Dr. S.S. Rana writes that Kasim also imposed a punitive tribute to suppress the Jats as they were perceived as potential rebels at any time as their spirit had been undaunted. A number of those who fought against him were made prisoners of war and were dispatched to Hajjaj, the Persian governor of Iraq as part of the war booty. This event is corroborated by Biladhuri who according to H. M. Eliot has stated that Hajjaj received from Kasim not only gold and other material wealth but also prisoners of war with their families and livestock. German sociologist couple in a monograph, published in 1964 has traced these migrants as the ancestors of the modern Madan tribe living as buffalo breeders in the Marshy lands of southern Iraq. They have also plotted the possible alternative routes taken for the movement along with their cattle (buffaloes) towards Iraq.
Villages in Muzaffarnagar district
Distribution in Punjab
Villages in Hoshiarpur district
Villages in Rupnagar district
- The Jats, Vol. II, Ed. Dr Vir Singh: The Jats in the Chachnamah: Some Observations, , Delhi, 2006, p.39
- H.M. Elliot: edited by J. Dowson. The History of India, The Muhammadan Period, Calcutta, 1955, pp. 59, 62, 64, 65, 75.
- Westphal, Dr. Sigrid and Dr. Heinz: The Jat of Pakistan, Berlin, 1964; reprinted in Pakistan.
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