Rupnagar

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Author:Laxman Burdak, IFS (R)

Map of Rupnagar district

Rupnagar (रूप नगर) is a city and district in Punjab, India. It was formerly known as Ropar and Rupar also. It is a site of Indus Valley Civilization.

Tahsils in Rupnagar district

Villages in Rupnagar Tahsil

Abhepur Beli, Adhrera, Ahmedpur, Akabarpur, Akalgarh Urf Burjwala, Akbarpur, Alampur, Alibak, Alipur, Alowal, Amrali, Arazi Ropar, Asmanpur, Assarpur, Asspur, Atalgarh, Attari, Aurnauli, Awankot, Babani Kalan, Babani Khurd, Badwali, Bagwali, Bahadarpur, Bahbalpur, Balamgarh Alias Mandwara, Balawalpur, Ballan, Balrampur, Balrampur, Balsanda, Baman, Bamnara, Ban Majra, Bangian, Bara, Bara Bande Mehal, Bara Daudpur, Bara Gadhram, Bara Makrauna, Bara Phool, Bara Pind, Bara Samana, Bara Surtanpur, Bardar, Bari, Bari Jhakhian, Bari Jhallian, Bari Makori, Bari Mandauli, Bari Railon, Bari Rauni, Barsalpur, Bassi Gujjran, Bazidpur, Behdali, Behrampur, Behrampur Bet, Bela, Beli, Beli Attalgarh, Bhaddal, Bhagalan, Bhago Majra, Bhagowal, Bhagwantpur, Bhaini, Bhairon Majra, Bhaku Majra, Bhalian, Bhaowal, Bharatgarh, Bhauwal, Bhauwal, Bheora, Bhoje Majra, Bholon Kalewal, Bhurara, Bikkon, Bindrakh, Bir Guru, Boor Majra, Boothgarh, Brahman Majra, Budha Bhora, Chak Amar Singh, Chak Dhera, Chak Karman, Chak Lahori, Chaklan, Chaklan, Chalaki, Chamkaur Sahib (Now New tahsil), Chandpur, Chararian, Chararian, Charheri, Chaunta Kalan, Chaunta Khurd, Chhota Bande Mahal, Chhota Daudpur, Chhota Gadhram, Chhota Makrauna, Chhota Phool, Chhota Samana, Chhota Surtanpur, Chhoti Jhakhian, Chhoti Jhallian, Chhoti Makori, Chhoti Mandauli, Chhoti Railon, Chhoti Rauni, Chintgarh, Chotamla, Chuhar Majra, Chupki, Chutamali, Dakala, Dalla, Dangauli, Dargah Shah Khalid Binwalid, Datarpur, Dau Majra, Dehar, Dhaloh, Dhanauri, Dhangrali, Dhaulran, Dhianpura, Dholan Majra, Dhumewal, Diwari, Doburji, Doom Chheri, Dugri, Dugri, Dulchi Majra, Dumna, Farid, Fatehgarh, Fatehgarh Viran, Fatehpur, Fatehpur, Ferozepur, Gagon, Gandhon Kalan, Gandhon Khurd, Garhi, Ghanaula, Ghanauli, Ghurkewal, Gobindgarh Kulchian, Gobindpur, Gobindpur Alias Dhespur, Gopalpur, Goslan, Gunu Majra, Gurdaspur, Gurpura, Hafizabad, Haler, Haripur, Haripur Alias Rormajra, Harnampur, Haron, Haveli Chhoti, Himatpur, Hirdapur, Hussainpur, Inderpura, Jabarhera, Jagatpur, Jahangir, Jasran, Jatana, Jhandian, Kahanpur, Kainaur, Kajauli, Kakrala, Kakrali, Kakron, Kakut, Kalal Majra, Kalaran, Kamalpur, Kandola, Kanjla, Karkhana Bela, Katlaur, Katli, Khabra, Khairabad, Khairpur, Khalidpur, Khalilpur, Khanpur, Khanpur, Kharota, Khawaspur, Khera, Kheri, Kheri Salabatpur, Khizarpur, Khokhar, Kimatpur, Kiri Afghana, Kishanpur, Kishanpura, Kishanpura, Kishanpura, Kot Bala, Kotla, Kotla Bet, Kotla Nihang, Kotla Sarmukh Singh, Kotli, Kotli, Kudaspur, Kulheri, Kulian, Ladhal, Lakhewal, Lakhmipur, Laudi Majra, Lohari, Lohgarh, Lutheri, Mado Majra, Madpur, Magror, Mahlan, Mahtot, Majri, Majri, Majri, Majri, Makowal, Malewal, Malikpur, Man Kheri, Manak Majra, Manguwal, Manjitpura/Chamar Majra, Manne Majra, Mansali, Mansuha Kalan, Manusuha Khurd, Mathahari, Miani, Mianpur, Mohan Majra, Morinda (M Cl), Muajudinpur, Mugal Majri, Mukarabpur, Mundian, Muzafat, Naggal, Nanakpur Alias Sharfabad, Nathwalpur, Nehon (CT), Nunowal, Oind, Panj Peda, Panjola, Panjoli, Paprala, Paprali, Parhi, Pathar Majra, Pathreri Jattan, Pathreri Rajputan, Patial, Phassa, Phoolpur Garewal, Pipal Majra, Purkhali, Raipur, Raje Majra, Rambagh, Ramgarh, Ramgarh Alias Dekwala, Ramgarh Alias Manda, Rampur, Rampur Bet, Rampur Mehrab, Ranga, Rangian, Rangilpur, Rashidpur, Rasulpur, Rasulpur, Ratanpura, Rattangarh, Rattanpur, Raulu Majra, Rautan, Rawal Majra, Rokali Mangarh, Rupnagar (M Cl), Rurkee, Saheri, Saidpur, Sainfalpur, Saini Majra, Salahpur, Salahpur, Salaura, Salempur, Saloh Majra, Samrala, Samrauli, Sanana, Sandhuan, Sangatpur, Sangatpur, Santokhgarh, Santpur, Santpur Alias Chupki, Sarangpur, Sarari, Sarhana, Shaho Majra, Shahpur, Shampura, Sheikhupur, Siasatpur, Sihon Majra, Simbal Jhalian, Singh, Singhpura, Solkhian, Sotal, Sukho Majra, Suleman Shikoh, Sultanpur, Tajpur, Talapur, Tapal Majra, Taprian Amar Singh, Taprian Boothgarh, Taprian Gharispur, Taprian Rashidpur, Thali, Thauna, Udhampur, Zindanpur,

