंगजेब के साथ बड़ी वीरता व साहस से युद्ध किये और अन्त में पकड़े जाने


जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठान्त-257


पर मुसलमान बनना अस्वीकार करके शहीद हो गया। भरतपुर नरेशों का गोत्र शूरसेन था जो बाद में सिनसिनी या सिनसिनवार कहलाया। इन सब बातों का वर्णन भरतपुर राज्य अध्याय में विस्तार से किया जायेगा।

आज भी शूरसेन-सिनसिनवार गोत्र के जाट वृज तथा यू पी० में बड़ी संख्या में हैं।

Modern History

Vir Var Gokula

Gokula -

Gokula (गोकुला) or Gokul Singh (गोकुल सिंह) was a Jat chieftain of village Sinsini near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh, India. His father's name was Madu. Madu had four sons namely, Sindhuraj, Ola, Jhaman and Saman. The second son Ola later became famous as Gokula.

In year 1650-51 Madu and his uncle Singha had fight with Mirza Raja Jaysingh in which Sindhuraj died and second son of Madu Ola became the successor. After this war Singha along with other Jat families in the fortress 'Girsa' moved to Mahavan beyond River Yamuna. Ola (Gokula) also moved with Singha to this place.

Gokula came on scene when the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707) attempted to convert Dar-ul-Hurb (Hindustan) to Dar-ul-Islam forcibly through persecution and dogmatic policies.

Emperor Aurangzeb had to march himself on November 28, 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat revolt. The Mughals under Hasan Alikhan and Brahmdev Sisodia attacked Gokula Jat. Gokula and his uncle Uday Singh with 20000 Jats, Ahirs and Gujars fought with superb courage and tenacity, the battle at Tilpat, but their grit and bravery had no answer to the Mughal artillery. After three days of grim fight Tilpat fell. Losses on both sides were very heavy. 4000 Mughal and 3000 Jat soldiers were killed. Gokula and Uday Singh were imprisoned. Jat women committed Jauhar. Gokula and Uday Singh were hacked to death piece by piece at Agra Kotwali on January 1, 1670.

Rise of Brij Raj -

The first leader of whom we are informed was Brij Raj of Sinsini (16 miles north-west of Bharatpur). Manucci refers to as the leader, "oldest in age and the greatest in authority", of the peasants of Agra. Who raising their heads had withheld revenue due to the imperial treasury.[11] In order to force these villagers to pay, Aurangzeb sent Multafat Khan, the faujdar of the environs of Agra, with a strong force. Multafat Khan attcked a village, where the rebels had rallied together. Their leadr first assured the Khan but later incited his people against him. "Resolved to die rather than pay revenue", they came out and fought with such desperation that the force the faujdar was routed; After humiliating him they set free Multafat Khan who succumbed to his wounds on 26th June, 1681 (19th Jamadi II,1092 A.H.).[12].

In 1682, a Mughal contingent pursued him upto his stronghold, Sinsini, Which was put to Siege. The Jat chief somehow succeeded in sending away his women from the fortress but was himself killed alongwith his son, Bhao Singh, while defending it. [13] Sinsini fell into the hands of the enemy. Having fled from Sinsini the family of Brij Raj sought safety in a small and obscure mud fort (5 miles from Bayana) . Here one of the wives of Bhao Singh gave birth to a poststhumous son, named Badan Singh. It is after the name of this personage that the garhi is still known as Badangarhi. [14]

Rise of Raja Ram Jat (c. 1682-1688)

Raja Ram, Bharatpur

The next chief of whom we hear is the famous Raja Ram Jat of Sinsini. [15]He was the son of Bhagwat alias Bhajja Singh, the brother of Brij Raj.[16] The absence of Aurangzeb and his best troops from the north the sloth, and weakness of the local officers provided Raja Ram the opportune moment. [17] Obviously, there was little prospect of that counterblast of the Mughals which had disappointed the Jats in 1669-1670. The changed political situation around seemed to ensure for them a fair amount of success in their refractory course.

Raja Ram displayed a capacity to learn from the past and an insight into the exigencies of the present. He could infer from Gokula's example that lack of training and proper equipment, pitched contest against the powerful Mughal army and weak Jat defences were the precise reasons of the jat debacle in 1669-1670. His reorganisations bears testimony to it that he tried to remove these glaring defects. He knew that the gallant Jats could give an impressive account of the selves under one leader. With this end in view he allied his Sinsinwara clansmen with the Sogaria Jats under Ramachehara, who possessed the castle of Sogar (4 miles south-east of Bharatpur). On the basis of the contemporary despatches it can unmistakeably be deduced that Raja Ram proved a weat rallying point and a great number of the Jats were united under his leadership.[18]

Raja Ram's increasing power worried the Emperor Aurangzeb. On 3rd May, 1686, he appointed Khan-i-Jahan Bahadur Zafarjang, Kokaltash in order to punish the rebels. Despite his strenuous efforts however Khan-i-Jahan failed to capture any of the Jat strongholds or to punish the people.[19]

During these days the existing feud between the Chauhans and the Shekhawat Rajputs over disputed land in Bagtharia (22 miles nort-east of Alwar) and some other parganas had erupted into an open war. The Chauhans appealed to Raja Ram for help, while the Shekhawats implored the help of Murtaza Khan, the Mughal faujdar of Mewat. Bidar Bakht, Rao Raja Anirudh Singh of Bundi and Maharao Kishor Singh Hada joined the faujdar and the Shekhawats. A severe battle was fought near Bijal. Opposite Raja Ram was the Hada Chief upon whom he inflicted a crushing defeat. Anirudh Singh himself could not stand before the Jat on set. He became nervous and fled along wltli his troops. When the Battle was in its full fury the gallant Raja Ram led a fierce charge against the centre, consisting of the Mughals. Meanwhile, a Mughal musketeer, who had hidden himself in a tree, fired Raja Ram at his chest. He fell down from his horse and died immediately on Wednesday, 4th July, 1688. His fall signalled the defeat of the Chauhans. Raja Ram's head was severed from the body and later on presented to Aurangzeb in the Deccan (5th September- 9th Zi~Qada, l099 A.H.). Ramachehara was captured alive in this battle. He was subsequently beheaded and his head was publically exposed at Agra. [20]

Choosing a successor capable of accomplishing the unfinished work of Raja Ram was not so easy. Brij Raj, Bhao Singh and Raja Ram’s associate Ram Chehra had perished. Fateh Singh the son of Raja Ram does not appear to have to have been a promising youth. Amidst the circumstances, Raja Ram’s aged father, Bhajja Singh of Sinsini assumed the leadership of the Jats. [21]

Aurangzeb had appointed Raja Ram Singh to undertake the Jat war. Bishan Singh, though appointed in the life time of Raja Ram to 'kill or capture' him, delayed operations even after his death. Bishan Singh gave an undertaking to the Emperor to crush the Jat recalcitrants and capture their main stronghold, Sinsini. Aurangzeb agreed and bestowed upon the Rajput Prince the title of Raja, the tika of Amber, a khilat and mansab of 2000/2000 do aspah. The emperor appointed him (30th April, 1688-9th Rajab, 1099 AH.) faujdar of Mathura with repeated orders for the "general massacre" of the Jats. He was also granted the zamindari of Sinsini and other Jat mahals and was promised further promotion and grant if he succeeded in his task.

Sinsini, the chief stronghold of the rebels, had long been the main target of the Mughals. But operations in its thick environs severely taxed them. In 1689, Bidar Bakht's troops, that had been sent to besiege it, were themselves besieged.

Meanwhile, the Jat through their guerilla tactics, continued to harass the imperialists. They frequently surprised the enemy camp and cut off the grain convoys and water carrying parties. This resulted in the scarcity of food and fodder. Prices rose very high. Animals died in large numbers and soldiers lay prostrated with hunger. But the besiegers kept up spirits. At last after four months of untold sufferings they succeeded in carrymg their trenches to the main gate of the fortress. Having cleared the jungle around, they tightened the siege, mounted guns on raised platforms and laid mines. The Jats, however, foiled their first attempt. Gettmg intelligence of the whole things, their garrison blocked the opposite side of the mine with mud and stones. Hence, instead of blowing the wall, the mine, when fired, drove back, killing many of the artillerymen and the supervising Mughal officers. Then, another mine was laid under the wall in a months time. It was fired successfully, blowing a portion of the wall and the defenders atop. The Mughal-Rajput combine assaulted the fort (end of January, 1690) after 3 hours of fierce fighting. The determined Jats sold their lives dearly. One thousand five hundred of them perished or were wounded, while on the other side 200 Mughals and 700 Rajputs were killed or wounded. Of the remaining defenders, some were captured (along with Jorawar Singh and killed while the others fled. The emperor learnt of the fall of Sinsini on 15th February, 1690 (16th Jamadi I,1101 A.H.) from the letters of the newswriters.[22] Jorawar Singh, his wife and children having been imprisoned were first taken to Mathura and finally presented to Aurangzeb in the Deccan. They were brutally slain and their limbs thrown to dogs. [23] The fall of Sinsini fulfilled the cherished desire of both the Mughals and Bishan Singh. On the other hand it obviously caused a great setback to the Jats. Amon the notables Fatef Singh of Sinsini and Churaman managed to escape. [24] It is quite probable that with the end of Jorawar Singh of Sinsini, that Jat fugitives rallied under them. But at a time when the jubilant imperialists were keeping up pressure and the hard pressed Jats were being chased from one place to the other, it is unlikely that either of them was able to consolidate his position to be justly called the overall leader of the then scattered Jats.[25] At best, they actually headed only a faction of the Jats during these days.