History

The town of Rupnagar is said to have been founded by a Raja called Rokeshar, who ruled during the 11th century and named it after his son Rup Sen. But it cannot be accepted as true because it is located at the site of the remains of an ancient town of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Site of Indus Valley Civilization

The major cities in Ropar District are Morinda, Kurali, Anandpur Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib. The town of Mohali was once part of Ropar District before it became a separate district in 2006. The famous Bhakra dam in Nangal lies on the boundary with the neighbouring state of Himachal Pradesh.

Rupnagar is nearly 50 km to the north west of Chandigarh (the nearest airport). It is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north and Nawanshahr district to its west.

Rupar is a 21 metre high ancient mound overlaying the Shiwalik (also spelt as Sivalik or Shivalik) deposition on the left bank of the river Sutlej where it emerges into the lains. It has yielded a sequence of six cultural periods or phases with some breaks from the Harappan times to the present day. The excavations were carried out by Dr. Y.D. Sharma of ASI. The migration of the Harappans to Rupar has been postulated through the lost Saraswati River to the Sutlej as both the river once belonged to one system. [edit] Period I

At Rupar excavation, the lowest levels yielded the Harappan traits in Period 1, which falls in the proto-historic period. A major find was a stealite seal in the Indus script used for the authentication of trading goods, impression of seal on a terracotta lump of burnt clay, chert blades, copper implements, terracotta beads and bangles and typical standardized pottery of Indus Valley civilization. They flourished in all the Harappan cities and townships.

The earliest houses at George were built with river pebbles available in abundance but soon they made use of cut slabs of lime with the same ratio of 4:2:1. Sun baked bricks were sometimes used in the foundations. Houses were built to suit climatic conditions. Walls were plastered with built to suit climatic conditions. Walls were plastered with water repelling sticky clay. In the north, flat roofs were common but deep-pitched roofs were used along the west coast - Bengal and Assam - due to heavy rainfall.

The dead were buried with head generally to the north and with funerary vessels as unearthed in cemetery R-37 at Harappa (Sind, Pakistan). What led the Harappans to desert the site is not known.

Period II

Period II belongs to Painted grey ware people who followed the Harappans. Typical pottery of this period consisted of fine greyware painted black, terracotta bangles, semi precious stones, glass, bone arrowheads, ivory kohl sticks and copper implements. This period is identified as the period belonging to the Great War Epic - Mahabharata.

A new settlement sprang up here by about 600 BC - chronologically Period III at Rupar. Grey pottery of Period II still continued. This period belongs to circa 600 BC to 200 BC. It yielded the earlier coins (punch marked and uninscribed cast coins), copper and implements. An important find was an ivory seal inscribed in Mauryan Brahmi script (4th and 3rd century BC)

Minutely carved and polished stone discs with a figure and motif associated with the cult of the Mother goddess of fertility have also been unearthed in the excavations from Taxila (now in Pakistan), Patna in the state of Bihar and other Mauryan sites. Houses of mud and kiln burnt bricks were by no means rare. A 3.6 metre wide burnt brick wall traced to a length of about 75 mts probably endorsed a tank which collected water through inlets. The upper levels have soak wells lined with terracotta rings of Sunga and Kushana periods.

Period III To V

From Period III to V there are fairly rich dwelling complexes with houses of stone and mud bricks. The full plans of the houses could not be exposed owing to the vertical nature of excavations carried out. [edit] Period VI

The next phase, Period VI revealed the evidence of the Sungas, Kushans (also spelt as Kushana) and Guptas and their successors. Excavations also revealed successive building levels of various dynasties. In the upper levels a hoard of copper coins of Kushan and Gupta rules were found. This includes a gold coin issued by Chandragupta-Kumerdevi of the Gupta dynasty, which is also known as the golden age in ancient Indian history.

A large number of terracotta figurines of Sunga, Kushana and Gupta periods were also discovered. Amongst them was a Yakshi figure with cherubic expression and a beautiful seated figure of a lady playing on the lyre reminiscent of Samudragupta’s figure in a similar position on the famous gold coins of the Gupta dynasty. A set of three silver utensils for ritualistic purpose with Greek influence depicts the fine craftsmanship of the Gupta dynasty in its chased decoration.

The pottery of this period in the upper levels is for the most part red ware and is frequently decorated with incised motifs. After a short break, there is evidence of a fresh occupation identified as Period V commencing around the early 6th century and continuing for three or four centuries. The coins of Toramana (circa AD 500) and Mihirakula (circa 510-40) have been recovered from these levels. The spacious brick building of the fifth period were constricted neatly and evidences showed a good measure of prosperity during this period.

Probably after desertion, a new town sprang up here around 13th century AD on the same site named Period VI and it continues to flourish to the present day.

An archaeological site museum has been set up to house some of the antiquities of Rupar along with the photographs displaying excavation material.

Notable persons

Gallery

External links

References


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