Rise of Churaman

Getting sceptical about his capabilities the Jats discarded Raja Ram's son and heir Fateh Singh[26]in favour of Raja Ram's cousin, Churaman II, who was unquestionably more capable than Fateh Singh as leader of Jats. We learn from Ahkam-i-Alamgiri that Fateh Singh later fell somehow into the hands of the Mughals. At first kept at Lahore, he was afterwards taken to Agra. Aurangzeb seduced him to embrace Islam by promising to set him free and also to reward him with a suitable mansab. Failing that, Fateh Singh was ordered to be vigilantly kept in prison as before.[27] We have already noted that Bhao Singh[28] had died earlier and Jorawar Singh was killed after the fall of Sinsini (1691). The aged Bhajja Singh also seems to have perished. The disappearance of these prominent Sinsinwars from the scene must have also faciliated the emeregnce of Churaman II as the supreme leader.

Meanwhile, as a number of the Jat castles had been occupied or demolished by the imperialists, Churaman built new forts in the impenetrable jungles, for the purposes of defence and preservation of booty. In it he was aided by the hidden wealth of his ancestors including Raja Ram[29] Among the new forts he built a formidable one at Thun (11 miles to the west of Deeg) in a low marshy and thickly wooded tract. Churaman rose higher and higher and gradually became most redoubtable in his neighbourhood.[30]

It is needless to emphasize that the loss of Sinsini, the ancestral place[31] of those, who were providing leadership to the Jat fratemty, rankled in the Jat bosom. About the year 1704 Churaman recaptured Sinsini from the Mughals, though not by the might of his sword but by gold. Accepting substantial amount from the Jats, Devi Singh, the fort commandant, handed over Sinsini to them. The Jats seized all the imperial effects including two big guns, eighteen rahkalahs, stores of lead and gunpowder and other articles.[32] Obviously, the loss of Sinsini was as distressing to the Mughals as its re-occupation was heartenmg to the Jats. Mirza Muhammad says that Churaman re-occupied all those forts which had earlier been lost to the Mughals.[33]

The imperialists laid siege to Sinsini in 1705. But it proved arduous again and dragged on. The surprise attacks of the Jats coupled with the rains impeded its progress. The Jats completely destroyed three of the five big Mughal cannons deployed to storm the fort and rendered another unworkable by inserting an iron bar inside the barrel.

Mukhtar Khan, however, clung on to his business and on 9th October 1705 , he succeeded in reducing Sinsini. The news of the fall of the fortalice alongwith its golden key was sent to the Emperor.

Badan Singh

Raja Badan Singh

Badan Singh (1722 – 1756) was the formal founder of the princely state of Bharatpur . He was nephew of Churaman. After the death of Churaman on 22 September 1721 there were family disputes between Badan Singh and Mohkam Singh, son of Churaman. Badan Singh aligned with Jai Singh of Jaipur to avoid the anger of Mohkam Singh. In this family feud Jai Singh supported Badan Singh.

On 18 November 1722 the Rajput Mughal combined army besieged the Thoon fort of Mohkam Singh, took it and got it ploughed by Asses. Thus the Jat state of Badan Singh rose from the ashes of Thoon, Jatauli and other forts.

External links

Sinsini at Wikipedia

References

  1. [wikimapia.org/11336271/Sinsina-Baba-Temple-JitenderSingh-Reru Sinsina-Baba-Temple]
  2. The Jats:Their Origin, Antiquity and Migrations/The origin of the Jat Sansanwal dynasry of Bharatpur, p. 106
  3. Monier-Williams, Skt. Eng. Dic., p. 1071.
  4. U.N. Sharma, op.cit., pp. 63-4. to Deshraj the real name of Sinsini was Suraseni . ..
  5. Shastri, Yogenderpal, op.cit., pp. 136.
  6. Pargiter, op.cit., pp. 107.
  7. Ibid.
  8. U.N. Sharma, op.cit., pp. 64 fn. 121; p. 66, fn. 128.
  9. Jat History Dalip Singh Ahlawat/Chapter II, Page 80
  10. जाट वीरों का इतिहास: दलीप सिंह अहलावत, पृष्ठ.257-258
  11. Storia, II, 209.
  12. Storia, II, 209-210, Maasir, 209; M.U., II, 282
  13. Odier, 3/25; Waqa Rajasthan, 2/45; Gokal Chandra Dixit, Brajendra Vansh Bhaskar, 18; Sahyog March 15, 1945; Jat Jagat cited by U.N. Sharma, Itihas, I, 186, f.n.28.
  14. Odier Settlement Report, Bharatpur; referred to by Ganga Singh, op.cit., 47-48; Somnath, Dirgh Nagar Vaman, (Kashi Nagari Pracharini, Hindi Ms.) 3, Ras Peeushnidhi. and Madhav Vinod in Somnath Granthawali (ed. by Sudhakar Pande.'Kashi, 1971 A.D.), 3, and 318, presents an exaggerated picture of the qualities of Bhao Singh.
  15. Maasir, 311; Fatuhat (Pers. Ms.), 131 b; Memoires des Jats (Fr. Ms.), 9.
  16. Sujan, 5; Ganga Smgh, op.cil., 32 and 48; U.N. Sharma, ltihas, I, 100f.
  17. Storia, II, 300; Roznamcha (Pers. Ms.) 133-134; M.U. 1,437; Memoires des Jats (Fr. Ms.), 9.
  18. Infra, See Ch. II, Estimate of Raja Ram
  19. Maasir, 274; Fatuhat (Pers. Ms.), 132b; Roznamcha (Pers. Ms.), 133; Muntakhab-ul-Lubab, II by Khafi Khan (Bib. Ind. Series). 395; Kamwar (Pers. Ms.), II, 223; M.U, 1,437; Memoires des Jats (Fr. Ms.), 10
  20. Fatuhat (Pers. Ms.) 134a-135a; J. Records. XII, 1,7; Maasir. 311-312; MU, I,438, cf. Kamwar (Pers Ms.), II. 231; Memoires des Jats (Fr. Ms., I11 - 12) says that Raja Ram succumbed to his wounds, sustained while being pursued: M.L. Sharma Kota Rajya Ka ltihas, 207-209.
  21. William Irvine, Later Mugals. I, 322; Qanungo, Jats 43,: Ganga Singh. op.cit.. 55
  22. Fatuhat, 136a-137a; Maasir, 334 (differing in details); cf. Kamwar, II, 231; Ganga Singh, op.cit., 58;
  23. Qanungo, Diggi, 97, quoted by U.N. Sharma, Itihas, I, 142, also see 139ff.
  24. J. Records, Sarkars's call, IX, 356.
  25. Raghubir Smgh in Brij, 165, Ganga Smgh, op.cit., 60.
  26. Muttra Gazetteer (Drake-Brockman: 191 I), 197; Also Ganga Singh, op.cil., p. 64.
  27. Ahkam (Pers. Ms.), II, 206a-206b.
  28. Wendel, Memoires des Jats, (Fr. Ms., 12)
  29. Memoires des Jats (Fr. Ms.), 12.
  30. Memories des Jats (Fr. Ms.), 14.
  31. Tawarikh-i-Hunud (Pers. Ms.), 13b-14a; Dikshit (op.cit. 17-18) and U.N. Sharma (Itihas, 185-186)
  32. Ahkam (Pers. Ms.), I, 7b, 67b, 73b, II, 203a, 205b.
  33. Roznamcha (Pers. Ms.), 134

Se also

For further reading

  • Rise of the Jat Power, 1988, Delhi by Raj Pal Singh.
  • Thakur Deshraj: Jat Itihas (Hindi), Delhi, 1934
  • Kishori Lal Faujdar: Jat Samaj, Agra, August 2001, Rajasthan ke Madhyakalin Jatvans.

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